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Full text of "The Trained nurse and hospital review"

V. 3-^6 '3^ 



£ 



Cable of Contents 



Pack 

A Brief Sketch of the Life of Florence Nightingale. . Jennie M. Draper i 
The Value of Externe Work in the Training School Course 

Edith Bald-win Lockwood, R.N. 5 
A Second Institution for Dependent Epileptics in New York State .... 8 
How Can Skilled Nursing Service be Procured by the Family of Mofer- 

ate Means ? C. May Hollister 9 

Dietetics for Nurses A. L. Benedict, A.M., M.D. 12 

Miss Graham Clara Lee Hamilton 15 

The Nursing and Care of the Insane Helen G. Kelly 19 

The Care and Feeding of Children in Private Practice B. V. H. Stevenson 21 

A Model Training School Building Registered Nurse 23 

Advantages of Obstetrics as a Specialty H. A. G. 25 

Report of Case Emma F. Ryniker 27 

Prize Contests 28 

Department of Army Nursing Dita H. Kinney 29 

A Remarkable Charity 30 

Editorially Speaking 31 

New York City Training School for Nurses. 35 

In the Nursing World 36 

The Editor's Letter-box 49 

The Hospital Review 58 

New Remedies and Appliances 64 

Michigan State Nurses' Association 70 

The Publisher's Desk 72 

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C|)e Crameti Jturse anD 



VOL. XXXVIII. 



NEW YORK, JANUARY. 1907 



NO. 



a 35rtef ^feetcf) of tfjei^tfe of jflorence JEtgijttngale 

JENNIE M. DRAPER 

Former Assistant Superintendent of Nurses, Maine Eye and Ear Infirmary, Portland, Maine 



FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE was 
born May 12, 1820, in the city of 
Florence, Italy, from which her name 
was taken. It seems that the fates were 
determined to give an attractive designa- 
tion to this heroine of the Crimea. While 
"Florence" suggested the goddess of 
flowers, "Nightingale" spoke of sweet 
melody. What could be more beautiful 
and euphonious than a name suggesting 
a song bird from the land of flowers ? 

She was the daughter of William 
Edwin Shore, who assumed the name of 
Nightingale when he succeeded in 1815 
to the estate of his mother's uncle, Peter 
Nightingale, of Lea. This change took 
place three years before his marriage to 
Miss Frances Smith and five years be- 
fore the birth of his illustrious daughter. 

Florence Nightingale had one sister, 
whose name was Frances Parthenhope; 
she afterward became Lady Verney, and 
died in. 1890, strangely enough on May 
12, her sister's birthday. 

When Florence was between five and 
six years of age the family removed to 
Lea Hurst. This delightful home is the 
one most widely associated with the life 



of our heroine. It was from Lea Hurst 
that she set out for the Crimea, and it 
was to Lea Hurst that she returned from 
the Crimea. 

In the early years of her womanhood 
Miss Nightingale mingled in society and 
soon acquired the reputation of being a 
very lovable young lady as well as a 
very talented one. She had traveled 
abroad, could speak French, German and 
Italian, sang very sweetly, and was 
clever at sketching and a skillful needle- 
woman. 

However, as time passed on Florence 
cared less and less for the pleasures and 
excitement of society. Her nature had 
begun to crave for some definite work 
and a more extended field of activity 
than she found in private life. 

Two severe illnesses among members 
of her family had developed her nursing 
faculty, and, when they no longer re- 
quired her attention, she turned to a sys- 
tematic study of nursing. She studied 
the hospitals in England; then went to 
France, Germany and Italy. The nurs- 
ing at that time was largely in the hands 
of the coarsest type of women, not only 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



untrained, but callous in feeling and 
often grossly immoral. 

In contrast to this repulsive class of 
women whom Miss Nightingale had en- 
countered to her horror in the hospitals 
of London, Edinburgh and Dublin, she 
found on the Continent the sweet-faced 
Sisters of Charity — pious, educated, 
trained. Apart from their religious 'dif- 
ferences, she viewed with profound ad- 
miration the beneficent work of the Sis- 
ters. 

An outbreak of hostilities between 
Great Britain and Russia had been im- 
pending for some time, and on March 
28, 1854, Her Majesty's formal declara- 
tion of war was read from the steps of 
the Royal Exchange. 

In due time tidings came of the victory 
of Alma, and of the wOunded lying un- 
cared for, the sick unattended, the dying 
unconsoled. In the midst of the nation's 
rejoicing of victory a cry of indignation 
arose in behalf of her soldiers. 

Soon came the appeal which roused 
English women and their country to a 
sense of duty: "Are there no devoted 
women amongst us able and willing to 
go forth to minister to the sick and suf- 
fering soldiers of the East? Are none 
of the daughters of England at this ex- 
treme hour of need ready for such a 
work of mercy?" 

In the quietude of her country home, 
Florence Nightingale read of the suffer- 
ing and privation among the stricken 
soldiers, and on the 15th of October 
she wrote to Mr. Sidney Herbert (at 
the head of the War Department) offer- 
ing her services in the hospitals at Scu- 
tari 

It was characteristic of Miss Nightin- 
gale's method and dispatch that only a 
week elapsed ere she was ready with her 
nurses to start, on the 21st of October, 
1854. 



The undertaking was so new and so 
much at variance with English customs 
and traditions that criticism was to be ex- 
pected, but her's was one of those lofty 
souls who listened to the voice within 
and took little heed of the voice without. 
It was for her to break down the "Chi- 
nese Wall" of prejudice, religious, so- 
cial and professional, and establish a 
precedent for all time. Of the thirty- 
eight nurses who accompanied Miss 
Nightingale, fourteen were Church of 
England Sisters, ten were Roman Cath- 
olic Sisters of Mercy, and the remainder 
were selected from among miscellaneous 
applicants. 

Miss Nightingale arrived at the scene 
of her labors on November 4, the day 
before the battle of Inkerman. Never 
surely did a band of women arriving in 
an unknown land meet such a gigantic 
task. The hospital at Scutari was large, 
and the building and position were alike 
good, but the interior, as she soon dis- 
covered, was a scene of filth, pestilence, 
misery and disorder impossible to de- 
scribe. Only twenty-four hours after 
her arrival the wounded from the battle 
of Inkerman began to arrive in appall- 
ing numbers. This was the testing mo- 
ment of her life. Had she failed at this 
crisis in personal endurance or in power 
to inspire her subordinates with a like 
courage, her mission would have sunk 
into a benevolent futility. 

During these terrible days ^Florence 
Nightingale was known to stand for 
twenty hours at a time on the arrival of 
fresh detachments of sick, directing her 
nurses and attending the most painful 
operations. She would spend hours over 
men dying of fever and cholera. The 
more awful to every sense any particu- 
lar case might be, the more certainly 
might be seen her slight form bending 
over him, administering to his ease by 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



every means in her power and seldom 
quitting his side until death released him. 

During the spring of 1855 there was 
an increase of Typhus fever in its worst 
forms; seven of the surgeons died, most 
of whom w€re attended by Miss Night- 
ingale herself. Hitherto she had been 
spared the sorrow of seeing any of her 
own band stricken by death, but now 
the call came to one of the best beloved 
of her nurses, Miss Elizabeth Ann 
Smyth. She was the first of the "Angel 
Band" to be stricken by death, and her 
loss cast a gloom over those that re- 
mained; but, as Miss Nightingale said, 
"Martyrs there must be in every cause." 

Before many weeks had passed by she 
was again called to mourn the loss of 
another of her helpers, as Sister Wini- 
fred, a Sister of Charity, was next 
claimed by death. In the spring of 1856 
the body of Sister Mary Elizabeth was 
laid beside that of Sister Winifred. 
Later, when the graves of the two Sis- 
ters were visited, it was found that 
flowers and evergreens were growing 
in that lonely spot, planted by the hands 
of the soldiers they had tended. 

Miss Nightingale made many fatigue- 
ing journeys to camp hospitals on horse- 
back. During one of these journeys she 
stopped to visit a sick officer in a hut 
on one of the lonely heights. Shortly 
after this she was suddenly seized with 
an alarming illness. The doctor pro- 
nounced it to be the worst form of Cri- 
mean fever. A hut was selected near a 
small stream, the banks of which were 
gay with spring flowers. There for 
many days she lay in a most critical con- 
dition assiduously nursed by doctors and 
nurses. Her work was not yet done, and 
with the best of care she soon recovered, 
and, though convalescence was slow, 
she was again able to take up her duties. 

On the morning of September 9, the 



tidings spread far and wide that the 
mighty stronghold had fallen and the 
power of the enemy was broken. The 
nation was eager to give our heroine a 
right royal welcome home, but her 
homecoming was not to be yet. The war 
had ended, but the victims still remained 
in hospital ward and lonely hut, and as 
long as the wounded needed care she 
would not leave her post. 

When at last duty no longer claimed 
her in the East, she traveled under a care- 
fully-preserved incognito and arrived at 
Lea Hurst on August 6, 1856. What a 
lifetime of memories had been crowded 
into those twenty-one months which had 
elapsed since she left on her great mis- 
sion. Before leaving the Crimea Miss 
Nightingale received from Queen Victo- 
ria a beautiful jewel, for which the 
Prince Consort made the design. It 
consists oT a St. George's cross in red 
enamel on a white field, representative 
of England. On the cross are the letters 
V. R. surmounted by a crown in dia- 
monds. A band of black enamel, in- 
scribed in gold letters with the words 
"Blessed are the merciful," surrounds 
the cross. Palm leaves in green enamel 
form a framework for the shield, and 
on the blue enamel ribbon which con- 
fines the palms is inscribed in letters of 
gold, "Crimea." On the back of the 
jewel is an inscription written by Queen 
Victoria, recording that the gift was 
made in memory of services rendered 
to her "brave army" by Florence Night- 
ingale. 

After her return from the Crimea it 
was expected that she would become the 
active leader of the nursing movement 
which her brilliant example had initi- 
ated. Gladly indeed would she have 
started on the great work of nursing re- 
form had her health permitted. The 
spirit was more than willing, but the 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



flesh was weak. It was hoped that a few 
months' rest would restore her health, 
but it soon became apparent that the 
malady from which she suffered was in- 
creasing and that she would never again 
be able to lead her old active life. 

It was indeed a hard cross to bear, and 
as the first years of waiting passed she 
drank deep of the cup of life's disap- 
pointment. But she faced the situation 
with noble resignation and in this the 
soldier's nurse showed the soldier's hero- 
ism. 

Though compelled to be a recluse, not 
a day of her time passed unoccupied. 
For many years she was actively en- 
gaged with the pen, and many valuable 
works have been written by this esti- 
mable lady. In one of these she says: 
"The requirements for a trained nurse 
are, that she be sober, honest and truth- 
ful, without which there is no founda- 
tion on which to build. She should be 
capable of adopting habits of punctual- 
ity, quietness, trustworthiness and per- 
sonal neatness. 

The shadows of evening have fallen 
about the life of our revered heroine. 
Miss Nightingale has not left her Lon- 



don home for ten years and remains 
principally in bed. Her mind is still un- 
clouded and she follows with something 
of the old eager spirit the events of the 
day, more particularly those which relate 
to the nursing world. 

So far her own personality is con- 
cerned the founder of this sisterhood of 
ministry is a "veiled and silent woman" 
shunning publicity. Her name has cir- 
cled the globe; her deeds are known in 
every clime, and people cite her noble 
heroism without even knowing that she 
still lives, at such pains has she been to 
keep herself in strict seclusion. The pow- 
er of her fame, the brilliance of her ex- 
ample, and the wisdom of her counsels 
are a national heritage. No honor or 
title could enoble the name of Florence 
Nightingale; it is peerless by virtue of 
her heroic deeds. 

"Oh small beginnings, ye are great and 
strong. 
Based on a faithful heart and weari- 
less brain! 
Ye build the future fair, ye conquer 
wrong. 
Ye earn the crown, and wear it not 
in vain." 



)I)atioVD£( 



The solemn shadows fright my shrinking 
soul. 
Poor, trembling coward, what hast thou 
to fear? 
Look up — behold the heart-encheering sunl 
Remember, when thy childish plaints are 
done. 
Where shadows come, the light is some- 
where nearl ' 

— S. Virginia Levis. 



Ctje lvalue of €;:terne 5^orfe in tije Craining 

^cfjotil Course 

EDITH BALDWIN LOCKWOOD, R.N. , 



I BELIEVE that the so-called exteme 
work is of so great value that no 
training school ought to afford to do 
without it. Its value is manifold, and 
the purpose of this article is to show 
wherein the value lies, how by an elect- 
ive course our curriculum can be en- 
larged and improved, and to meet any 
objections to the externe course not cov- 
ered in these two divisions. 

By exteme work, or the externe 
course, as I shall term it, is generally 
understood the sending of nurses to 
work outside the hospital while under 
the auspices of the school and responsi- 
ble to it, and for the work of which 
nurses the school is responsible. It in- 
cludes work done in other hospitals, 
either where nurses are sent for addi- 
tional or special experience or where 
they may be sent to small hospitals 
needing extra help. It includes expe- 
rience in district nursing, which is rap- 
idly growing in favor and importance in 
a constantly increasing number of cities. 
It includes hourly nursing and private 
cases of every character. 

To whom and in what way is this ex- 
terne course of value? It has at least 
a five-fold value; primarily, of course-, 
it is of value to the student nurse, and it 
is often of value to the public, the doc- 
tor, the school and the profession. 
These several values I will consider in 
reverse order. The profession is bene- 
fitted by more fully trained nurses be- 
ing added to its ranks. If I can prove 
that the nurse who has the experience 
of the exteme course is a better edu- 



cated, fuller equipped, abler nurse it will 
be proof that the profession is benefitted, 
for what betters the individual parts 
must better the component whole. That 
the profession, or individual graduates 
are injured by this work is illogical and 
as if practising physicians or lawyers 
objected to any one else being taught 
their professions. 

To the school the value is the same 
as to the profession. The better it edu- 
cates its pupils the more credit they will 
do it. Its reputation is enhanced by 
whatever is of value to its pupils. 

To the doctor it gives opportunity of 
supplying a case with a nurse where, 
perhaps, the means would not allow a 
graduate's price but where intelligent 
interpretation of his orders must be se- 
cured. It gives him an up-to-date sur- 
gical technique and recent practice 
therein. It gives a fresh enthusiasm 
and eagerness to do the very best, a 
literal obedience of orders, and the re- 
sponsibility of the hospital for the work 
of its pupils. 

To the public it gives at a price with- 
in reach of "the great middle class" in 
cases of critical illness a nurse who, 
though lacking the minor niceties of in- 
dividual nursing, lacks in nothing 
vitally essential to the patient's welfare 
and recovery. The public knows as 
does the doctor, that she is still a student 
and the school is responsible for her. 
She is under the doctor's supervision 
and he reports to the school on her work. 
In the ideal curriculum we hope some 
day to see arranged, her work will be 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



superintended and inspected by a teacher 
in charge of this one course. Surely the 
class is just so far solved as there are 
pupils in the externe course to supply the 
need for nurses. 

Its value to the nurse is not the ex- 
cuse but the reason for its existence. 
Private nursing is what the majority of 
our nurses fit themselves for to-day and 
there are few among us who, unless pos- 
sessing an unusual amount of self- 
assurance did not feel "shaky" on her 
first case outside the hospital walls either 
as an externe or a graduate. The ex- 
terne course provides for the pupil, ex- 
perience and the assurance that comes 
therewith, while she has the authority 
of the school back of her, a superintend- 
ent to refer to for advice, and some one 
responsible for her mistakes. 

She learns to apply the acquired 
knowledge and experience of the class- 
room and ward in a new environment. 
She learns to utilize the material found 
in the average household to accomplish 
the same results for which in the hos- 
pital special or elaborate apparatus 
is provided. Sterilizing in a wash-boil- 
er, improvising an operating room in 
the kitchen or even utilizing a table oil- 
cloth for a bed protector are all simple 
enough and accomplish the same results 
that the hospital accomplishes, but they 
are a little difficult the first time; they 
and a thousand and one other things in 
a strange, new environment, and a nurse 
graduated from her training ought not 
to be exposed to the embarrassment of 
such inexperience. 

Further the pupil learns to recognize 
the patient as an individual, not as a 
case. In the greater number of hospitals 
where nurses are trained by far the 
greater part of the work is ward work, 
and no matter how strong the principle 



in that hospital of recognizing the indi- 
viduality and treating each patient as a 
fellow man, it is impossible to avoid 
entirely considering the ward patients 
as a whole and the individual patients as 
exponents of the manifestation of dis- 
ease, as subjects to be studied. It is 
simply the difference between the institu- 
tion and the home between the congre- 
gate and segregate man, and the re- 
quisite treatment of the one differs from 
the other though the end to be attained 
is the same. Unless a nurse has an un- 
usual amount of specialing she needs this 
experience with the individual patient, 
and in any case she needs it in his home. 
In the home she learns her position in 
a family, her relation to doctor, patient, 
members of the family, servants and all. 
Very different, too, she finds it from the 
simple class division of hospital life, 
people from whom she takes orders, 
people to whom she gives orders. 

In the hospital ward to accomplish 
all that must be accomplished work must 
be mechanical, routine unflinchingly ob- 
served. In the private case she learns 
to avoid this, giving latitude on the little 
immaterial things that go to make the 
patient's happiness. She learns kindness, 
not merely the avoidance of unkindness, 
but the kindness of entering sympa- 
thetically into the patient's suffering, his 
welfare and recovery. In short, she 
learns to grasp the true spirit of her 
profession. Hospital life develops an 
autocratic spirit. Externe work tones 
it down and develops toleration. 

All this and much more comes only 
with practice; it is as essential to the 
successful nurse as temperatures and 
baths, but it can only be learned in the 
homes of the patients and should, I 
believe, be learned before rather than 
after graduation. We "learn to do by 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



doing," but is it not logical that we 
learn to do and perfect it by practice un- 
der the supervision of our school? 

The management, or rather the ar- 
rangemefit of the externe course is open 
to improvement. Do not let us con- 
demn it in its entirety, but valuing for 
its good, eliminate its faults and 
make its good greater still. One ob- 
jection raised is that the nurse is taken 
away from class and lecture. Class and 
lecture work can and should be com- 
pleted before the externe course begins, 
the tendency of the day is to arrange the 
theoretical instruction in the early part 
of the course. The nurse needs all the 
instruction the course aflfords, then she 
puts it in practice. If she remains in the 
hospital the same is true. 

Another objection is that the nurse 
is deprived of seeing many cases in the 
hospital while seeing only one outside. 
The experience, hour for hour, on, for 
instance, an operative case in a home 
will more than offset the mere "seeing" 
of many operations. The cases she sees 
may be of interest to her but the differ- 
ence between mere interest and real ex- 
perience is considerable. 

One of the objectors to the three 
years' course says the nurse only spends 
the third year doing over what she did 
in the second year, and I think it may 
be to a certain extent true, especially 
in a hospital where graduate head 
nurses are employed. 

The three years' course is none too 
long but it is sufficiently long for several 
months of it to be spent outside the 
hospital. Another objection to the ex- 
terne course is that it deprives the hos- 
pital of the work of the nurses just 
when they are of most value to it. This 
is scarcely a disinterested view and I 
do not think merits our consideration. 



The purpose of our training schools is 
the education of the nurse, and the pur- 
pose of enrollment in the school is not 
to care for the sick, but to learn how to 
care for the sick, and it is the province 
of the school to so arrange the teach- 
ing and training that this purpose can 
best be accomplished. 

On the other hand the objection is 
raised that the externe course is of a 
mercenary character, and I think it is 
the same sentimental misconception of 
this apparently real objection that has 
brought the course into disrepute. I 
refer, of course, to "sending nurses out 
to make money for the hospital" — that 
very phrase is often used, and it is by 
far too popular a conception of the rea- 
son for an externe course. 

To my mind it is immaterial whether 
the hospital or the nurse receives the 
compensation, or whether the nursing be 
done as a charity. Its educative value 
is the same in any case. For the bene- 
fit of the nurse, for the fulfillment and 
rounding out of her course of instruc- 
tion, she needs this part of her course, 
under careful supervision and direction 
regardless of any question of remuner- 
ation or to whom it shall be made. 

Furthermore, on careful considera- 
tion I can see no ethical objection to the 
hospital receiving pay for its pupils' 
work, thus making the school self-sup- 
porting. I would by no means offer 
this as a reason for the externe course, 
but granting it to be a desideratum if 
it pays for itself it augments rather than 
detracts from its desirability. We ad- 
mire what is self-supporting. To 
"make both ends meet" is commendable, 
and if in the instruction and practice 
necessary for perfecting the pupils' 
education the school can provide the 
means to carry on its educative endeav- 



8 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



or, making one hand wash the other, 
why isn't it both honorable and com- 
mendable ? 

What I believe to be the ideal ar- 
rangement of this course is something 
as follows: I shall make no attempt to 
work out the details but just the broad 
outline of an elective externe course. 
The time should be six months of a 
three years' course, three or four 
months in a two years' course. This 
time should be spent in fitting for the 
particular line of work the nurse wishes 
to do. After a general training of two 
and one-half years the nurse should be 
competent to elect in what branch of 
the work she will perfect herself. This 
is the day of specializing and the nurse 
who wishes to fit herself for institu- 
tional work or for private duty, or for 



district nursing should be afforded op- 
portunity to perfect herself in the line 
she most desires or is best fitted for. 

I am conscious that this world neces- 
sitates radical changes. It would estab- 
lish new departments with teachers in 
charge, but if we desire the best ele- 
ment among the women of our country 
to enter the profession we must con- 
stantly enlarge and improve the edu- 
cation our schools can offer them. We 
must get away from the mere training 
of apprentices farther yet, and offer 
education instead. We must give scope 
for individual preference and fitness for 
special lines of the work. Let the gen- 
eral work of .the hospital be not the com- 
pletion of training but the completion of 
preparation for the elective special 
course. 



A Second Institution for Dependent Epileptics in New York State 



At the seventh New York State Con- 
ference of Charities and Corrections 
held in Rochester, November 13-15, the 
urgent need for an institution for epi- 
leptics of a low grade of mentality was 
discussed, the suggestion being made that 
the Craig Colony, for Epileptics at 
Sonyea should be reserved for patients 
whose minds have been but little or not 
at all impaired as a result of their dis- 
ease. There are 16,000 epileptics in New 
York State, and we understand that there 
are at present about 1,000 applications 
on file at Sonyea from patients who can- 
not be admitted into the Colony because 
there is no room. The census of the 
Colony now is 1,050. Nearly 300 dele- 
gates to the Rochester Conference visited 
the Colony at Sonyea by special train 



on November 16, where they were pro- 
vided with luncheon in Sonyea Hall, and 
where they later listened to addresses 
by Mr. Daniel B. Murphy, of Rochester, 
the newly-elected president of the Con- 
ference ; the Hon. J, W. Wadsworth, Jr., 
Speaker of the Assembly, and Dr. W. P. 
Spratling. All were especially pleased 
to hear the Speaker of the Assembly de- 
clare himself forcibly in favor of a sec- 
ond institution in this State for low 
grade epileptics, and he promised, in case 
a bill to that end should be introduced 
into the Legislature, to do what he could 
to secure such an institution within rea- 
sonable proximity to New York City. 
There are sixteen great State Hospitals 
for the Insane. Why not more colonies 
or institutions for epileptics? — Medical 
Record. 



oto Can ^ktlleti JBtursing ^txUtt 3Be ^rocurelj 
tip ti)e jfamilp of ;^otrerate 0immV 



C. MAY HOLLISTER. 



pROBABLY one of the first ques- 
-■- tions which arise to one's mind 
when considering- the subject of nursing 
the middle class is, Who constitute the 
middle class, and between what broad 
lines would a person's salary fall to place 
him beyond the line of the poor, on 
one hand, and on the other hand exclude 
him from being classed with the well- 
to-do? 

It is a well-established fact that one 
man considers himself poor on a given 
salary, while another, with the same 
amount, would call himself middle class, 
and the third man would feel he was 
well-to-do or almost rich. One family 
is prosperous and comfortable on a 
given income, while the neighbor next 
door through improvidence may always 
seem to need help whenever the emer- 
gency, sickness, arises. So also does a 
man call himself poor or rich or middle 
class according to his standard of com- 
parison, and according as he either lives 
within his means or beyond his means, 
or on the outside margin of his income 

Every genuine woman in the profes- 
sion wants to give her ser\'ices at a 
nominal charge to the sick one who 
needs her and who positively cannot af- 
ford to pay the fixed price. But we all 
know there are families willing to call 
themselves middle class, and ask for a 
reduction, who can far better afford to 
pay twenty-five dollars a week than can 
the nurse afford to work at a reduction 
of ten or fifteen dollars. There are fami- 
lies who will indulge in the luxury of 



fine clothes, etc., such as the nurse would 
think she could not afford, and yet they 
will be entirely willing to accept from 
her a reduction of price. 

Now while on one hand we want to 
see the genuine middle class nursed, 
when sick, at a price which will not 
financially swamp them, nevertheless, on 
the other hand, we want to avoid a sys- 
tem likely to encourage improvidence 
or a system which will permit us to be 
imposed upon by the penurious indi- 
viduals who are bent upon saving every 
penny and are always ready to cut down 
the honest wage-earner when they are 
fully able to pay a standard price. 

Probably any graduate of a school 
which has sent out its undergraduates on 
private duty will bear out this statement, 
that many of the cases on which the un- 
dergraduate finds herself are those 
which could well afford a graduate 
nurse. But because it is the family's 
privilege to employ this cheaper nurse, 
they do so. Hence if we undertake to 
establish any system by which we can 
honorably reduce our price we must 
guard against this class of people Just 
mentioned. In other words, it must not 
be some one's privilege to employ us at 
reduced prices, but our privilege to give 
reduced rates to them if in the judg- 
ment of the individual nurse it seems 
best and advisable. Let us jealously 
guard the judgment and privileges of 
the individual nurses who may under- 
take the care of a case at reduced rates. 

Now if we are to provide skilled nurs- 



* Read at Ninth Annual Convention of Xurses'jAssociated Alumnae. 



10, 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



ing at less money for the great middle 
class, how are we to go about it? Shall 
the nurses of each city organize them- 
selves into a Central Directory, as we 
hear the nurses of Toronto, Can., have 
done? Or shall we operate along lines 
often suggested, namely: "Break down 
the fixed charge ; let the compensation of 
the nurse be in proportion to the com- 
pensation of the physician. Where the 
family is abundantly able to pay the 
nurse one hundred dollars per week for 
her services, make that charge, and then 
to the man who can pay only eight dol- 
lars, make the charge eight dollars." 

To the nurse long accustomed to pri- 
vate duty these schemes carry their own 
evident advantages and disadvantages. 
A physician can have a sliding scale of 
prices running from his charity case at 
absolutely no charge on up to his family 
possessed of the million and to whom he 
will make his highest charge. 

But with the nurse it is dififerent. Of- 
ten she cannot know beforehand what 
is the financial standing of the family 
she is about to enter. Knowing nothing 
about the financial condition, when the 
question, "What will be your price?" is 
put to her, how can she say beforehand, 
"My price will be fifteen dollars," or, 
"My price will be fifty dollars per 
week?" 

Some years ago, the father of a young 
girl, sick and needing a nurse, called at 
the headquarters where I was register- 
ed. He wished to see me and inquire 
my price. Being a well-dressed man and 
coming from a suburban town inhabited 
by the wealthy, I naturally told him 
my price was twenty-five dollars per 
week. After reaching the case I learn- 
ed that the father was a conductor on 
the railroad. Then I wished there were 
some means by which a reduction in 



price could be made to him. But after 
having once said that the price was 
twenty-five dollars per week, I shrank 
from proposing a reduction, not wish- 
ing to injure his feeling by insinuating 
he could not afford to pay the regular 
price. 

A third and new scheme for provid- 
ing skilled nursing for the middle class 
presents itself to my imagination, and 
makes me wonder whether it could be 
worked up into a practical and success- 
ful plan. The scheme would be to form 
a society or fraternity or brotherhood — 
call it what you will — but organize an as- 
sociation similar to those for sick bene- 
fits. Let the active members consist of 
middle class people only. Honorary 
members, if any, might consist of the 
well-to-do and the rich who may wish 
to contribute, but who should not be 
beneficiaries. Each active member will 
pay regular monthly dues just as he 
would to any sick benefit fund, and then 
when sickness enters his family it shall 
be his privilege to employ a graduate 
nurse for a specified length of time at 
reduced prices, while the nurse shall 
receive from the association her full or 
nearly her full price for the case. The 
amount of each member's dues should 
vary with the amount he proposes to 
pay the association for providing him 
with a nurse. For instance, a man feel- 
ing he could pay fifteen dollars per week 
for a nurse would pay less dues than one 
who would want a nurse at eight dol- 
lars, but higher dues than he who could 
pay eighteen or twenty dollars per week 
for his nurse. 

Would not some such plan largely 
remove the taint of "charity" and other 
uncomfortable feelings which are apt to 
accompany reduced prices? Take for 
example that idea so common to human 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



11 



nature, — i. e., if a nurse is cheaper than 
the standard price, her skill and ability 
are necessarily below the standard. 
Such a feeling could not exist, on these 
grounds, if a man knew that his nurse 
was receiving twenty-five dollars per 
week. And to the man able to pay only 
eight dollars per week, would it not be 



a keen satisfaction to know that because 
of previous thrift and forethought, the 
nurse now caring for his wife or for 
his little child was receiving full compen- 
sation. For probably no one realizes bet- 
ter than does the man of small wages 
that old but ever new truth, "The laborer 
is worthy of his hire." 




CHART SHOWING PROPORTIONATE COMPOSITION OF THE HUMAN BODY. 
(See Article Dietetics for Nurses) 



Bittetics for ilursefi 



A. L. BENEDICT, A.M., M.D. 

Consultant in Digestive Diseases, City Hospital for Women and Riverside Hospital. Attendant in same, Mercy 

Hospital. Buffalo, N. Y. 

III. THE) COMPOSITION AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE BODY 



IT is plain that the substances used for 
food must be essentially the same as 
those that compose the body. The ele- 
mental composition of the human body, 
according to Moss (See page 14 of the 
author's Practical Dietetics) is as fol- 

Proportion Pounds 

Oxygen .- 62432=92.4 

Hydrogen 09864=14.6 

Carbon 21351=31.6 

Nitrogen 03108=4.6 

Phosphorus 00945= 1.4 

Calcium , .01891= 2.8 

Sulphur 00162= .24 

Chlorin 00081= . 12 

Sodium 00081= . 12 

Iron 00013= .02 

Potassium 00229= .34 

Magnesium 00027= . 04 

Fluorin 00013= .02 

Silicon Trace 

lodin Trace 

Total 1.00197=148.30 

Such a table, however, gives little in- 
formation as to the food stuffs available, 
and it is in a sense misleading, since 
the body cannot, as a rule, assimilate ele- 
ments, the only notable exception being 
oxygen which is breathed into the lungs 
and combined with oxidizable materials 
in the blood tissues. But even this large 
amount of oxygen is almost entirely 
used to destroy nutriment and even 
cells of the body, and very little is so 
combined as to form active structures. 
Even food destined for oxidation must 
consist in large part of oxygen already 



in molecular combination with carbon 
and hydrogen. 

At this point we may digress in 
order to discuss the statement com- 
monly made that if the atmosphere 
were of pure oxygen instead of a 
twenty per cent, dilution of oxygen 
in nitrogen, the body would soon 
consume itself. This statement is just 
as irrational as that tribes living in well- 
watered districts will kill themselves 
drinking water or that those living near 
the sea shore overload their tissues with 
salt. The respiratory centers automati- 
cally regulate the supply of oxygen and 
if, by any miracle, we could be placed in 
an atmosphere of- pure oxygen, we 
should either breathe less deeply or less 
frequently. Indeed, without any miracle, 
the experiment has been tried with ani- 
mals and even men, in chambers artifi- 
cially supplied with pure oxygen. How- 
ever, if the atmosphere did consist of 
pure oxygen, the frequency of conflagra- 
tions would probably seriously interfere 
with the existence of land animals. 

For dietetic purposes, it is more neces- 
sary to know the composition of body by 
proximate principles, that is according to 
the chemic compounds actually present 
than by elements. The normal, fairly 
lean body, freed from contained food 
and waste products, consists of the 
proportions of the proximate principles 
shown in the preceding circular dia- 
gram. 

Persons with large bones obviously 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



13 



have a greater amount of calcium phos- 
phate than those with small skeletons and 
a heavy muscular development neces- 
sitates an increase of viscera and blood 
and, hence, corresponds to a greater 
amount of proteid and haemoglobin. The 
principal difference consists in the 
amount of fatty tissue, which contains 
about eighty-two per cent, of pure fat, 
one per cent, of proteid, four per cent, of 
salts and thirteen per cent, of water. 
An adult often doubles his weight in a 
few years, almost wholly by the addition 
of fatty tissue. Such large additions of 
adipose, alter the proportionate compo- 
sition of the body very materially. 

Original proportion Addition Total Total re- 
of lean body of adipose duced to 

roo% 

Water 66 13 79 39.5 

Fat 3 82 85 42.5 

Proteid 18 1 19 9.5 

Haemoglobin 2-3 .. 2-3 1-1.5 

Salts 7 4 11 5.5 

Carbohydrates, etc.. 3 .. 3 1.5 

Total 100% 100% 200% 100% 

In many instances, too, the fat is de- 
posited along with a considerable amount 
of water and salts, constituting a mild 
form of dropsy. 

Analyses afford only an approximate 
indication of the dietetic needs of the 
body, for the reason that certain sub- 
stances, especially calcium phosphate, 
are wasted very slowly, while others, no- 
tably carbohydrates are almost completely 
consumed and the body can not store 
them except for a few hours, while fats 
may be formed out of proteids and car- 
bohydrates. To institute a homely com- 
parison, the calcium salts may be com- 
pared to outer clothing and shoes which 
need replenishment only occasionally, 
proteids to handkerchiefs, collars, cuffs, 
etc., which have to be renewed fre- 
quently and the soluble salts, water and 
carbohydrates, to money which is freely 
spent for daily necessities. 



It is a very interesting part of physi- 
ology that treats of the various incomes 
and expenditures of the body and those 
who would like to become familiar with 
this phase of the subject are referred to 
various text books on physiology or to 
the author's Practical Dietetics, in which 
it is discussed especially from the stand- 
point of dietetics. 

The schedule of needs of the human 
body has been determined, mainly by ac- 
tual observation of what is eaten by per- 
sons neither gaining nor losing in weight 
and excreting nitrogenous matter in 
such amount that the nitrogen corre- 
sponds almost exactly to that contained 
in the food. Some of the food is always 
wasted in the alimentary canal and we 
habitually eat more than is absolutely re- 
quired if We teach our organs the les- 
son of economy. 

Daily Requirements of Foods in Grams 



Proteid 

Non-proteid, nitrogenous, 
gelatin, &c. 

(Not necessary but may 
supplant carbohydrates, 
to a reasonable amount) 

Carbohydrates 

Fats 

(Fats and carbohydrates 
to some extent inter- 
changeable and may be 
supplanted by nitrogen- 
ous foods. See further 
discussion) 

Haemoglobin, reckoned as 
iron, about o.io, sufficient 
in ordinary rations of 
meat, &c. 

Water 

Sodium chlorid 

Other mineral matters, as 
contained in ordinary 
foods 



FNK 



INOMAMC 
fOODS 



Soo 

I20 



8o 



350 
SO 



1500 
5- 



The body may waste in the intes- 
tine or excrete oxidation products of 
considerably larger amounts of nutri- 
ment than are given in the maximum col- 
umn but not without ultimate harm. 
This column represents a liberal allow- 
ance for persons at hard muscular work, 
excepting that more water may be re- 
quired by workers in a high tempera- 
ture. The medium colimin represent a 
liberal allowance for persons of aver- 



14 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



age size, at light muscular or severe in- 
tellectual work. The minimum column 
represents the actual needs of a person 
of average size, at light work and, while 
life may be protracted to a considerable 
degree without any food at all, except 
water, the maintenance of health and, 
ultimately of life, demands this ration. 
The o in the line of carbohydrates and 
fats does not mean that "both may be dis- 
pensed with but that they are, to a con- 
siderable degree, vicarious with each 
other and that both may be supplanted 
by proteids. Fats may, probably, be ab- 
solutely omitted from the ration. At 
least a healthy existence may be main- 
tained with only the few grams of fat 
present in vegetables and lean meats 
and which cannot be removed except by 
chemic treatment and which are entirely 
unrecognizable by the taste. On the 
other hand, as the fats are increased, a 
greater and greater amount is lost in 
the faeces and at 120 grams we reach 
the practical maximum of tolerance by 
the digestive organs unless under extra- 
ordinary conditions. Carbohydrates can- 
not be reduced to zero for any length of 
time, for this reason and because, if 
supplanted by nitrogenous foods, the 
waste products produced become a 
source of danger to the system. Except 
for brief periods, at least eighty grams 
of carbohydrate must be taken to pre- 
vent poisoning by fatty acids. 

The amount of organic foods needed, 
may be estimated in another way, by 
reference to the energy which they fur- 
nish. All energy may be measured in 
terms of heat, the unit being called a 
calorie and representing the heat neces- 
sary to raise one kilogram of water, one 
degree centigrade. (Note. — Some text 
books use the small calorie, for which 
one gram is substituted for one kilogram. 



In such books, calories are stated in mil- 
lions instead of thousands a day.) The 
energy required to maintain bodily tem- 
perature and strength varies from 3,500 
calories for a man at hard work to a 
little less than 2,000 calories for a per- 
son taking little exercise and well pro- 
tected by clothing and artificial heat. 
For medical purposes, the requirement 
will vary from about 2,000 to 2,500 
calories, according to size, confinement 
to bed or ability to take moderate ex- 
ercise, etc. Excessive amounts of adipose 
must be discounted in estimating the size 
of the physiologically active body, as a 
fat person requires no more energy than 
when lean and, indeed, there is usually 
the indication to force him to use up his 
fat, although very difficult to accomplish. 
It has been shown by experiment that 
a gram of carbohydrate yields 4.1 cal- 
ories, of fat 9.3 calories and of proteid 
4.9 calories. Thus, it becomes a com- 
paratively simple problem in arithmetic 
to compute the amounts of organic foods 
required. For instance, to furnish the 
minimum amount of energy, 2,000 cal- 
ories, we start with the minimum amount 
of proteid, 50 grams. This yields 245 
calories. Suppose 50 grams of fat can 
be used at 9.3 calories each, 465 equals 
710; 2,000 calories minus 710 equals 
1,390 calories, to be produced from car- 
bohydrates at 4.1 calories per gram; 
1,390 divided by 4.1 equals 339, grams 
of carbohydrates required. If 100 grams 
of proteid can be administered, they 
yield 490 calories; if 60 grams of fat 
can be administered, they yield 558, 
total 1,048. But a person able to 
take this amount, will usually be active 
enough to need 2,500 calories. The dif- 
ference, to be supplied by carbohydrates 
is 1,452 calories, corresponding to 354 
grams. 



0iiS6 (i^raijam 



CLARA LEE HAMILTON. 



T WAS convalescing after an attack of 
-*- typhoid fever when 1 first became 
interested in my nurse. She had been 
with me for some weeks, but I had not 
thought much about her until those first 
few days when, wrapped in a blanket, 
she carried me to the sunny porch. 

As the fresh air and warm sunshine 
put new life into me, my interest be- 
came centered in the person who saw 
my needs before I realized them, who 
knew just when I wanted a pillow 
turned, or would quietly disappear at 
regular intervals and soon return with 
some refreshing draught or the very 
light diet then allowed me. Those were 
starving days if I expressed my feel- 
ings at that time. Once, when a friend 
left some fruit, my appetite overcame 
me, and, taking an orange, I began eat- 
ing it. I knew very well I ought not, 
but my hunger seemed unbearabk. 
Hurriedly I concealed it beneath my pil- 
low as Miss Graham entered. I felt, 
and no doubt looked guilty. 

She smiled and came straight to me 
holding out her hand. "I'll have to take 
it," she said, "but you must not feel 
badly, because it really is my fault. I 
should have taken the fruit with me 
when I left the room. I am so glad you 
did not eat it." Then she laughed. 

To my look of inquiry, she replied: 
"You remind me of some theological 
students I once had charge of in the 
Presbyterian Hospital, who were in 
about your stage of the fever. As they 
were acquainted and in the same ward, 
I had their beds placed side by side, so 
they would not be lonely. 

'They had appetites long before they 



could have solid food, and such a time 
as I had with those boys. They called 
me 'Miss Starvation'; they begged for 
food and sometimes cried for it. They 
were as unreasonable as little children, 
and I had to treat them as such. Every 
morning when I went on duty I asked 
each if he had eaten anything on the 
sly, and gave them a lecture on the sub- 
ject. When I went off duty in the even- 
ing, I would say : 'Now if you children 
find a large dinner, while I am away, 
what will you do with it?' 'Eat it,' came 
the reply in chorus. But I did not think 
they would when they knew the danger. 

"One dreadful morning I found one 
of my boys delirious and with a high 
temperature, and the other two were 
frightened and quiet. The night nurse 
and doctor could not account for his re- 
lapse, while I was just heart-sick over 
it. I had been so careful, watched them 
so closely, and felt so sure they would 
all recover. 

"While I was working over my poor 
boy I overheard this conversation: 

" 'We ought to tell her.' 

" 'You do it, then !' 

" 'No ; you tell her— I can't !' 

"Finally came the question : 'Nurse, 
do you think he's had something to eat?' 
'I feel sure of it,' I replied, 'because he 
was all right when I left last night.' 

" 'That's true,' he replied. There was 
a long silence. 'Nurse?' It was the 
other boy now. 'I'm sure he ate some- 
thing, too!' 

"I stopped my work and went and 
stood between them. 'I want you to tell 
me all you know,' I said. 'Perhaps we 
can do more for him if we understood 



16 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



the cause of his relapse.' Then they told 
me how one of the maids had dropped 
a piece of cake from a tray as she passed 
through the ward. They all tried to 
get it, but this unfortunate boy was the 
one to succeed. It all happened so 
quickly the maid did not notice what 
they were doing. 

" 'He ate it before he thought, nurse ; 
do you think he will die?' 

" 'I can't say,' I replied. 'He certainly 
has less chance now than with the first 
attack.' They were quiet again, and I 
felt I had been rather hard on them. 
Pretty soon one called me to him and 
said, with a choke in his voice : 'Nurse, 
if I could have reached it first, I'd have 
eaten it for him.' 

"Could you have heard the tone of 
self-sacrifice, you would know why I 
laugh. Those young men were as con- 
scientious and honorable as any I ever 
knew, so I made up my mind that, with 
typhoid fever, the patient was not re- 
sponsible for anything he ate. O yes — 
the young man recovered." 

Thus I forgot my feeling of guilt in 
following her story. So it was at all 
times — she made me comfortable in 
every way. 

I can scarcely remember when Miss 
Graham came, but I heard my mother 
say, "I'm afraid she will never do"; 
and my husband replied, "She is too 
young to have had much experience; 
I'm surprised Dr. Gay sent her. I will 
see if he can't get some one else." But 
Dr. Gay stood firm, and Miss Graham 
remained with me. She was not as 
young as she appeared, but I think at 
heart she was even younger. There was 
something so cheering and restful about 
her, one felt assured that all she said 
or did was right; and yet she was slow 
about giving opinion, always suggesting 
that she might be mistaken. Her eyes 



attraced me when I first saw her. They 
were remarkable as I remember them; 
but that was just at the time when I was 
losing consciousness and many things 
seemed remarkable. Miss Graham came 
to my bedside and felt my pulse. I re- 
member saying : "I am so tired — I can't 
hold on much longer." 

"Don't try. I will do it for you," she 
replied, grasping my meaning at once. 
Such a sense of relief came over me 
then, and I drifted off into unconscious- 
ness. Then came a time when the doc- 
tors said their was little chance for me. 
Miss Graham continued cheerful, and 
when questioned would quietly say: "I 
am sure she will get well. Don't grieve 
until you find it necessary." Sure 
enough I was soon better, and we all 
marveled that she, who on most sub- 
jects was uncertain, should be so posi- 
tive, when all others were doubtful. 

We were sitting on the porch one af- 
ternoon when our minister called. After 
congratulating me on my recovery and 
expressing many good wishes for my 
welfare, he remarked that he thought 
my recovery entirely due to the prayers 
of my friends. Being rather skeptical, 
I replied that I considered my recovery 
due to the care I had received. He would 
have argued the point, but Miss Graham 
came to move me out of the sun. This 
reminded him that he had other calls to 
make, and he departed, requesting me to 
think more kindly of his prayer theory. 
When I glanced at Miss Graham, I no- 
ticed her face wore that deep, awed ex- 
pression again. I had not seen it since 
I was out of danger, and I had begun 
to think it was part of my delirium. For 
the sake of something to say, I began 
to talk of our minister. 

"I don't understand Mr. Palmer when 
he says prayer saved my life. How does 
he know ? I sometimes wonder if he 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



17 



really believes such things himself, or is 
only doing what he considers his duty in 
speaking so." 

"I believe he is sincere," replied Miss 
Graham, "an(^ I certainly beheve what he 
says is true." 

Here I received a mental shock, for I 
had not regarded my nurse as a religious 
person. Once I asked her if she was a 
member of any church, but she an- 
swered : "No ; I go to hear the speaker 
I think will help me most, regardless of 
creeds ; but you may well know I do not 
have opportunities to go often." My 
face must have expressed something of 
what I was thinking, for she looked at 
me with a quick, bright smile, and said: 

"I see you are puzzled. I will tell 
you of an experience I had a few years 
ago; then I think you will understand 
why I speak so positively of the power 
of prayer. 

"The nurses of our school get most 
of their training in the city hospital. 
When I had been in training nearly a 
year I was sent by the superintendent 
to take a 'special.' That meant I was re- 
lieved from all ward duties, and given 
entire charge of one patient. Knowing 
I had reached the age (in the school) 
when I -might expect such an order, I 
had lived in nervous dread for weeks be- 
fore. I felt that I would never get 
through with my first 'special' without 
bringing myself and the school into dis- 
credit. 

The case was a Bohemian woman, 
who could not speak a word of English. 
She had had an operation performed on 
her throat, and was recovering from the 
anaesthetic when I went to her. It was 
an uncommonly hard case, as I had to 
give her oxygen every twenty minutes, 
day and night, and with nourishments, 
baths, medicines, and care of the tube in 
her neck, I scarcely stopped working a 



minute. The doctor came frequently; 
and, much to my joy, seemed pleased 
with the care I was giving her. 

"When the second night came, know- 
ing I had not slept since I took the case. 
Dr. Goodloe suggested that he send a 
relief nurse. But I objected. My inter- 
est in the case was so great I did not 
mind loss of sleep. The doctor then left, 
telling me to send for him if I needed 
him. 

"The night passed quietly on toward 
I o'clock, and I was feeling the wear 
of my long endurance and wishing for 
morning. The room, containing only 
two small iron beds, one chair, one table, 
and a dreary row of oxygen cans, be- 
gan to oppress me. I longed to stretch 
out on that empty bed; but I dare not, 
for I knew I would sleep as soon as my 
head touched the pillow; and that would 
probably mean my patient's death. I 
walked up and down the room, trying 
to throw off the stupor that seemed to 
be overpowering me. 

"Then something happened that 
brought me to my patient's side very 
much awake, indeed. The tone of her 
breathing had changed. I held her 
hands and by pantomime made her un- 
derstand she must not touch her throat, 
while I hastened to clean out the tube, 
and slip it back into place. Then I 
increased the quantity of oxygen, and 
watched her for a few minutes. Her 
breathing continued difficult, and her 
pulse began to rise. I sent for the doc- 
tor. He came in a short time, looked 
the patient over, and tried the same 
means I had used to relieve her — with 
the same result. 

" Tm afraid the air-passage is filled 
up below the tube,' he said. 'We will 
have to remove the obstruction right 
away or she will suffocate.' 

"We tried one instrument after an- 



18 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



other without success, the patient's 
breathing becoming more labored all the 
time. At last, when we were at our 
wit's end, the doctor thought perhaps 
a feather might be used to advantage. 
I looked the place over, but could find 
none. He said he would go down to the 
hospital kitchen and find some. When 
he left the room, the sense of my help- 
lessness swept over me like a flood. 
The woman's dumb agony was torture 
to me. I had been asking for help (si- 
lently) for some time, but now I began 
to pray aloud as I worked, thinking the 
sound of my voice might reassure her. 
Fifteen minutes passed and she seemed 
worse. Half an hour, and I knew she 
was dying. She wrung her hands and 
held them out, imploring me by gesture 
to do something. I was desperate. 
'Father,' I said, 'can't you see that she 
is dying? — and only a little thing like 
a feather might save her life. You seem 
so indifferent — and merciless — and far 
away, and I am so helpless. You can't 
care for us, or you would not allow 
such suffering! O let her die quickly, 
if you have any mercy — I cannot bear 
this alone.' 

"At that moment I noticed the sound 
of fluttering wings, and I dropped my 
patient's hands to snatch at a bird that 
had just flown in. The frightened little 
thing squeaked as I jerked out some of 
its longest feathers. I ran to my pa- 
tient, and was working and sobbing out 



my gratitude when the doctor came 
back." 

Miss Graham paused. Her eyes were 
wide and shining as though the terror of 
that night was still upon l^er. She had 
forgotten her surroundings. Her lips 
moved, but I caught only a few words : 
"God — a miracle — I who doubted Thee." 

A book slipped from her lap to the 
floor with a noisy rustle. She started up 
in bewilderment. I saw that she was 
embarrassed and would tell no more. 

"Oh, please tell me if the woman lived, 
and what did the doctor say about it?" 

"Yes; the woman lived. The doctor? 
Oh, he said it was a 'pure accident' — that 
bird. The window was down a few 
inches at the top and 'no doubt the light 
had attracted it.' 

"To me, it was a direct answer to my 
desperate prayer. How could it be an 
accident for a bird to fly in that particu- 
lar window, just when it was needed, 
at 2 o'clock on a winter's night, when 
there were scores of lighted windows all 
about ? 

"Since that time I have belived that 
God answers prayer. I don't mean the 
begging kind that most people offer, ask- 
ing for everything under the sun and do- 
ing nothing to help themselves. If God 
dislikes a beggar as I do, it would ac- 
count for the unanswered so-called 
prayers. But when one has done every- 
thing in his power first, and then asks 
for help — God always gives it." 



C|)t ilutsing anti Care of tfje 3nsane 



HELEN G. KELLY 



Maywood Hospital, Sedalia, Mo. 



TO deal with so large a subject in a 
few words is not an easy task. 
There is much to be taken into consider- 
ation. In the first place, the nurse en- 
gaged upon the case must be possessed 
of a personality stronger than that of 
her patient, and must use it to the limit 
of advantage with her patient in cases 
of insanity. 

What is insanity? A mental disease 
always associated with disturbances of 
function or structure of the brain. Then 
for convenience let us group insane con- 
ditions under four general heads — 
States of Mental Elation, States of Men- 
tal Depression, States of Mental Weak- 
ness and Structural Brain Disease 
with Prominent Mental Manifestations. 
These heads may be divided and sub- 
divided, but I do not purpose to go into 
detail. I shall, under the head, "Man- 
agement of Cases of Insanity," try to 
show you that the successful manage- 
ment of cases necessitates recognition of 
the physical bases of mental disease and 
the directing of treatment of the brain. 
And it is the duty of those having the 
insane intrusted to their care to keep 
in mind these two great aims, to limit 
the amount of dementia and to promote 
the recovery of the patient. 

As every case is a law unto itself, 
so must each patient be individualized 
and treated accordingly. We can hold 
out no general plan of management. 
Quickness of perception, kindness, good 
judgment, thoughtfulness, attentiveness, 
tact, are tools to be used by the nurse. 
She should never indulge in displays of 
affection, as they are always very un- 



necessary. Kindness should find its ex- 
pression in deeds, not words. Then, too, 
we must remember that the building up 
of the general health of the patient is 
a necessity. And in many cases it is 
when we come to the administering of 
food that the greatest tact and wisdom 
must be displayed. We must find out 
by a close study of our patient what is 
the best method to follow, and do that 
which is for their upbuilding, for they 
must be fed. Always remember me- 
chanical feeding should be used only as 
a last resort. 

The patient must be kept tidy and 
neat at all times, and the general con- 
ditio .1, which a nurse watches for in 
any case, be given the strictest atten- 
tion. Such as the regulation of the 
bowels and kidneys. The nurse should 
see that as far as the patient's physical 
condition will admit he be taken out 
for exercise daily, and the strictest care 
should be taken that the patient's 
strength is not overtaxed or fatigued by 
it. And let it be remembered that diver- 
sion is a necessity, such as taking a pa- 
tient to a concert or theater. This often 
supplies an effective motive for self- 
control and a stepping-stone toward re- 
cover}'. 

Employment is sometimes of service 
for the immediate well being of the pa- 
tient. Sometimes the condition calls for 
a long rest in bed, and treatment away 
from home or in an institution often ac- 
complishes much, for one is apt to exer- 
cise greater self-restraint among 
strangers than among relatives, he often 
falls readily into the discipline of an in- 



20 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



stitution and displays powers of self- 
control not before apparent; and the 
withdrawal from scenes with which for- . 
mer delusions have been associated con- 
tribute to this. 

Regular modes of life prescribed by 
others take the place of self-appointed 
rules of conduct. There is less to excite 
the patient and less to annoy. Removal 
to an asylum is ofttimes an advantage, 
because it substitutes a real trouble 
for a fancied one, and as homesickness 
often develops, and we remember two 
subjects cannot occupy consciousness 
perfectly at the same time, there is sub- 
stituted a healthy for an unnatural feel- 
ing, and a motive to recovery is supplied. 

The insane person having lost by 
disease his ability to feel, to think and to 
act in a natural manner is not respon- 
sible, and should never be punished by 
the infliction of pain for a fault. It 15 
much better to supply motives to con- 
trol as denying them something they are 
fond of. 

The withdrawl of food or any of the 
necessaries of life under no circum- 
stances is excusable. Harsh speeches 
should never be indulged in. Always be 
respectful in addressing your patient. 
Make requests, do not command or act 
imperiously, take a firm, judicious stand. 



Be sure of the propriety of the course, 
then pursue it. Your judgment must be 
calm. Waste no time in arguing, heed 
reasonable requests. Take a firm, ju- , 
dicious position and maintain it. 

If manual restraint must be applied, 
let it be done with the least possible 
show of force and never with violence. 
In matters of delusion be honest, never 
antagonize. If a patient show homi- 
cidal tendencies keep everything out of 
his reach that might be used for harm. 
And if possible do without using me- 
chanical restraint; it may be necessary 
in exceptional cases, but should never 
except in a grave emergency, be applied. 
Sometimes the isolation of a patient may 
be expedient. Patients in isolation should 
be observed often. Of course there 
are objections to seclusion on account 
of increasing their state of irritability, 
which never should be done if at all pos- 
sible. And when the nurse finds her 
task the most trying let her remember 
the saying, "Be not weary in well doing, 
for in due season we. shall reap if we 
faint not." If by our patience, kindness, 
endurance, tact, we do this for some 
shipwrecked mental brother we will, by 
drawing aside the curtain of delusion 
from his mind's eye, have left the world 
better for our having been a nurse. 



"Pluck wins! It always wins! 

Tho' days be slow 

And night be dark twixt days that come and 

go, 
Still, pluck will win. Its average is sure; 
He gains the prize who can the most endure — 
Who faces issues, and who never shirics, 
Who waits and watches and who always 

works." 



%'ift Care mtf jfccliing of Cijtltjwn tn ^ritjatc 

practice 



B. V. H, STEVENSON 



EVERY nurse needs to know some- 
thing about the care of children, 
for she will be consulted and looked to 
for advice and sympathy in every family 
she enters where there are children, no 
matter whether she is actually engaged 
in caring for them or not. 

Right feeding comprises the major 
part of "the pojind of cure" in very many 
cases of sickness among children, be- 
sides being often the sole ingredient re- 
quired to make "the ounce of preven- 
tion." Furthermore, the first principles 
of feeding children, when thoroughly 
understood, supply the key to almost all 
the problems of diet which we have to 
solve in caring for the whole "seven ages 
of man." 

A child is nourished not by what it 
swallows, but by what it digests. To 
determine the diet best suited to any in- 
dividual requires some knowledge of the 
properties of the five different classes of 
foods — fats, water, carbohydrates, pro- 
teids and salts — and the various needs 
of the body which they supply. The pro- 
cesses of digestion and nutrition must be 
understood, and some knowledge of bac- 
teriology is necessary in order that food 
may be kept or rendered absolutely free 
from disease-giving properties. Without" 
having first carefully studied these sub- 
jects it is impossible to have any intelli- 
gent ideas on the subject of right feed- 
ing. A mistake is often made in over- 
looking the imporance of the propor- 
tion of bulk necessary to stimulate a 
thorough action of the digestive foods, 
for, while in acute illness predigested 



or highly contentrated foods are often 
indispensable, in health the quality of the 
food taken should not be wholly nutri- 
tious or highly condensed, capable of 
entire absorption, or the effect will be 
too stimulating. 

Also, as soon as a child has got teeth 
it should be given things to eat that it 
can chew or gnaw, as this will assist the 
proper development of the teeth and the 
growth of the jaws and masticatory mus- 
cles. 

Children do not demand as much va- 
riety as adults, often preferring the 
same thing day after day; but if they 
need coaxing, novelty in the manner, of 
serving will attract them; thus they will 
often drink readily from a demi-tasse or 
liquor glass something which they would 
not look at if brought in the ordinary 
tea-cup or glass. 

The manner in which food is prepar- 
ed, or cooked, is most important, for 
cooking is a sort of artificial digestion, 
and the care of the ice-box is another 
vital point 

In caring for sick children, the prob- 
lem is not what to give, but how. Noth- 
ing tastes right or feels right The ma- 
teria medica of juvenile nursing is very 
simple fortunately, as the dose is usu- 
ally small enough to admit of forcible 
administration. If, as often happens, it 
is ejected immediately, no harm is done, 
for the stomach is cleared of mucus, and 
the dose will usually be retained and 
more quickly absorbed if repeated imme- 
diately. Citrate of magnesia is usually 
refused while effervescing, but drunk 



22 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



after if it is allowed to stand a few min- 
utes, or it can be given through a 
"straw," as a soda fountain drink. If 
suppositories are used, care should be 
taken that they are fresh, as stale ones 
have been known to cause convul- 
sions. A soft rubber catheter not 
a rectal tube, should be used for 
irrigating the intestines, and a small 
bulb rubber syringe is best for giving 
a rectal injection to a small child. 

A folded cotton blanket will be found 
much better than the usual bed pad to 
protect the bed — it is much easier to 
wash and dries much quicker. Cheese- 
cloth, which can be burnt when soiled, 
makes a good substitute for handker- 
chiefs, and where there is incontinence 
of faeces squares of the cheapest grade 
of outing or canton flannel used as a 
diaper and afterwards burnt, will save 
a great deal of extra washing. 

If the child is restless and throws off 
the bed clothing, a double tape sewed 
to upper edge of blanket several inches 
from either side (so as not to interfere 
with tucking in), which can be tied to 
the sides of the crib, will be useful ; also 
a double thickness of white outing flan- 
nel sewed to the edge of the blanket 
along the sides and end will allow extra 
width and length for tucking in without 
having to draw the bedding tight across 
the child, which often causes restless- 
ness. 



The ventilation of the sick-room in 
private practice is sometimes a difficult 
matter, as the family are apt to be afraid 
that the child will take cold, but fresh 
air is as necessary as food and medi- 
cine. 

A large proportion of a nurse's time 
will be taken up with devising ways and 
means to amuse the patients — reading to 
them is perhaps what is most enjoyed. 
The little girls' specialty is dressing 
dolls; and both boys and girls enjoy 
colored pencils and paper to draw pic- 
tures with. 

When convalescence is fully estab- 
lished, the question arises, how soon is 
it advisable to allow the patient to go 
outdoors. The answer depends on the 
quality of the atmosphere. Moisture- 
landen air, damp ground and high winds 
are all dangerous. 

Disinfection is usually attended to by 
the board of health, and it should be 
followed by a thorough "house clean- 
ing," and everything that cannot be 
washed with soap and water should be 
aired outdoors. 

There are many accidents and emer- 
gencies peculiar to childhood — convul- 
sions, foreign bodies in the nose, eye and 
ear, swallowing foreign bodies, etc., the 
treatment of which the nurse should be 
familiar with, for much depends on the 
prompt application of the right remedy 
or treatment. 




a iHoDel Craining ^tfiool ButlDins 



REGISTERED NURSE 



'' I ''O serve well the purpose for which 
■*■ it is intended, a training school 
building should be planned with two 
thoughts uppermost, (i) a regard for 
comfort, and freedom from anything 
savoring of an institution (2) and suffi- 
cient evidence of the educational spirit 
to give it the proper amount of dignity. 

There should be as few stairs as pos- 
sibe, unless an elevator is included in 
the plans, if not, then long flights of 
stairs should be avoided as well. 

The main floor should include a large 
entrance hall with open fireplace, an as- 
sembly room for exercises, dancing, etc., 
a general reception room with a smaller 
one, library, parcel and cloak room, also 
toilet and lavatory. 

Upper floors should have sufficient 
number of bedrooms to allow single 
rooms for all, with special provision for 
school staflF, in the way of small suites 
of sittingroom, bedroom and bath. 

There might be a general sitting room 
on each floor, also a generous number 
of lavatories to provide against the nec- 
essity for washstands in the rooms. 

Bathrooms on a basis of one to at 
least eight pupils. 

At least one sewingroom should be 
provided and of sufficient size to allow 
for more than one machine. 

The diet kitchen, laboratory, class, " 
lecture and study rooms should be on 
the top floor if possible. Also the gen- 
eral kitchen and diningrooms ; it would 
be quite easy to arrange for transpor- 
tation of supplies to upper part of house, 
and diningrooms on the upper floors 
are as a rule far more comfortable and 
cheerful than those on the main floor or 



basement where they are usually located. 

The basement might contain the gen- 
eral laundry with rooms for sorting 
clothes and laundry lockers; there 
should also be a small laundry for the 
use of the pupils when the usual amount 
of seemingly indispensable washing and 
ironing could be done ; a trunk room and 
a room for lockers where each pupil 
might have a strong box in which to 
keep valuables. This latter provision 
might do away with the tales of mys- 
terious disappearances so common to 
schools and do away with the necessity 
for their keeping anything of value in 
their rooms. 

A g)^mnasium could be located either 
in the basement or on top floor, accord- 
ing to other conditions, this room might 
be utilized for an assembly room if it 
was not found feasible to have one on 
the main floor. 

There should be a small kitchen for 
the use of the pupils where they might 
prepare any light refreshment at such 
time as might be in accordance with the 
rules; this would be a great comfort 
and insure against any cooking in the 
rooms. 

All rooms should have generous siz- 
ed windows and special attention paid to 
lighting facilities, ventilation and heat- 
ing are usually well provided for but 
the question of lighting and windows of 
ample proportion does not always seem 
to be as well considered. 

Open fireplaces in rooms on main 
floor, sittingrooms, diningroom, and also 
in the infirmary would be most desirable. 

The building might be placed around 
a court to ensure all light rooms, unles.'. 



24 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



so planned as to make this unnecessary, 
and the court utilized for recreation and 
beautified according to finances of school. 

There should be ample provision for 
fire escapes and these should be as or- 
nate as possible. So many seem to have 
been planned without any regard to their 
disfiguring qualities. 

In a detached building but possibly 
connected by a covered way, should be 
the infirmary with a well equipped oper- 
ating room, and also the other acces- 
sories in the way of service, room, etc; 
there should also be provision made for 
isolation. 

This need not necessarily be an ex- 
pensive or pretentious building, but the 
nurses would be far more comfortable 
away from the noise of the school build- 
ing and the ministrations of well mean- 



ing classmates, and the one appointed to 
care for them would have her work 
considerably lessened, especially if sev- 
eral were in at one time. 

In some hospitals where no provision 
is made for sick pupils there is nothing 
for them but the wards or to be cared 
for in their own rooms in the school 
building, in others private wards or 
rooms are sometimes utilized, but there 
is always the possibility in a crowded 
hospital of their being no room. 

There has been no mention made of 
boiler-room, servants' quarters, store- 
rooms, etc., as they would not differ 
materially from those of any other build- 
ing; the paper has simply been written 
with a view to considering the subject 
as one pertaining only to training 
schools. 



Inspiration 

Our defeat has become our inspi- 
ration. We have said to ourselves if 
we cannot have State Registration this 
year, or next, or perhaps the next, 
we can have education for ourselves 
and for the laity concerning us now 
and always. If we cannot have legal 
protection, we will make our own in- 
herent strength our protection; and 
that strength shall come to us through 



in Defeat 

the bonds of closer acquaintance, bet- 
ter understanding, common purpose, 
united effort and uniform method. If 
we cannot have imposed upon us the 
coercive authority of the law we will 
place upon ourselves voluntarily obliga- 
tions to our State Association, and that 
State Association shall stand to us for 
centralization of purpose, effort and 
power. — Miss Crandall to ■ Ohio State 
Nurses' Association. 




9iti\3antasefi of (Bh&tttvm as a ^pecialtp 



H. A. G. 



OF the variety of cases that fall to 
the care of the trained nurse, the 
obstetrical case seems to be the most un- 
popular. 

In looking over a nurses' directory I 
find, while many are down for "all cases 
taken," out of the hundred nurses regis- 
tered only three "prefer obstetrics." 

. Occasionally a nurse does not get 
much maternity experience in her train- 
ing school and does not feel qualified to 
take sufh work, but the reason given 
generally is: there are two patients to 
do for, and if one doesn't want some- 
thing the other does, so that the nurse is 
qn the wing continually and by the time 
the .engagement is at an end she is worn 
out. 

It is a mistake for a nurse to think she 
can take all kinds of cases. It is impos- 
sible to be "up" in surgical nursing, 
fevers, children's diseases, obstetrics, 
etc., and to try to be would mean a stren- 
uous life that is altogether unnecessary. 
There is an end to one's stock of nerve 
force and a limit to endurance. It is said 
a woman's usefulness as a nurse lasts 
about ten years. Considering the de- 
mands on her strength and time, no 
wonder she is undone in a decade. 

Caring for one who is ill, no matter 
what the trouble, is trying, but mater- 
nity work need not be the bugbear of 
nursing if it is handled judiciously. 

In fact, handled with skill and system 
it can be enjoyable, profitable, and de- 
sired above all other cases. 

The independence of the nurse who 
makes obstetrics a specialty is a very at- 
tractive feature, inasmuch as she makes 
her appointments and can plan her own 
personal work and pleasure accordingly, 



whereas the "general nurse" never 
knows when she will be called or what 
the nature of her case will be. Of 
course, the unexpected happens many 
times — the mother comes to term before 
the time appointed or she goes overtime, 
but the experienced nurse expects such 
things and, being prepared for emergen- 
cies, is not disturbed if the call does not 
come just when she is looking for it. 

Then again the nervous strain is much 
less than in almost any other case. In the 
first place there ordinarily is compara- 
tively little illness after the labor is over 
although there is plenty of hard work, 
douching, sterilizing, attending to 
breasts and so forth. The sufferings at- 
tending the labor are trying to the sym- 
pathetic nurse and the work from that 
time until the secretion of milk is estab- 
lished is hard, but after the supply is un- 
der control and the patient is promising 
to make a good recovery the work, if 
done systematically, is easily managed. 

The established obstetrical nurse can 
make engagements for six cases for the 
year if she does not want more. Allow- 
ing one month for each case she is em- 
ployed practising her profession but six 
months, with the other half of the year 
to do as she pleases with and is financial- 
ly $600 better off. In small places it is 
not easy to regulate things ; half or more 
of the cases which the nurse stipulates 
with herself to take may come in a 
bunch. When this is the case she should 
engage for only such as are reasonably 
far apart, for the reason that she will get 
tired out and cannot do justice to her- 
self or her work. 

At the time of making an engagement 
the niirse should state her terms and 



26 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



whether or not she expects to be relieved 
for rest and recreation each day. If such 
understanding is had at the outset all 
concerned know just where they stand, 
and there are no unpleasant feelings or 
surprises at settling up time. 

It is a foregone conclusion that the 
successful nurse is a practical one, and in 
addition to other qualifications will be a 
good cook who will prepare her menu 
the day before and will see that supplies 
suitable for the invalid are on hand. A 
nutritious, easily digested and attractive 
bill of fare goes a long way toward mak- 
ing the days in the convalescent's room 
pass pleasantly. 

If the nurse has the faculty of making 
her patient look pretty she is fortunate, 
since a woman rarely gets too old to 
enjoy the feeling that she looks well. 
Anything that makes for comfort and 
peace of mind has a salutary efifect. 

The writer, being a nurse, knows well 
that advice on the nurse's behavior and 
suggestions as to what she should be and 
do in her relations to the physician, the 
patient and the family, are altogether 
unnecessary, particularly at this time of 
year when the annual commencement 
address with its crop of well-worn ad- 
vice is due. But since nurses are of the 
flesh and are sometimes impractical and 
occasionally silly, the writer humbly but 
earnestly urges the adoption of the fol- 
lowing rules as a part of the sick-room 
creed : 

1. Convince your patient that you 
know your business by doing, not say- 
ing, things. 

2. "Be firm in essentials, yielding in 
non-essentials." 

3. "Eliminate the gab-fest." 



4. Avoid being too familiar with any- 
body. 

5. Do not kiss the patient and do not 
take the liberty of calling her "dear." 

6. If it can be avoided do not let her 
get the habit of calling you "dear." 
(Such terms of endearment on short ac- 
quaintance mean absolutely nothing and 
sensible, intelligent women will not in- 
dulge in them.) 

Do not coddle the physician in order 
to get into his good graces, and do not 
cringe and crawl to the patient and her 
family if they happen to be millionaires. 

"A man's life consisteth not in the 
abundance of the things which he pos- 
sesseth." 

If the above is true, a superabundance 
of the perishable things of this world is 
no excuse for the person of means to 
feel he is better than his fellow creature. 

This body is the temple of the Holy 
Ghost; not His body, nor yours nor 
mine, only, but the human body. This 
being the case, every human creature 
should be treated with respect. 

The nurse who is capable of caring for 
the sick and who is worthy of the trust 
is deserving of respect and consideration. 

The nurse does not need the work nor 
the money any more than the patient 
needs the nurse and she should leave the 
case if the treatment she receives there 
is not all that any honorable woman 
should expect to receive. 

In conclusion, let every nurse stand 
up for herself, keeping in mind Shakes- 
peare's "To thine own self be true, and 
it shall follow as the day the night, thou 
canst not then be false to any man." 
Let her have high ideals and strive to 
cultivate those charming graces, charity, 
love and truth. 



H^eport of Case 



EMMA F. RYNIKER 



ON February 26, 1905, Mary K. was 
born. She was a large beautiful 
child, weighing '9^ pounds. The cord 
was twisted around the neck twice very 
tightly and mouth and throat were filled 
with mucus. After the throat was 
cleansed with warm sterile water (which 
produced emesis) the infant seemed nor- 
mal in every way and slept for five (5) 
hours. After the baby awakened I no- 
ticed she did not breathe well and at 
times would become cyanosed. 

I called the doctor, and he diagnosed 
the case "blue baby." He prescribed 
spt. frum. gtt. ij. every two or three 
hours and to keep her perfectly quiet 
on her right side. He could advise noth- 
ing else. 

At the end of twenty-four hours there 
was a decided improvement in the heart 
action and respiration and all seemed 
well. 

The mother was unable to nurse the 
baby and artificial food" was substituted, 
modified milk and a small amount of bar- 
ley water. This food seemed to contain 
the required elements of nutrition ; the 
baby gained in weight from 6 to 8 ounces 
a week, and slept well. 

There is a great deal in the world that 
is delightful and beautiful, but it will 
not last, and so it was with this dear 
little baby. The continuation of this pro- 
cess of development, the unfolding of 
this precious little life, seemed to be 
a dream and not a reality, for at the 
end of the fourth week, March 27, the 
stomach rejected food occasionally and 
there was a slight elevation of tempera- 
ture, 102 the highest. 

March 28 there was a rash, diagnosed 
as measles, and retention of urine, which 



were overcome by giving spiritus aetheris 
nitrosi gtt. i. t.i.d, for two days. April ' 
I, 10 P. M., baby had not urinated for 
ten hours, and I was told to give medi- 
cine hourly in §i. of water until ef- 
fectual. This was continued for twenty- 
four hours without result, but, as emesis 
was aggravated, perhaps very little was 
retained. At this time the eyes were 
puflfed and there were other symptoms 
of uraemic poisoning, convulsive move- 
ments, etc. Hot alcohol packs were sug- 
gested and given with good result. The 
vitality, however, was so reduced by this 
time that the patient was almost ex- 
hausted, and sixteen hours afterward 
suffered from collapse ; temperature sub- 
normal, 97 per. rec. The face was cya- 
nosed, fingers blue up to the first joint, 
pulse imperceptible and respiration shal- 
low, labored and irregular, at times al- 
most ceasing. 

I applied external heat and gave spt. 
frum. gtts. X. and 'phoned for the doc- 
tor. He ordered 3ss. more per rectum, 
and came immediately, bringing a chil- 
dren's specialist with him. It was now 
2 A. M., April 4. The babe was in a 
stupor, and they advised keeping her per- 
fectly quiet and warm and continuing 
whiskey. By this time the rash had al- 
most disappeared and desquamation had 
begun. Emesis was still persistent; the 
vomitus consisted of large "bunches" of 
"tangled" mucus-yellow from head and 
white from stomach. We now resorted 
to rectal feeding: Normal salt §ij., 
liquid peptonoids 3i., and spts. fnmienti 
gtts. X. every three hours, and nothing by 
mouth but hot normal salt §i. every two 
hours, which was retained at times. 
This was kept up for three days. After 



28 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



this, normal salt ^ss. and whey §ss. 
were given q. four hours alternately, 
with nutritive enemata. Up to this time 
the baby was continuously losing in 
weight and weighed scant 6 pounds at 
end of the seventh week. 

Spinal meningitis was feared ; there 
seemed to be some symptoms of it, i. e., 
rolling of eyes, drawing back the head, 
extreme nervousness, etc. The intervals 
in giving nutritive enemat^ were gradu- 
ally lengthened, and after three weeks 
they were discontinued ; there was con- 
siderable prolapse and the temperature 
was never more than 97 degrees. 

Mouth feeding was increased very 
gradually, at first adding Mv. of cream 
to whey and saline mist. ; then increas- 
ing a few M of cream or milk q. three 
or four days until, at the age of 6 
months, the nornijal quantity of modified 
milk was given, whey used instead of 
water, and the baby was gaining from 
6 to 8 ounces a week. 



Saline diuretic enemata were given 
daily, and after being retained for one- 
half hour or more the diaper would be 
saturated with urine, dark in color, with 
a large amount of brick-dust deposit. 

Hot sponge baths, alcohol rubs,, arid 
olive oil inunctions and sun baths were 
given daily, and always at the ' same 
hour each day. As soon "as it was ad- 
visable the baby spent the greater part 
of the day out of <loors. ■ 

This child is the center and circum- 
ference of the family circle, is one year 
old, weighs 21 pounds, walks, and talks 
distinctly. 

No matter how near our patients seem 
to death's door, nor how hopeless the 
case may appear, we should never de- 
spair while a spark of life exists. "God 
gives each man one life, like a lamp ; and 
all the assurance we have of life is only 
to-day." May we never weary of the 
task, but "Be faithful unto death" (Rev. 
ii. 10). 



^rt^e Contests 



^ I ''HE prize contests mentioned in the 
■*■ December number are meeting 
with great success. 

For the benefit of those who did not 
read the announcements in the December 
number, they are repeated herewith. 

In the picture contest, we will give a 
prize of $5.00 for the best picture, $3.00 
for the second best, and five prizes of 
$1.00 each for the third class. In addi- 
tion, all that receive honorable mention 
will be reproduced for publication. 

There are no qualifications, except that 
the pitcures must be accompanied by a 
letter stating that they were taken by the 
writer, and that he or she is a nurse. In 



judging the pictures we will take into 
consideration their clearness and the 
beauty or novelty of the subject. This 
contest closes January first. 

For the best article on "The Nursing 
of Diseases of the Kidneys" we will give 
a prize of $15.00. 

All articles must be in our hands by 
February i, and must be not less than 
1,200 words, and not more than 2,500; 
typewritten preferred, but where impos- 
sible they will be accepted if written 
cleary on one side of the sheet only. All 
manuscripts sent to us are to remain our 
property, but any that are published after 
the prize winner will be paid for at our 
regular rates. , 



department of ^rm^ J^ursing 



DITA H. KINNEY 
Superinlendeat Anny Nurse Cvps 



Memorandum from the Surgeon General U. S. A. for the Information of all 

Concerned 



I. The purposes of the American 
National Red Cross and its relation to 
the Medical Department of the Army 
are quite clearly stated in the Act of 
Congress approved January 5, 1905, in- 
corporating it. Its purposes are stated 
in Section 3 of that act to be: 

"First. To furnish volunteer aid to 
the sick and wounded of armies in time 
of war, in accordance with the spirit and 
conditions of the conference of Geneva 
of October, eighteen hundred and sixty- 
three, and also of the treaty of the Red 
Cross, or the treaty of Geneva, of Au- 
gust twenty-second, eighteen hundred 
and sixty-four, to which the United 
States of America gave its adhesion on 
•March first, eighteen hundred and 
eighty-two. 

"Second. And for said purposes to 

perform all the duties devolved upon a 

national society by each nation which 

has acceded to said treaty. 

* * * 

"Fourth. To act in matters of vol- 
untary relief and in accord with the 
military and naval authorities as a me- 
dium of communication between the 
people of the United States of America 
and their Army and Navy, and to act 
in such matters between similar national 
societies of other governments through 
the "Comite International de Secours," 
and the Government and the people and 
the Army and Navy of the United 
States of America. 



"Fifth. And to continue and carry 
on a system of national and interna- 
tionel relief in time of peace and apply 
the same in mitigating the sufferings 
caused by pestilence, famine, fire, floods, 
and other great national calamities, and 
to devise and carry out measures for 
preventing the same." 

When the National Red Cross in time 
of war offers its assistance to the Medi- 
cal Department of the Army, and such 
assistance is accepted, whether it be in 
the shape of personnel, supplies, money 
or means of transportation, these will 
come under the control of the military 
authorities. 

2. The eligible volunteer list is in- 
tended to aflFord a selected personnel for 
the prompt expansion of the Army 
Nurse Corps whenever this becomes 
necessary, and these nurses are, of 
course, paid by the Government. Red 
Cross nurses are selected and furnished 
by the constituent branches of the 
American National Red Cross, not only 
to render assistance to the military 
forces of the Government in time of 
war, but also for the purposes named 
under the fifth head of the 3rd sec- 
tion of the Act of Incorporation, above 
quoted. 

The duties of these two classes of 
nurses when attached to the Army will 
be practically identical, and the charac- 
ter of their assignments will not be 
necessarily different. 



30 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



3. It is not probable that the Na- 
tional Red Cross will offer its assistance 
to the Medical Department of the Army 
except in times of great national emer- 
gency, and it is thus probable that the 
eligible volunteer list of nurses would 
be drawn upon before the emergency 
became great enough to require assist- 
ance from the Red Cross. 



4. There seems to be no reason why 
the lists should become identical, al- 
though there is no reason why the 
same individuals should not enter their 
names on both the eligible volunteer list 
and as a Red Cross nurse. 

5. As the Red Cross personnel in 
time of war comes under military con- 
trol there could be no divided authority. 




From " Leaves from a Nurse's Life's History" by Jean S. Edmunds. 
GROUP OF ARMY NURSES IN CUBA DURING THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR. 



A Remarkable Charity 



The famous Bowery Mission Bread Line, 
now in its fourth year, at which every morn- 
ing, at one o'clock,' during the winter months, 
one thousand homeless and destitute men and 
boys are provided with a breakfast of hot 
coffee and rolls, resumed operations at Thanks- 
giving, and will continue to Easter morn- 
ing, 1907. Last year 144,000 were thus as- 



sisted, and altogether over half a million 
have had a weary night's tramp agreeably in- 
terrupted by this inexpensive, yet very wel- 
come refreshment. 

The Directors of the Bowery Mission have 
appointed Mr. John C. Earl, of 222 Bible 
House, New York City, financial secretary, 
succeeding Dr. Simmon Trenwith, lately de- 
ceased. 



CUitoriallp ^peafemg 



A Hero of Today 

Thomas Carlyle, in his book, "Heroes 
and Hero Worship" says: "No nobler 
feeling than this of administration for 
one higher than himself dwells in the 
breast of man. It is to this hour, and 
to all hours, the vivifying influence in 
man's life." Doubtless more than one 
person recalled these lines when they 
read the account of the fourteenth an- 
nual dinner of the Alumni Association 
of the Kings County Hospital, Flatbush, 
which was held November 226.. On this 
occasion the association presented to 
the hospital a bronze tablet in memory of 
Dr. Walter Reed, who died in Washing- 
ton, D. C, in 1902, shortly after he 
discovered a means of checking the con- 
tagion of yellow fever, at one time the 
most dreaded disease of the Western 
Hemisphere. On the tablet is inscribed, 
"Erected by the Association of ex-in- 
ternes of the Kings County Hospital 
to the memory of Walter Reed, M.D., 
interne in this hospital 1871 ; Major and 
Surgeon, U. S. A. Yellow Fever Com- 
mission, I9cx>-i90i. Below this is in- 
scribed, "He robbed the pestilence of its 
terrors and caused cities of the South- 
land to sit in peace within their gates." 

One of the most noted speakers of the 
evening was Dr. Howard A. Kelly, of 
the Johns-Hopkins Hospital. There was 
much in Dr. Kelly's speech which applied 
as much to the work of the nurse as to 
the physician. He said in part: "Let 
our enthusiasm not evaporate in words. 
. . . . let us resolve .... to 
profit by the lessons of his life (Dr. 



Reed's). We have the same or greater 
opportunities than he to open up rich 

mines of service His life 

teaches a lesson of humanity, a spirit of 
uniform kindness to the least as well as 
to the highest. . . . You work best 
for yourselves when in utter unselfish- 
ness you completely forget yourself, and 
work because it is right and honorable 
that you should do your best in the sight 
of God and man. 

The Rev. Dr. Lindsay Parker, of St. 
Peter's Church, spoke of Dr. Reed as 
a hero saying, "It has been my privilege 
to glance over Dr. Howard A. Kelly's 
admirable and most suggestive book, 
"Walter Reed and Yellow Fever." At 
the very beginning of this well-told 
story of an exalted and heroic life, we 
have. set before us this lesson: That the 
truest and finest heroism finds its inspira- 
tion in an uplook which sees the face 
of God, the great All-Father, and an 
outlook on humanity one and indivisible 
in the bonds of universal human brother- 
hood. Your true hero needs no stage 
for he never poses. The noblest service 
for God and man finds its suitable and 
sufficient background in the humble, 
loyal, dutiful doing of a man's appointed 
work. . . . Inspiration? What is it? 
An afflatus which fell upon certain elect 
spirits centuries ago, but which is not 
for men of to-day. No, ten thousands 
times no! Your Kings County Hospital 
interne had it as truly as any seer, or 
saint, or hero, whose name is blazoned 
on the pages of Holy Writ itself. The 
divine spirit, the spirit of love and self- 



32 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



sacrifice and service fell upon him as he 
walked your wards, and prepared for his 
army board quizes and went about his 
monotenous and weary work as an un- 
derling of the Brooklyn Board of Health. 

Gentlemen of the great and honorable 
profession of medicine, look up, lift up 
your hearts. Look up, I say, and catch 
the gleam of Walter Reeds' splendid 
ideal. Lift up your hearts to welcome 
the inspiration that came to him, the in- 
spiration of devotion to the God who 
gave you breath and life and humble 
whole-souled concentration to the well- 
being of your brother man." 

The advent of a new year is more or 
less a. season of retrospection and resolu- 
tions. When our retrospection of the 
events of the last year in the nursing 
world is finished, we may well look upon 
the life and ideals of Dr. Reed as a 
standard by which to measure the height, 
and depth, and breadth, of our New 
Year's resolutions, and as a beacon light 
to guide us back to them, if per chance 
we waver or "follow wandering fires." 



American National Red Cross 

The last meeting of the N. Y. State 
Branch of the American National Red 
Cross was a splendid object lesson to 
every member of our nurses' associations 
as to how meetings with important busi- 
ness to consider should be conducted. 

In the first place every member of the 
association received some weeks in ad- 
vance, a notice as to when and where 
the meeting was to be held. This al- 
lowed ample time to interested persons 
to make any inquiries, any investigations, 
and to obtain any information they de- 
sired as to the proceedings of the organ- 
ization, and gave them time to prepare 
any statement they wished to make. 
The week before the meeting a sec- 



ond notice was sent out again calling at- 
tention to the fact that important busi- 
ness would come before the meeting. 

The officers are all prominent and 
representative members of the com- 
munity. Every one of them at- 
tended and made their report in person. 
The president, William Gary Sanger, 
called the meeting to order promptly 
at the appointed hour and in rapid 
succession the reports of the treasurer, 
Jacob H. Schiff; the chairman of the 
executive board, Cleveland H. Dodge; 
the secretary, William Chauncey Lang- 
don ; the chairman of the doctor's com- 
mittee. Dr. Samuel Lambert, and the 
chairman of the nurses' committee. Miss 
L. D. Gill (Dean of Barnard College) 
were read and approved. 

Every question brought before the 
meeting had evidently been thoroughly 
considered before hand. Members 
making a motion thoroughly understood 
what -they were talking about and what 
they expected to accomplish as the re- 
sult of the carrying the motion. Every 
member had the privilege of the floor 
and the opportunity of being heard if 
they had anything to say, and had the 
right to vote on all questions. Not a 
moment's time was wasted in conduct- 
ing the meeting, and a marvelous 
amount of important business was ac- 
complished. 

The account given by Mr. Schiff, 
of the Red Cross in Japan was of special 
interest. "In Japan," he said, "the Red 
Cross is really a national institution with 
a membership of all classes. In the City 
of Tokio it supports a splendid hospital, 
and during the Russian War the Red 
Cross sent 3,500 nurses to the front." 

Dr. Devine gave an account of the re- 
lief work of the Red Cross at San Fran- 
cisco, In referring to the joint civilian 
and Red Cross committee which admin- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



33 



istered the relief funds he stated frankly 
that at the outset there were very pro- 
nounced differences of opinion between 
the members which made up that com- 
mittee, "only to pay a warm tribute to 
the unity and harmony, the spirit of co- 
operation and self-restrain" in which the 
committee worked in spite of all the ob- 
stacles with which it had to contend. 
He asserted that every important act of 
the committees was the result of a unan- 
imous agreement which meant a con- 
centration of effort which was funda- 
mental in attaining the highest efficiency 
and progress of the work, and which 
would make that committee remember 
as long as the remembrance of the earth- 
quake itself endured. 

There are some big words here, unity, 
co-operation, self-restraint, concentra- 
tion of effort, which nurses as individ- 
uals and as representatives of a large 
body of professional women, should take 
hold of, and use them as cornerstones on 
which to build the future of the nursing 
profession. 

+ 

Meeting of the N.Y. State Association 

Why is it that nurses so often fail 
to clearly demonstrate to the public the 
objects for which our Nurses' Societies 
art Organized? Thus we have a State 
Association organized for .... the 
furtherance of the efficient care of the 
sick; the maintenance of the honor and 
character of the nursing profession; but 
what seemed to impress the representa-" 
tives of the leading newspapers was that 
these nurses who came from all parts 
of New York State met to discuss such 
trivialities as, "The Remuneration of 
Nurses on Special Hospital Duty," 
"Should a Nurse Take a Case From 
Which Another Nurse Has Been Dis- 
missed Without Just Cause," and, 



"Should Graduate Nurses Wear Their 
School Uniforms." 

It is unfortunate that this last year 
we should have so widely advertised the 
paramount influence of the almighty 
dollar as a factor in determining which 
cases are or are not desirable from the 
nurse's point of view. Every nurse is 
human and naturally she will take all 
she can get, but do we have to organize 
a State Association to determine whetlier 
we will accept twenty-one dollars a week 
or insist on having twenty-five when on 
special hospital duty? When we feel it 
necessary to discuss the subject must it 
be done at a time when it is sure of 
being heralded far and near, and do 
such instances as these increase the 
honor and character of the nursing pro- 
fession in the estimation of the general 
public ? 

What possible opportunity can a nurse 
have, called, as she almost invariably is, 
to a case without a minute's previous 
notice, of deciding whether the previous 
nurse has been dismissed without just 
cause f The ethics of nursing should 
put the care and well-being of the patient 
first and above all other considerations. 
If this is so, such a question as the above 
should never arise. 

When the graduates have a school 
uniform which is exclusively their own. 
and which can only be worn by the 
graduates of that particular school, it 
will be time enough for a State Associa- 
tion to devote its time to such discus- 
sions as "Should the Graduate Wear 
Her School Uniform." 

Other most vital questions in the 
nursing world were on the program for 
consideration, but the irrepressible news- 
paper reporter heads his account of the 
meeting thus: "Prettiest Nurses Get 
Best Places. Beauty as an Asset of the 



34 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Profession Discussed at a Meeting of 
the State Association," and vouchsafes 
no information on such problems as the 
desirabiHty of a two or three years 
course of training. 

Why is it that questions which we 
bring forward and discuss with all 
seriousness at our representative profes- 
sional meetings should either fail to im- 
press the public at all or else strike them 
as reported by the public press, as a mat- 
ter for levity amounting to ridicule? 
+ 

A New Field for Nurses 

Every nurse who. has graduated from 
a training school attached to a large gen- 
eral hospital must have observed the 
necessity of helping in some way the 
convalescents who oftentimes are dis- 
charged from the hospital to make way 
for more critical cases, while they them- 
selves are far from able to resume their 
daily work and yet cannot afford to re- 
main idle. 

Dr. Samuel T. Armstrong, general 
medical superintendent of Bellevue hos- 
pital, made a most interesting address 
at the annual meeting of the New York 
City Visiting Committee of the State 
Charities Aid Association. After stat- 
ing that they had installed a visiting 
nurse in July to take charge of the work 
of aiding the outgoing patients (and 
not infrequently the families of those 
patients), and that since then the work 
had grown so enormously that they had 
had to employ an assistant visiting nurse. 
Dr. Armstrong said: "This work is 
still in its infancy, but it is quite as es- 
sential to the welfare of the patient as 
pulling him through a severe illness or 
an operation in the hospital. It is only 
logical that if we undertake to treat a 



patient we should as nearly as possible, 
cure the patient." 

If the funds to carry on this work ef- 
fectually are forthcoming, other hos- 
pitals will probably take it up, and it 
is likely to open up a new field of most 
interesting work for nurses. 
+ 

Two Sides of the Question 

Now and again comes up the criticism 
that in the hospital the comfort of a pa- 
tient is sacrificed to the appearance of 
the ward. In individual instances this 
may be true, but too much stress is apt 
to be laid on this point, and, from a mis- 
understanding of the reasons for the in- 
dividual's discomfiture, the ward system 
receives unmerited blame. On the uni- 
formity and regularity of the ward 
routine depends the welfare of the 
whole body of patients. Beds straight, 
tables and chairs in line, shades at the 
same height, and the thousand and one 
minor details of uniformity, are not for 
mere appearance, but for the mainte- 
nance of the atmosphere of systematic 
quiet, and avoidance of confusion, ac- 
knowledgedly requisite to the sick-room 
or ward. All this is for the greatest 
good of the greatest number, and to this 
individual preference in the detail of ar- 
rangement must take second plac6. 
(i) The welfare of the ivhole body of 
patients, (2) the zvelfare of the indi- 
vidual patient, (3) the comfort of the 
ivhole body of patients, (4) the comfort 
of the individual patient should be the 
sequence of our consideration. 

The individuality of each patient- 
should be recognized just as far as pos- 
sible without infringing on the equal 
individual rights of another who may 
be less assertive and more adaptable. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



35 



More News 

We receive a great many testimonials 
from subscribers praising The Trained 
Nurse and praising it very highly, and 
for these we are always most grateful. 

As we have said repeatedly, we are 
also most willing to receive criticisms 
and truly believe that if our subscribers 
would criticise the magazine a little more 
it would help us to make it better; be- 
cause frequently all that is needed to 
correct a fault is to have it pointed out. 
Once in a while, however, we receive 
criticisms on some point which we can- 
not correct alone. For instance, about 
once or twice a month we receive a let- 
ter stating that while she receives great 
benefit from The Trained Nurse, etc., 
etc., this particular subscriber would like 
to see more news from her city, from 
her school, from her alumnos, as the case 
may be. 

That is the point. So would we. 

But are you doing your share to ac- 
complish this ? For instance : Your so- 



ciety or alumnae association has a meet- 
ing; probably nine-tenths of your mem- 
bers would be pleased to see an account 
of the meeting in The Trained Nurse, 
but every one has her individual life to 
lead, her individual trials and duty, and 
the result is that everybody waits for 
somebody else to send in the news item 
to The Trained Nurse; and, as a re- 
sult, nobody sends it, and that particular 
meeting is not reported. 

There is a simple way out of this diffi- 
culty, and that is to pass a motion at 
the next business meeting of your associ- 
ation that a report of all meetings is to 
be sent by the corresponding secretary 
to The Trained Nurse. In regard to 
personal mention and other items not 
connected with meetings of a society, see 
to it yourself that each coming under 
your notice is sent to us. We believe 
that every nurse knows that we publish 
all news items free of charge, and that 
we want news from every State and 
city. 



New York City Training School for Nurses. 



The reg^ular monthly meeting of the 
Alumnae Association of the New York City 
Training School for Nurses, was held on 
Tuesday, December 11th, at the Academy 
of Medicine, 17 West Forty-third Street, New 
York. 

Only the most important business was 
transacted, as we had several good things in . 
store. First, Dr. Theodore G. Janeway g^ve 
us a very interesting lecture on the observa- 
tion of pulse and circulation. 



We then adjourned to the banquet hall, 
where refreshments were served, and many 
were the good wishes exchanged over the 
punch bowL The holly decorations were very 
attractive, and the holiday spirit prevailed 
among all. 

We were all very glad to meet so many 
old friends, among them Mrs. Rose, Dr. Peck, 
Mr. Weld, and others. 

Mabtha E. Bollermann, R. N., 

Corresponding Secretary. 



In tI)E pursing Woxln 



Spanish-American War Nurses 

We are in receipt of the following an- 
nouncement: 

Captain James S. Parker, Quartermaster, 
U. S. Army, on duty in the War Depart- 
ment in charge of Arlington, has written 
me as follows, in response to my inquiry: 

"I am directed by the Quartermaster- 
General to inform you that in the event of 
the death of an Army nurse whose remains 
it is desired to have interred in the Arling- 
ton National Cemetery, the remains, prop- 
erly prepared for burial, should be con- 
signed to the Superintedent of the Arling- 
ton National Cemetery, Fort Meyer, Va., 
and the ofificer in charge of Quartermaster's 
Depot, 17th and F Streets, this city, who 
has immediate charge of the cemetery ad- 
vised, at least twenty-four hours in advance, 
of the date and train upon which the re- 
mains are shipped, in order that a grave 
may be prepared. 

"There is no government appropriation 
from which the expenj^e of shipment of the 
remains to the cemetery could be paid. 
However, arrangements will be made to 
have the Department hearse meet the re- 
mains at the railroad station in this city and 
convey them to the cemetery free of charge, 
if so desired, in which event application 
therefor should be made to the above named 
officer. 

"In case military honors and the reading 
of services at the grave by an Army chap- 
lain are desired, separate request therefor 
in each case should be made of the Military 
Secretary of the Army." 

If notice is sent to Miss Elizabeth Stack, 
317 C Street, Washington, a delegation of 
S. A. W. N. will escort the remains and 
attend the funeral. 

Anita Newcomb McGee. 



Miss Minnie F. Cooke's marriage at Pan- 
ama to Dr. Chas. G. Andrews, resident phy- 
sician at Pedro Miguel, Canal Zone, Panama. 

They were married at the residence of 
Mr, and Mrs. Mason E. Mitchell, of the 
City of Panama, and by the Rev. Brittain 
King. Miss Cooke was attended by Misses 
Hibbard, Lyons, King and Mackenth. Dr. 
Andrews by Hon. Arnold Shanklin and Mr. 
Mason E. Mitchell. 

The bride was given away by Col. W. E. 
Gorgas. They will reside at Pedro Miguel. 

After animated discussion. Camp Liberty % 
Bell appointed our Vice-Chairman, Miss 
Adele Nerb, to convey our warmest con- 
gratulations to Mrs. Andrews, and the re- 
maining members present adjourned in a 
body to Caldwell & Co.'s to purchase a 
remembrance for the bride. As we found a 
large cut glass bowl could hardly be trusted 
to the mails, we decided on a very attractive 
salad fork and spoon, which was mailed at 
once to Mrs. Andrews with our best wishes. 

Rebecca Jackson, 
Chairman of Camp. 



Camp Liberty Bell, Philadelphia, Pa., held its 
regular monthly meeting on Thursday, Novem- 
ber 22. The event of the meeting was the an- 
nouncement by Miss Adams of our member, 



The December meeting of Camp Roosevelt, 
New York City, was held, by invitation, at the 
home of Miss Bierman, 1107 Lexington 
Avenue, on Monday, December 3d. A most 
enjoyable afternoon was spent and many 
thanks are due Miss Bierman for the very 
hospital manner in which she entertained her 
guests. 

Two new members were proposed and ac- 
cepted, namely, Miss Jean Macheil, of Brook- 
lyn, and Mrs. Paul S. Carter, nee Macdonald, 
of New York City. The next meeting of the 
Camp will be held at headquarters, 245 West 
Fourteenth Street, on Monday, January 7, 
1907, 3.30 to 6 P. M. Camp Roosevelt extends 
to all S. A. W. nurses best wishes for a happy 
and prosperous New Year. 

Florence M. Kelly, R. N., 
Sec'y of Camp. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



32 



New York State Association 

The first informal meeting of the New 
York State Nurses' Association was held at 
the Kings County Medical Society Library, 
Borough of Brooklyn, November 20, 1906. 
The presrdent,. Miss Davids, was in the 
chair. -^' ' 



Nurse Take a Case from which Another 
Nurse has been Dismissed without Just 
Cause?" Dr. G. Morgan Muren read .a 
paper on "Sanitary and Moral Prophylaxis." 
The officers and speakers were enter- 
tained at luncheon by the Graduate Nurses' 
Association of the County of Kings. 




WATCHING FOR SANT.\ CLAUS. HOSPITAL FOR SICK CHILDREN, TORONTO, ONT., CANADA. 



The morning session was given to discus- 
sion of the following subjects: "Remunera- 
tion of Graduate Nurses on Special Hos- 
pital Duty," "Should Graduate Nurses 
Wear their School Uniform?" "Should a 



At the afternoon session. Dr. William 
Francis Campbell, President of the Kings 
County Medical Association, welcomed the 
nurses, after which Dr. A. T, Bristow pre- 
sented his paper, "Is the Present System of. 



38 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Training Fair to the Pupil Nurse?" The 
subject was then presented from the point 
of view of the Training School Board of 
Managers, by Mrs. William Church Os- 
borne and Mrs. H. C. Riggs. "The Patient," 
Mrs. Tunis Bergen; "Superintendents of 
Training Schools," Miss N. Cadmus; "State 
Board of Examiners," Miss S. F. Palmer 
(read by Miss Darner); "Ideas of a Grad- 
uate Nurse," Miss L. L. Dock. 

In the evening the Executive Committee 
held a meeting in Manhattan to discuss the 
advisability of establishing a central school 
for nurse probationers. The Misses Davids, 
Damer, Goodrich, Cadmus and Sanborne 
were appointed a committee to look into the 
matter more closely and report to the Asso- 
ciation. 

+ 

New Jersey State Nurses Association 

The annual meeting of the New Jersey 
State Nurses' Association was held the after- 
noon of Tuesday, December 4, 1906, at Eliza- 
beth, N. J., in the lecture room of the Cen- 
tral Baptist Church. 

The meeting opened with the president hi 
the chair. The address of welcome was re- 
sponded to by the president in a few well 
chosen sentences. 

Dr. Norton L. Wilson was next introduced. 
In the opening portion of his address Dr. 
Wilson furnished matrimonial statistics con- 
cerning all the graduating classes of the 
Elizabeth General Hospital from the first 
class to that of the present day. 

Dr. Wilson expressed himself of the opin- 
ion that nurses had been over-trained and 
stated that whereas formerly he lectured 
several times to a class on anatomy his lec- 
tures now were much fewer. 

Following Dr. Wilson's address Ex-Gover- 
nor Foster M. Voorhees was scheduled to 
speak on "Legislation for Nurses from a 
Legal Standpoint." It was a source of dis- 
appointment to those present that Mr. Voor- 
hees was detained on a legal case and hence 
not present. 

Two piano duets were then charmingly 
rendered. 

The reading of the minutes of the last 
annual meeting were next in order, followed 
by board and committee reports. 

Miss Irene Fallon, who has had the re- 
construction of the State bill in hand, gave a 



lengthy report showing much thought and 
time expended. 

The nominating committee presented their 
ticket and the following officers were elected : 

President, Mrs. d'Arcy Stephen, Orange, 
N. J. ; 1st vice-president, Mrs. Ellen F. Con- 
nington, Elizabeth, N. J. ; 2d vice-president. 
Miss Charlotte Evans, Camden, N. J.; sec- 
retary, Miss Emma Young, Newark, N. J. ; 
treasurer. Miss M. C. Squire, Orange, N. J. 

At the close of the meeting a social hour 
with refreshments followed. 
+ 
Illinois State Association 

At the annual meeting of the Illinois State 
Association, the following officers were elected 
for the year: President, M. Helena McMil- 
lan; 1st vice-president, Mary Forbes; 2d vice- 
president, Katherine Bowlin; secretary, Bena 
Henderson ; treasurer, Jessie P. Scott. 
+ 
Qraduate Nurses of New Hampshire 

The regular quarterly meeting of the 
Graduate Nurses' Association of New Hamp- 
shire, was held December 10, 1906, at the City 
Hall, Manchester. 

It was voted to bring the Registration Bill 
for Nurses before the legislature of 1907. 
B. M. Truesdell, 
Recording Secretary. 
+ 
Residence for Nurses 

The following description of the new 
Residence for Nurses for the Hospital for 
Sick Children appears in the Toronto News: 
One's eyes open at the thought of accom- 
modating eighty-five nurses in a Toronto 
Nurses' Residence. It sounds like some 
fable from across the border, where palaces 
and merchant princes are every-day occur- 
rences. The Nurses' Residence, however, is 
no wild dream of the future, but is Mr. John 
Ross Robertson's latest gift to the city, and 
from basement to roof garden every device 
has been used to insure comfort and con- 
venience. Some of the rugs for the floors 
come from the Toronto Rug Company, while 
others were made to order in Smyrna, and 
the mission furniture which is used through- 
out comes from Syracuse. The mention of 
these various points of the compass gives 
but a slight suggestion of the way in which 
Mr. Robertson and his assistants have ran- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



39 



sacked the civilized world in quest of ma- 
terial, workmanship and ideas. The floors 
are of Georgia pine. The building on Eliza- 
beth Street, to the rear of the Sick Chil- 
dren's Hospital, is now nearing completion; 
in fact, the decorators are the only people 



beauty of the reception rooms, etc., but even 
at this stage in the proceedings one cannot 
help waxing enthusiastic over the absolute 
perfection of detail in all the appointments 
and arrangements. 

Various items appeal to varying temper- 




THE CHRISTMAS STORY. HOSPIT.\L FOR SICK CHILDREN, TORONTO, ONT., C.\NADA. 



still at work and the Residence will be for- 
mally opened about the beginning of the 
year. Meanwhile the nurses are in posses- 
sion. Until Mr. Robertson's ideas concerning 
the decorations have been carried out, it 
will be very difficult to form an idea of the 



aments; the heart of the salt water maiden 
thrills when she sees the swimming tank, 
thirty-five feet by fourteen feet, the water 
being so pure that one could read type 
through it, and heated to at least sixty-five 
degrees. The sophisticated person, on the 



40 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



other hand, sees with an approving glance 
of her eagle eye that the elevator is run on 
a new and absolutely secure plan, whereby 
the door has to be locked from the inside 
before the elevator can start, and cannot be 
opened unless the elevator is at a standstill. 
The same attention to microscopic detail is 
evident in the trunk room, where each trunk 
is in a little compartment of the shelf, and 
can be reached at a moment's notice from 
the little runabout step-ladder. 

One department worthy of remark is the 
library. There are a thousand volumes of 
general literature, but in addition to that 
Mr. Robertson has furnished a nurse's li- 
brary of four hundred books. Very special 
care has been exercised in the selection of 
these, advice was sought and catalogues 
were studied from all the leading hospitals 
both on this continent and in Europe, with 
the result that the medical library at the 
Residence is absolutely unequalled. 

But there are many things in the Resi- 
dence that are unequalled, chief amongst 
them being the Demonstration Class Room, 
and the "Diet Kitchen." In the Demonstra- 
tion Class there are all the appliances of a 
sick room, so that those in training may 
have every facility for learning those simple 
and necessary arts, such as bed-making, 
which the ordinary undergraduate has to 
practice o'lit long-suffering patients. 

Most wonderful, however, of all, is the 
Diet Kitchen, fitted up for ten nurses, where 
each nurse, has her own table, her own 
utensils, and actually her own little gas 
stove. Every nurse learns how to cook and 
serve, first a simple breakfast, then a more 
elaborate [ meal, and lastly, a full course 
dinner. Moreover, though no expense is 
spared to insure perfection, the nurses arc 
taught to .make use of the most ordinary 
appliances, so that they may never come to 
grief in an emergency. For example, they 
make ice cream in a baking powder tin, set 
inside an ordinary quart measure. On the 
other hand those nurses do not, as in some 
graining schools, perform all the labor of 
the institution. There is an efficient staff 
of maids, and the arrangements of kitchens, 
sculleries, refrigerators, etc., are as ideal as 
all the rest. 

One of the most charming places in the 
building is the gymnasium, on the fourth 
floor. It has been suggested that nurses in 



training must be too tired to take advantage 
of a gymnasium, but such has not proved to 
be thd case. Every day they flock joyously 
to the scene of action, and they say the phy- 
sical culture exercises rest them more than 
anything else. 

These are but the items which remain in 
the mind of the casual visitor. Others there 
are, worthy of mention, too numerus to re- 
count. A suggestive feature is the clock in 
the dining room, the "master clock," by 
which all the timepieces in the Jauilding are 
regulated. One instinctively draws an alle- 
gory in one's Own mind, and thinks of the 
master hand of benevolence and genius 
which has created the Residence, and whose 
carefulness and forethought are evident 
throughout. 

The Residence will be formally opened in 
the beginning of January, 1907. , 

+ 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Miss Mary Jajne Cole presided at the De- 
cember meeting of The Buffalo Nurses' Asso- 
ciation, which was devoted to hearing the re- 
ports of the delegates to the recent conven- 
tion of the New State Federation of Women's 
Clubs. 

Mrs. Florence Mann Brodie, Mrs. Harriet 
Dorr Storck and Miss Margaret Lee, officers 
of other women's glub were guestsiof the asso- 
ciation. 

Mrs. Brodie gave a brief resume of the pro- 
ceedings of the convention, of the papers 
read, dwelling especially upon the subject of 
Child Labor, Pure Food and Industrial Con- 
ditions Affecting Women and Children. 

Mrs. Storck reported the .social features, 
the concert which was given by Madam Von 
Klenner at which appeared the Hungarian 
pianist, Mr. Z.'De T. Gyongycishalaszy. She 
also gave a description of the reception which 
was given at the S^iratoga Club, of which Sen- 
ator Brackett is president, the reception at 
"The Worden," given for Mrs. William Arm- 
strong, wife of Senator Armstrong, and the 
dinner to the executive board at the Moriarta, 
of the tea given to the delegates by Mrs. 
Charlotte Wilbor, president of Sorosis, and of 
the talk on "Our Friends, the Trees," by Mr. 
Enos Mills. 

Mrs. Storck also reported the papers and 
discussion on Illiteracy in the State of New 
York. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



41 



■ Miss Lee described the drive that was 
given to the delegates, the visit to The Tadd, 
the home of Spencer Trask, to the home of 
Chauncey Olcott, and to Loughberry Lake. 

Miss Sylveen Nye, who attended the con- 
vention, gave a descriptioji ef-the visit to the 



executive board by the Saratoga ladies, and 
was also one of the receiving line at the re- 
ception. 

Mr. Meakin, of Salt Lake City, added to 
the afternoon's enjoyment by recitations from 
James Whitcomb Riley and Eugene Field. 




CHRISTMAS MORNING.- HOSPITAL FOR SICK CHILDREN, TORONTO, ONT., CANADA. 



Pompeiian House, the House of Pansa, and 
some lessons to be learned therefrom. She 
spoke of the victory that comes from defeat. 

Miss Nye being an officer in the State Fed- 
eration, was a guest at the dinner given to the 



After the business meeting refreshments 
were served by Miss Mary Swartz and Miss 
Margaret Maess. Mrs. Jennie T. Anderson 
will have charge of the banquet which, will 
be held in January. 



42 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Miss Laura E. Flavin, a graduate of Mercy 
Hospital, of Buffalo, has joined the Buffalo 
association. 

Miss Florence Hamilton has returned to 
Buffalo after a protracted vacation spent at 
her home in Toronto. 

Miss Adella Walters has furnished hand- 
some new curtains for the clubroom, and 
through the efforts of Miss Cole a new rug 
adorns the floor. 

Miss Genevieve Weeks has returned fto 
Buffalo from Canandiagua. 



Miss Blanch Anderson has returned to 
Buffalo after a prolonged visit in California. 



The name of The Niagara Hospital has 
been changed to The Lincoln Hospital. Mrs. 
Jackson, formerly superintendent of The 
Brooks Hospital, of Dunkirk, is in charge. 



Miss Rachel Ten Eyck, President of the 
Alumnae Association of the Buffalo Hos- 
pital of the Sisters of Charity, entertained 
for the Association on the afternoon of the 
loth of December. Miss Helen Alt acted as 
Secretary, and in the absence of the Treas- 
urer gave her report, which showed a bal- 
ance of over $100.00 in the bank. 

An interesting discussion was held as to 
how the Alumnae can be of most assistance 
to each other, to their Alma Mater and to 
the nurses now in training. Taking an active 
part in this discussion were Miss Margaret 
and Miss Katherine Fitzpatrick, Miss Anna 
Ryan, Miss Helen Alt and Miss Nellie Ryan. 

The President, Miss Ten Eyck, asked that 
the Association send to the Training School 
a year's subscription to The Trained Nurse 
and Hospital Review. This request met 
with a cordial approval. 

Miss Margaret Lee, who represented the 
Buffalo Nurses Association at the Saratoga 
Convention of Women's Clubs, was present. 

Miss Sylveen Nye was an honored guest, 
and at the request of the members gave a 
short talk on "Victory and Defeat." 

After the business meeting the members 
were entertained by Miss Ten Eyck's 
mother, Mrs. Johnson. 

The house was beautifully decorated in 
holly. The dining room was effective in the 
Christmas colors, red and green. Miss Ruth 
Johnson rendered some fine piano selections 
that added to the afternoon's enjoyment. 

All left with renewed courage to work for 
their school, their hospital and for each other. 



The Buffalo Nurses' Association was rep- 
resented at the Convention of New York 
State Federation of Women's Clubs, which 
was held at Saratoga, by Mrs. Florence 
Mann-Brodie, Mrs. Harriet Dorr Storch, 
and Miss Margaret Lee. 

Miss Sylveen Nye was also in attend- 
ance, she being a Director of the State Fed- 
eration. 

They report a most instructive and pleas- 
ant trip. 

Miss Ida Gardner is in California for the 
winter. 



Miss Olivia Moore is doing settlement 
work at Westminster House. 



Miss Anna Ballantync is engaged in set- 
tlement work at Welcome Hall. 



Miss Jean Edmunds, of Rochester, was a 
recent visitor in Buffalo and was a guest at 
the City Federation meeting at the Hotel 
Iroquois. Miss Edmunds is well known to 
the profession and her book will be read 
with interest. 

+ 
Albany, N. Y. 

Announcement has been made in Albany 
of the marriage of Mrs. Helene Cassidy 
and Dr. Fitzgerald, which took place in the 
early autumn. 

Dr. and Mrs. Fitzgerald are living in 
Cortland, N. Y. Mrs. Fitzgerald was well 
known in Albany, being formerly the wife 
of Mr. Edward Cassidy. She was formerly 
Comtesse Helen Donhayde Casteau, a 
native of Brussells and was married to Mr. 
Cassidy in the 8o's. For some years Mrs. 
Fitzgerald devoted her life to nursing in 
Albany, being associated with the late Mrs. 
Spensley in the work at the Home for In- 
curables. She spent a goodly portion of 
her fortune in alleviating the sufferings of 
those who were unable to help themselves. 

Mrs. Jessie G. Cuyler has returned from 
a three months' visit to the British Islands 
and France. Mrs. Cuyler spent the most of 
her time in London visiting her sister. Miss 
E. M. Crawford, who is matron of the 
Westminster Hospital, which was the sub- 
ject of an interesting article printed in The 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



43 



Nursing Times, of London, some time ago. 

Miss Crawford is a Bellevue Hospital 
(New York) graduate and is an "old West- 
minster probationer who was invited to the 
post in 1905." Miss Crawford spent her 
early life in America, and was for five years 
matron of the hospital in Bermuda. 

The marriage of Miss Jane Dowse, daugh- 
ter of Mr. and Mrs. John B. Dowse to Dr 
William George Keens was solemnized on 
Monday evening, November 19, at 8 o'clock, 
at the First Presbyterian Church, Rev. Wil- 
liam Force Whitaker officiating. 

The pulpit was banked with pink and 
white chrysanthemums, the colors of the 
Nurses' Training School of the Albany 
Hospital, 1906, of which the bride was a 
member. 

Preceding the ceremony Prof. George E. 
Oliver rendered a delightful program and 
during the ceremony Mr. Leroy Pickett 
sang a bass solo. 

The bride was attended by Miss Anne 
Edgerton Cady, also a graduate of the 
Albany Hospital Training School, 1906, 
as maid of honor, and Miss Ella Dowse, a 
sister, and Miss Eona Wolfgang, a cousin, 
were bridesmaids. 

Mr. Howard Johnson was best man and 
the ushers were Mr. Frank R. Keeshan, Dr. 
J. H. Reed, Troy; Dr. Joseph N. B. Gar- 
lick and Dr. Malcolm Douglas. 

The bride's gown was of white crepe de 
chine over white silk, trimmed with baby 
Irish lace. Her tulle veil was fastened with 
lillies-of-the-valley. 

The attendants wore white batiste gowns 
trimmed with Valenciennes lace and carried 
pink chrysanthemums. 

A wedding supper was served at the 
Hampton, the guests numbering eleven, 
being the bridal party. 

Dr. and Mrs. Keens spent their honey- 
moon in New York. 

The bride's going-away gown was of 
dark blue broadcloth with plume-trimmed 
hat. 

Dr. and Mrs. Keens were "at home" De- 
cember I at 85 West Street. 

The Alumnae of the Albany Hospital 
Training School gave a dance in November 
at their clubhouse on Hudson Avenue. 

All present are reported as having had a 
very enjoyable time. 



Philadelphia, Pa. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Med- 
ico-Chirurgical Nurses' Alumnae Associa- 
tion was held at the Hospital, December 5, 
1906, at 3 P. M. Mrs. J. L. Moyer presided. 

After roll-call the minutes were read and 
approved. 

The various committees made their annual 
reports to the Association. 

The Euchre Committee gave a very favor- 
able report, having cleared over $180 thus 
far at the dance given recently. More re- 
turns are looked for. 

All old business was gone over and sev- 
eral little matters discussed and dispensed 
with, leaving a clean table for the new 
officers. 

Election was next in order and resulted as 
follows: 

President, Mrs. J. L. Moyer (re-elected); 
First Vice-President, Miss H. Parker; Sec- 
ond Vice-President, Miss A. Lehman; Re- 
cording Secretary, Mrs. B. F. Schloss (re- 
elected); Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. C. 
G. Rex, and Treasurer, Miss M. Ayres (re- 
elected). 

Committees were appointed by the Presi- 
dent as follows: Auditing Committee, Miss 
L. Klink and Mrs. I. R. Strawbridge. Bul- 
letin Board, Miss L. Peanne. Other com- 
mittees to be appointed from time to time. 

E. M. RiTTER, 

Corresponding Secretary. 



Mrs. C. E. Erisman, formerly Miss Dailey, 
late chief nurse at the Medico-Chirurgical 
Hospital Training School, spent a week in 
Philadelphia visiting some of her old nurses. 

Miss Laura Peanne has returned from a 
long trip to Europe. We were delighted to 
have her with us at the alumnae meeting. 

Miss Margaret Byrne is convalescing 
after a very serious illness. 

We learn that another nurse has sailed 
•forth on the sea of matrimony. Miss Mar- 
garet Godfrey, of Ambler, Pa., is the latest 
one to take the voyage. 
+ 

The regular meeting of the Alumnae Asso- 
ciation of St. Luke's Homeopathic Hospital, 
of Philadelphia, was held at the hospital on 
November 28th, the meeting was fairly well 
attended. 

L. Edgak, 

Secretary. 



44 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Norristown, Pa. 

The Thirteenth Annual Commencement 
of the Training School for Nurses of Charity 
Hospital was held on December 3, 1906, in 
the Norristown High School auditorium. 
The exercises started at 8 P. M. when the 
Board of Directors, the Training School 
Committee, the Superintendent and the 
graduating class marched in, in a body. 

Rev. Beeber offered the opening prayer, 
which was followed by addresses from Rev. 
Hainer and Dr. James Robert, of Philadel- 
phia, both commending the good work of 
the institution. 

Mr. Walter Cooke presented the diplomas 
to the following graduates: Rosetta Stein- 
• helper, Elizabeth Shainlein, Ella M. Bell, 
Sue Conley, Mary Litenberger. 

Dr. J. K. Weaver made a few very appro- 
priate remarks to the class and presented 
them with the class pin, as a token of esteem 
for their faithful work while in the hospital. 
Rev. Pfatteicher pronounced the benedic- 
tion. 

After the exercises the graduating class 
and their friends proceeded to the Hospital 
where refreshments were served. 

The music for the occasion was furnished 
by the orchestra from Norristown. 

The stage was beautifully decorated with 
plants and chrysanthemums. 

The Alumnae Association of Charity Hos- 
pital held their annual banquet at Mr. Stiles' 
parlor, in honor of the graduating class. 
After the banquet all participated in dancing 
and progressive euchre. First prize was 
awarded to one of the members of the class 
of 1896. Second prize to one of the mem- 
bers of the class of 1903. Third prize to the 
class of 1901. 

Everybody appeared to have a very pleas- 
ant time and all the members of the 
Alumnae extended their heartiest congrat- 
ulations to the class of 1906, wishing them 
success and happiness. 

K^ W. Appel, 
Secretary. 
+ 

Jersey City, N. J. 

At a recent meeting of the Christ Hospital 
Nurses' Alumnae Association, the annual 
election of officers was held. An unusually 
large number of members were present, 
when the following officers were elected: 



Miss Harriet H. Jordan, president; Miss 

Mary L. Scott, vice-presid-ent; Miss Lillian 

G. Sullivan, secretary; Mf^s Jessie S. Mitr 

chell, treasurer. These officers will serve 

two years. Several new members expect to 

join the Association at its next meeting irt 

January. 

+ 

Providence, R. 1. 

The November meeting of the Rhode 
Island Hospital Nurses' Alumnae Associa- 
tion was held at the residence of Mrs. H. P. 
Churchill. The president. Miss MacPherson, 
in the Chair. Twenty members Were pres- 
ent. The usual business was transacted, and 
after the meeting adjourned a light repast 
was served by Mrs. Churchill, assisted by 
Miss Peny and Miss Fitzpatrick. 

+ 

Newarlc. N. J. 

The Nurses' Alumnae Association of the 
Newark City Hospital gave an informal tea 
at the Nurses' Club, 295 High Street^ on the 
afternun of November 27. 

+ 

Scranton, Pa. 

Tlie Alumtjae Association of the Scranton 
Training School for Nurses held its regular 
molithly meeting at the State Hospital on 
Thursday, November 15, at 3 P. M. Nine 
nurses were present. An interesting talk on 
the Metric System was given by Miss 
Emma Davis, pharmacist of the State Hos- 
pital, after which the regular business was 
taken up, the president, Mrs. Cbppinger, in 
the chair. The minutes of the last meeting 
were read and approved. Miss M. Ganiton 
was received into the Association. After 
the business session the meeting adjourned 
to meet at the State Hospital in December. 
H. B, Gibson, 
Secretary. 

+ 

Northampton, Mass. 

The commencement exercises of the State 
Hospital, Northampton, Mass., were held in 
their Chapel on Thursday evening; October 
4, 1906. The Chapel was very beautifully 
decorated with large potted ferns, palms and 
autumn leaves, and the class colors, blue and 
white, were in profusion. Each nurse carried 
a large boiiquet of roses tied with blue and 
white ribbon. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



45 



The young women who received their di- 
plomas are : 

Madeline Rice, Connecticut ; Clara La Duo, 
Vermont; Effie Mahy, England; Helena 
Donohue, Massachusetts. 

The Northampton Hospital Training School 
for Nurses is about (7) seven years old and 
is growing larger each year. 

Dr. Houston, the superintendent, has been 
connected with the hospital about twelve 
years and is considered one of the best 
specialists in nervous and mental diseases in 
the State. Most of the other instructors have 
been connected with the hospital since train- 
ing school days. The course of training is 
two (2) years, but is soon to be extended to 
(3) three years. The school offers to young 
women a course of training in general nur- 
ing with special instruction in dietetics. 



was held December 12, in the parlor of the 
Graduate * Nurses' new clubhouse. The 
meeting was presided over by the president. 
Miss Annie' Taylor. 

After the routine business a half hour 
talk was given by Miss M. M. Taylor, a 
sister of the president, on nursing in Mexico 
and Mexican Hospitals. Miss Taylor has re- 
cently been in Mexico and her talk was both 
interesting and instructive. 

The names of Mrs. Wason and Miss 
Worthington were proposed for membership. 

Following the adjournment of the meet- 
ing refreshments were served and a social 
time enjoyed by all. 

+ 
Cleveland, Ohio 

On Thursday evening, November 22, 1906, 
the annual dinner was given to the Alumnae 







^ I A 




m 


i*\Jn 



GROUP OF NURSES. CAI.IFORNI.V HGSPIT.AL, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



Meeting of emergencies, observation and re- 
cording of symptoms, urinalysis, etc., etc. The 
school year begins the first Monday in Oc- 
tober and at the end of (2) two years di- 
plomas are given to those whose work has 
been satisfactory, certifying to their period 
of training and to their proficiency. Appli- 
cants must be between the ages of twenty and 
•thirty-five, of good character, and of sound 
health. They must at all times be temperate, 
orderly, cleanly, quiet, tnistworthy, patient, 
kind and cheerful. 

+ 

Somerville, Mass. 

The regular meeting of the Alumnae Asso- 
ciation of the Somerville Training School 



Association of Charity Hospital Training 
School for Nurses by the Sisters in charge. 

The room was well decorated, an excellent 
dinner was served, and a very enjoyable even- 
ing spent. Afterward a business meeting was 
held and officers elected for the coming year. 

C. G. Hill, 
Secretary. 

Personal 

Miss Grace Seville, graduate of the Chris- 
tian Hospital at Valparaiso, Indiana, has ac- 
cepted a position in the hospital at Canyon 
City, Col. . 



Miss Orpha M. Drew, a graduate nurse of 



46 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Lima, Ohio, is taking a post-graduate course 
in the California Hospital of Los Angeles, 
Cal. 



The Cooper Hospital, of Camden, N. J., 
will include this year again a practical and 
theoretical course in the Swedish system of 
massage in the courses of instruction for 
the nurses. The practical lessons will be 
given by Miss Mary E. Rockhill, a graduate 
and former head nurse of the Cooper Hos- 
pital and also a graduate of the Pennsyl- 
vania Orthopedic Institute and School of 
Mechano-Therapy, Philadelphia. Pa. The 
theoretical instruction will be in the hands 
of Max J. Walter, superintendent of the 
Pennsylvania Orthopedic Institute and 
School of Mechano-Therapy, Philadelphia. 



Dr. Heinrich Wolf, of the Int|)erial Uni- 
versities of Vienna and Prague, Austria, and 
for a number of years assistant at the Hy- 
driatic Clinics of Professor Winternitz, 
Vienna, and the clinics of internal medicine 
of Professor Nothnagel, Vienna, has become 
a member of the staff of instructors at the 
Pennsylvania Orthopedic Institute and 
School of Mechano-Therapy, Philadelphia. 
Dr. Wolf will lecture and demonstrate on the 
subject of hydro-therapy. 



Miss Rebecca Wright, graduate nurse, 
Jersey City, has recently returned home 
from a visit to her parents in Centreville, 
Va., where she spent three months. 



Miss Anna U. Pratt, of Miss Foote's 
Nurses' Home, on Twenty-first Street, and 
graduate of the Kingston General Hospital, 
class of '96, has been spending several 
months with her patient in England, France 
and Germany, including five weeks at Weis- 
baden, the famous German watering place. 
Miss Pratt reports a most interesting and 
delightful trip. 



The Texas Sanitarium for Tuberculosis, 
located at Llano, Texas, has succeeded in 
obtaining the services of Mrs. M. H, Pennell, 
of Albuquerque, N. M., as its matron and 
superintedent of nurses. Mrs. Pennell is a 
graduate of the Minneapolis Training 
School, and has had large experience in 
superintending and managing institutions of 
this character. She was one of the first 



trained nurses sent out by the United States 
government in charge of dietetic work in 
the Army. She received her training in the 
preparation of foods and scientific cooking 
from Mrs. Rorer, of Philadelphia, Pa. She 
served three years at Fort Bayard, N. M., 
the government sanitarium for the treat- 
ment of tuberculosis, and had charge of the 
officers' hospital and ambulance mess. She 
was sent to Fort McPherson, Ga., to do tent 
work at the time of the outbreak of typhoid 
fever during the Spanish-American war. 
She also served six months in Columbia 
Barracks, Ohio, in the Army, at the time 
there was an epidemic of measles and 
pneumonia. 

Mrs. Pennell did her work at Fort Bayard, 
N. M., at the time it was under the charge 
of Major D. M. Appel, who was a pioneer in 
the work of tuberculosis in the United 
States Army, and was selected and sta- 
tioned at Fort Bayard by Surgeon-General 
Sternberg because of his special qualifica- 
tions for this work. The training Mrs. Pen- 
nell received there and elsewhere in the line 
of tuberculosis work makes her pre-emi- 
nently qualified to take charge of this de- 
partment in the Texas Sanitarium, and its 
management is to be congratulated over 
securing her services. 

Miss Delia M. Campbell has just returned 
to Wichita, Kansas, after a two months' va- 
cation in Ohio, visiting relatives and friends. 
She will take up her work again as private 
nurse. 



Mrs. Charles M. Carpenter, formerly Miss 
Margaret O'Donnell, a graduate of the Cin- 
cinnati Hospital Training School for Nurses, 
is at home to her friends at 543 Dix Avenue, 
Detroit, Mich. 



Miss Laura F. Berchenbriter has accepted 
a position in the Government Indian School 
at Phoenix, Arizona. 



Married 

At Ames, Iowa, November 15, 1906, Miss 
Belle McKibben to Mr. Edward C. Kooser- 
Mrs. Kooser is a graduate of Tracy Hospital 
and one of Des Moines* most popular 
nurses. Mr. and Mrs. Kooser will reside in 
Ames. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



47 



Miss Elsie N. Stewart, of Madison Ave- 
nue, Plainfield, N. J., and Dr. Charles Bar- 
ties Cortright, St., of Newark, were married 
in Trinity Reformed Church, at 5.30 o'clock 
Saturday evening, December i. The cere- 
mony was performed by the Rev. Cornelius 
Schenck, pastor of the church. Miss Anna 
Daley was maid of honor. William Terhune, 
of Brooklyn, was best man. 

The bride's gown was of white crepe de 
chine, trimmed with Irish point lace, and 
she carried a shower bouquet of bride roses. 
The maid of honor's gown was of white 
silk, trimmed with lace, and she carried a 
bouquet of pink carnations. 

The bride received a wealth of presents, 
including furniture, linen, cut glass, silver 
and goldware and many other useful things. 

For several years the bride has been en- 
gaged as a trained nurse. Her home prior 
to coming to Plainfield was at Brookville, 
Pa. She was graduated from the Muhlen- 
berg Hospital Training School in 1889. 

Dr. Cortright, who is now a practicing 
physician in Brooklyn, formerly resided in 
Newark. He is a graduate of Columbia Col- 
lege and the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, New York, 



ber, 1906, was nurse in charge of the oper- 
ating room. Mr. and Mrs. Owens will re- 
side in Morenci, Arizona. 



The marriage of Miss Ava Maria Bohrer, 
of Fifth Avenue, Troy, N. Y., to Mr. Wil- 
liam Samuel Hamill, graduate of Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute, took place October 10 
at St. Peter's Church. 

Mrs. Hamill is a graduate of the Troy 
City Hospital, class of 1905, and one of the 
most popular nurses in the city. 



Miss R. Anna Stevens, of Newark, N. J., 
was married November i to Dr. A. P. 
Stewart, of St. Louis, Mo. Dr. and Mrs. 
Stewart will spend the winter in the South. 



Miss Emily Anderson, a member of the 
class of 1905, Christ Hospital Training 
School for Nurses, Jersey City, N. J., to Dr. 
Samuel W. Dodd, formerly house surgeon, 
at the home* of the bride's brother, Dr. 
Cameron Anderson. 



At El Paso, Texas, October 15, Miss Mary 
H. MacDougall to Mr. Louis J. Owens. 
Miss MacDougall is a graduate of the 
Rhode Island Hospital Training School, 
class of 1903, and from that time to Septem- 



On December 12, 1906, Miss Annie E. 
Slack and Dr. John Hudson. Mrs. 
Hudson is a graduate of St. Louis Train- 
ing School for Nurses, St. Louis, Mo, 



On November 29, 1906, at Paducah, Ky., 
Miss Minnie Z, Sander, Mr. Chas R. Hall, 
of same city. Mrs. Hall is ?. graduate of 
the St. Louis Training School for Nurses, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Obituary 

Miss Amy Cavanagh, a graduate of Far- 
rand Training School, Harper Hospital, De- 
troit, Mich., class of 1890, died at the home 
of her sister in Newton, Iowa, November 
I2th, from typhoid fever. Miss Cavanagh 
practised her profession in Detroit one year- 
after graduation, going from there to San 
Francisco, Cal., where she nursed for five 
years. Her health failing she returned to 
Iowa City, Iowa, the home of her parents, 
for a year's needed rest. On regaining her 
health she again resumed private work with 
headquarters at Iowa City. August 21st 
she was called on a case at Newton, Iowa, 
and from there to Baxter to a child having 
typhoid. Her patient dying next day she 
was retained to nurse the mother who was 
very ill for five weeks. Worn out with hard 
work and loss of rest. Miss Cavanagh was 
stricken with the disease a week before she 
could leave her patient. On securing an- 
other nurse she went to the home of her 
sister where expert physicians and two 
nurses were called to care for her, doing 
everything in their power to save her and 
make her comfortable. But her worn-out 
system and feeble strength failed to respond 
and after six weeks' illness she passed away 
as gently and peacefully as her life had 
been, leaving aged parents and two sisters 
to mourn her loss, 

A capable, tireless nurse, unselfishly de- 
voted to her work, the soul of honor, gentle, 
helpful and patient toward all, she will be 
greatly missed in the profession and by 
many friends in eastern Iowa, where for 
nine years she has done much to alleviate 
suffering in many homes in many places. 
Miss Cavangh was a memljcc of the Aluomnae 



48 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Association of Harper Hospital and the 
Graduate Nurses' Association of Iowa. 



Miss Agnes V. Innes, who sailed for 
China last fall to take a position as mis- 
sionary and superintending nurse in the 
Elizabeth Blake Hospital at Soochow, died 
at that hospital last July. She had strained 
herself by lifting a heavy dental chair while 
hurriedly preparing for a surgical case, and 
after a short illness was operated on. She 
seemed to be recovering nicely when cli- 
matic fever set in and, in her weakened con- 
dition she was not able to resist the disease. 
Dr. Wilkinson and his assistants gave her 
the best of care and Miss Innes herself said 
that she could not have had better care had 
she been in the United States. 

Miss Innes was a graduate from the Mas- 
sachusetts State Hospital, Tewksbury, a 
conscientious and capable nurse, always at 
her post of duty. Her loss is felt by all 
who knew her, especially by those of the 
hospital in China. 



Helena Craddock Smith died November 
II, 1906, from cardiac trouble. She was 
graduated from the training school of the 
Woman's Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., class 
of 1906. The Alumnae Association met and 
passed resolutions on her death. 



Miss McNerney, a pupil of the St. Joseph's 
Hospital Training School, Tacoma, Wash, 
underwent an operation for appendicitis 
November 19 and died November 22. She 
was but six months in the school, during 
which time she endeared herself to all by 
her noble character. Docile, vigilant and 
self-sacrificing, she had a boundless com- 
passion for the miseries of human nature, 
for the alleviation of which she was pre- 
paring to devote her life. 

Six of her classmates in uniform acted as 
pallbearers. 

At a meeting of the nurses the following 
resolutions were adopted: 

"Whereas, It has pleased Almighty God, 
in His infinite wisdom, to send the Angel of 
Death into our midst to call our beloved 
sister to enjoy the fruits of a life of excep- 
tional piety and innocence. 

"Whereas, By her death the institution 
has suffered the loss of one who, by her 
example, has inspired the highest esteem for 
our noble profession. 



"Resolved, That we extend to the mem- 
bers of her bereaved family our heartfelt 
sympathy. 

"Resolved, That these resolutions be in- 
scribed in the minutes of the Training 
School, and a copy be sent to the members 
of her family, the Tacoma Ledger and 
News, The Trained Nurse and the National 
Hospital Record. 

"Resolved, That we record our sorow at 
the loss of a beloved classmate, whose un- 
selfishness gained for her the esteem and 
affection of all her associates, and that we 
unite in every demonstration of sympathy 
and love in order to testify how great is our 
loss, how sincere our grief, and how heart- 
felt are the prayers we offer for the eternal 
repose of her soul. 

Minnie E. Rose, 
Marguerite H. McGregor, 
. Myrtle A. Day, 

"Committee." 



After a lingering illness the gentle spirit 
of Miss Philomene Comford entered into the 
"Valley of the Shadow of Death," December 
4, 1906. 

Miss Comford was a graduate of the 
Charity Hospital Training School for Nurses, 
of New Orleans, La., of the class of 1903, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved : That we, the members of the 
Louisiana State Nurses' Association, her 
classmates and co-workers, desire to express 
our deep sympathy to her sisters and brothers 
in their great sorrow. 

Resolved : It has pleased the omnipotent 
One to remove from our midst one so dearly 
beloved for her sterling qualities of heart and 
mind, and an earnest worker in the uplifting 
of her profession. Realizing the great Joss 
the Nurses' Association has sustained, be it 
Resolved : That a copy of these resolutions 
be sent to The American Journal of Nursing, 
The Trained Nurse, and The Hospital Re- 
2'icw and entered into the minutes of the asso- 
ciation. 

Miss N. Broun, 
Miss K. Dent, 
Miss O. Norman, 
Miss J. H. McCray. 
Miss M. C. Frpmhepz, 
Miss M, E. Fineran, 
Committee. 
(Continued on page 70) 



THE EDITOR IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE VIEWS OF CONTRIBUTORS 



From the Patient's Point of View 

Dear Editor:— I was greatly interested in 
the article, "From the Patient's Point of 
View," in the Letter-box department of the 
November The Trained Nurse. The sub- 
ject brought forward is one that may well be 
discussed from the nurse's point of view also. 
It is probable that most nurses occasionally 
consider it, at least in the abstract, but it 
is also a point that any nurse may at any 
time be compelled to very seriously consider 
as affecting her own immediate future course 
of conduct. In the opening paragraph the 
writer asks why it is that the self-interest of 
the nurse is allied more closely to the self- 
interest of the physician than to that of the 
patient, the assumption plainly being that it 
it is primarily self-interest on the part of 
the nurse that governs her loyalty to the 
physician. This is, I think, a view of the mat- 
ter that does injustice to the nursing pro- 
fession as a whole, however justly applicable 
it may be to some individual members of the 
profession. Viewing the subject from a 
nurse's standpoint, I maintain that self-inter- 
est does not necessarily influence a nurse to 
remain loyal to the physician when her own 
experience tells her that she cannot approve 
his course. I would by no means go so far 
as to say that self-interest is ntver a motive — 
nurses are human like other people and, 
like people of other callings, not all influenced 
by'flie best motives — but I do say that there 
are many other considerations that with the 
average nurse are likely to have greater 
weight. 

There are training schools and training 
schools and nurses and nurses, and it is not 
likely that all nurses graduate imbued with 
exactly the same principles, but generally 
speaking it may be affirmed that a nurse's 
hospital training teaches her that her occupa- 
tion is a singularly responsible one and that 
her first duty is to be loyal to her trust; that 
is, loyal to the trust that the patient reposes 



in her. Loyalty to the interests of the patient 
carries with it the obligation of loyalty to the 
patient's physician, because it is upon the skill 
and knowledge of the latter and his special 
ability to suggest the proper method of treat-, 
ment that the patient relies for recovery. 
Thus it is that the average nurse regards 
loyalty to the attending physician as primarily 
in the interests of the patient and only in a 
secondary degree in the light of self-interest, 
it being naturally to the interest of the nurse 
to bring about the patient's recovery. It is 
quite true that training school life teaches 
a nurse that to carry out the doctor's instruc- 
tions to the letter is the first law of her pro- 
fession, but it also teaches her that this law 
must be observed, not for her own sake, but 
for the sake of the patient who trusts her — 
not that it is assumed that doctors are in- 
fallible, but because the nursing profession 
must, from the nature of the two, be subor- 
dinate to the profession of medicine, and im- 
plicit obedience regarding treatment is due 
the doctor as the one possessing the greater 
knowledge . and assuming the greater responsi- 
bility. 

I cannot but agree with "A Patient" that 
this training does not tend to specially fit a 
nurse for emergencies wherein the physician 
proves incompetent, but one must bear in 
mind that the training is designed to fit her 
for the care of the patients of responsible 
and reputable physicians, and it is a question 
whether nurses trained along more independ- . 
■ ent lines would make equally good and re- 
sponsible nurses for these, the great majority 
of cases. At any rate those at the head of 
nurses' training schools consider it most 
unwise to foster a spirit of criticism to- 
wards doctors on the part of nurses, v/ho must 
recive a great deal of their instruction from 
doctors, and who, generally speaking, must 
possess in comparison to reputable members 
of the medical profession a very superficial 
knowledge of most medical subjects. On the 



50 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



other hand, any tendency to criticism is gen- 
erally promptly discouraged in order that a 
little knowledge may not prove a dangerous 
thing, for experience has taught those in 
charge of pupil nurses that the young nurse 
(young in experience, not necessarily young 
in years), full of the importance of her newly 
acquired knowledge, is sometimes tempted to 
assume responsibilities that should be borne 
only by the physician. The statement that 
"it is never even suggested that she may have 
yet another choice" is altogether too broad 
and sweeping, as it is a fact that at least some 
pupil nurses are instructed to exercise their 
own independent judgment in very special 
circumstances. Even when not so instructed, 
even when her training makes no special pro- 
vision as to how she shall meet probable in- 
competence on the part of an attending 
physician, I do not agree that it necessarily 
takes away from her the liberty or inclination 
to meet this as she would any other emer- 
gency; that is, by making use of the tact, dis- 
cretion and common sense with which nature 
and experience have endowed her, by care- 
fully considering the special circumstances 
of the case and thereafter adopting what she 
conscientiously regards as the very best 
method of procedure in the interests of the 
patient. This, most decidedly, is what I as a 
graduate nurse consider to be the duty of 
every nurse under such circumstances. The 
best interests of the patient may be diametri- 
cally opposed to the interests of the nurse, 
but they are the interests that ought to be 
considered first if the nurse is to be true to 
her trust. Loyalty to the medical profession 
does not demand blind obedience to a doctor 
when one is aware that he is doing wrong 
and if a nurse is sure, sure, I say, that the 
directions of the doctor conflict with the best 
interests of the patient, she is, I think, not- 
. withstanding the subordinate position she oc- 
cupies in relation to the medical attendant, 
justified in stating her conviction and withr 
drawing from the case if necessary. 

Undoubtedly though, the situation is a most 
delicate one, and, except in cases where the 
doctor is very clearly in the wrong, a nurse 
may well hesitate ere she expresses views in 
opposition to his and so, very likely, earn for 
herself the enmity of that particular doctor 
and incidentally a reputation for presumption 
among • the medical profession generally— all 



this too without having done the patient the 
least benefit, very probably, for, however 
great confidence the patient and friends may 
have in the nurse, in the average case among 
strangers at least, her opinion is not likely 
to outweigh in their estimation the opinion 
of the doctor, in whom it may be presumed 
they have confidence also. Then, too, there 
is the probability that it is the nurse herself 
who may be mistaken, a probability that the 
average trained nurse is not likely to lose 
sight of when she finds herself questioning, 
the wisdom of the instructions given by the 
medical attendant. Here the question arises 
— are nurses competent to judge the methods 
of physicians and decide whether or not any 
particular treatment adopted is the correct one 
to follow? Not always, certainly, but there 
are without doubt numerous cases wherein the 
nurse, in view of her training and varied ex- 
periences, cannot help but know whether the 
doctor is following the treatment most likely 
to benefit the patient. Also, it is a fact that 
the experienced observant nurse seeing the 
patient practically every hour of the twenty- 
four may sometimes have a more accurate 
knowledge of that patient's actual condition 
than the doctor has who, perhaps, makes a hur- 
ried visit once a day. Diagnosis of disease is 
of course, broadly speaking, no part of a nurse's 
duty. People in employing a nurse do so, 
not on account of her probable capabilities in 
this direction, but because they expect her to 
faithfully carry out the instructions of the 
doctor whom they engage specially to diag- 
nose and treat the case, and, assuredly, it 
seems to be that the circumstances would have 
to be very unusual, the doctor's mistake very 
evident, in order to justify the nurse in de- 
liberately throwing doubt upon his theories 
and boldly expressing a conviction that ^er 
own views were likely to be the correct ones. 
Whether or not the friends of the patient 
should be taken into the confidence of the 
nurse when she finds that the doctor's instruc- 
tions conflict with her own views depends, I 
think, upon individual circumstances. In 
some cases it might be the very best thing 
that she could do both for the patient and 
herself — in fact, the only honorable course to 
follow; again, it might be the most unwise 
course that she could possibly take, stirring 
up doubts and disagreements all round with- 
out rendering the patient's chances for im- 



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5!2 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



provement any l>etter than they were before. 
I do not, for my part, consider it generally 
incumbent upon the private nurse to express 
her views of the doctor's opinions and 
methods to the friends of the patient even 
though these should not agree with her own; 
as I have already intimated .1 regard such a 
course-as the extreme one and to be followed 
only when she is certain that the patient's 
interests imperatively demand it. Being as- 
sured of .this, she is in duty bound to speak, 
ptherwise she herself becomes also respon- 
iible for any ill that may follow, for thv'. 
superior position and higher responsibility of 
the doctor are not sufficient to exonerate the 
nurse ffom responsibility if she knows that 
the patient is suffering from a careless or 
mistaken diagnosis on the part of the doctor 
or from treatment not adapted to benefit his 
condition. 

To siun up the matter I would say that no 
hard and fast rules to which private nurses 
niight turn for guidance can safely be laid 
down, it being necessary to consider the 
special circumstances surrounding individual 
cases. A GRADUAtE Nurse. 



Dear Editor : — In answer to the Patient, 
who presents a point of view, in your Novem- 
ber number, I would like to state that no- 
where in any written or unwritten code of 
ethics for nurses, or in the curriculum of 
any training school for nurses is a nurse 
taught that a physician is divine, not human ; 
that he is infallible, or that a nurse is to 
follow him into criminal negligence by blindly 
obeying orders. 

There are circumstances that may arise in 
a doctor's absence from a case, situations 
which may confront a nurse, that make a 
deviation from a doctor's orders imperative ; 
this nice discrimination cannot be taught in 
our schools, but must be brought about by 
the broad, everyday, common sense of the 
nurse, and there will also be times in the pro- 
fessional life of a nurse, where moral ques- 
tions of awful importance, will arise. There 
are no moral or spiritual laws that will help 
'her decide on a course of action. In this 
she stands absolutely and entirely alone, her 
conscience, her conception of her duty to her 
physician, her patient and herself must decide. 
The same latitude is given the nurse as is 
given the student in our military schools men- 



tioned by your correspondent, that there are 
circumstances that justify him in disregarding 
orders, but that he does so at his peril. 

The nurse is the hand maiden, the helper, 
the adjunct as it were, of the physician. She 
must work hand in hand with him for the 
best interest of the patient; she must put 
aside her own personal ambition and the 
temptation to use the little knowledge of the 
practice of medicine she has acquired. 

Why should a nurse bother her head with 
diagnosis? Why burden herself with respon- 
sibilities which rightly belong to the physi- 
cian ; he is well able to take care of them 
except in extraordinarily isolated cases like 
the one cited, which is extremely rare — the 
fact that two physicians made the same mis- 
take in diagnosis and their dishonorable mis- 
representation of the nurse to the family of 
her patient, seems incredible. 

In regard to the testimony on the witness 
stand, of a trained nurse, in the trial of a 
man for the murder of his wife, who was 
her patient, the very fact of her having to 
testify at all, was revolting, but her dramatic 
portrayal of the death agonies of her patient 
was altogether out of keeping with the 
sacrcdness of her calling. 

I agree with the newspaper woman who re- 
ported the proceedings for a daily news- 
paper — that nurses are bound by every law 
of their profession (not self-interest) to 
silence, concerning the actions of a physician 
in the sick room, and I will add silence con- 
cerning the actions of any member of the 
household except where actual crime is com- 
mitted, and that she should never be asked 
to testify in any court of law, concerning any- 
thing that transpires in the sick room or 
family of her patient. 

A nurse's position in a family is a peculiar 
one. She cannot help but see or hear much — 
she is made a confident of; she often wit- 
nesses the signing of wills where undue in- 
fluence is charged, or where the patient has 
been adjudged mentally incapable, therefore 
a nurse should "Keep the door of her lips." 

The patient who employs a doctor or nurse 
need not grow hysterical and imagine herself 
in the hands of the Philistines, that doctor 
and nurse are in league with each other for 
their own self-interest, or that she must em- 
ploy a nurse to act as a spy that she can 
depend on, to see that the physician gives a 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




TIME IS THE REAX: 
TEST OFMET^IT 





NEVER CEASES IN 
ITS USEFUL14ESS 




54 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



correct diagnosis of her case, or prescribes 
the right medicine or course of treatment. 
When we have occasion to employ a physician, 
let us trust him as we would a sea captain 
who takes us acroSs the seas, or the engineer 
who guides the railroad train which takes 
us about on land. Our lives are certainly in 
his hands, and we must feel that both doctors 
and nurses are* working together for our re- 
covery. 

Eunice Van Buren. 

+ 
Obstetrical Nursing 

Dear Editor : — As I have had experience in 
district nursing, I take the liberty of send- 
ing an answer to inquiry in letter-box of the 
October number, and send the following list : 

Nurse bag with all the requirements, 
patient's cup, fountain syringe, rubber gloves, 
antiseptics, douche pan, baby's washcloth, rub- 
ber sheet, one bottle saturated solution bor- 
acic acid (to wash the eyes and wash out 
the mouth of the infant immediately after 
delivery), one bottle castor oil (to bathe the 
patient's breasts four times daily until fifth 
day), one battle equal parts alcohol and 
witch hazel, used for the alcohol rub after 
bath, one box medicated cotton, two gauze 
bandages three feet long and two feet wide, 
to wrap around the body of the new born 
babe to hold the cotton firm about the navel. 

Preparation of the bed. — In case a rubber 
sheet is not at hand, a good substitute is 
found by making a pad of one yard cheese 
cloth, cotton batting spread over the cheese 
cloth, six or eight large newspapers spread 
over the cotton, then another yard of cheese 
cloth spread over the papers, then baste the 
two edges of cloth together, place in bed cot- 
ton side up. This is preferable to a rubber 
sheet or mat. Should circumstances prohibit 
having two of these, a convenient and in- 
expensive one is made of eight to ten large 
newspapers spread one on top of the other 
with one yard old white muslin spread and 
pinned to each corner of the papers. 

This pad placed on top of the first to be 
removed when the bed is changed. When 
the top pad is removed it leaves the next un- 
soiled. 

Sanitary pads are made of cheese cloth 
eight by ten inches, four ounces cotton rolled 
inside. Before using all must be thoroughly 
sterilized. 



Our Sacred Dead 

During a recent visit to our Capitol I made 
a pilgrimage to Arlington, that beautiful city 
of the dead, now more sacred to us nurses 
since we, Spanish War nurses, placed our 
monument there. 

To me the place was doubly dear, marking 
as it does the last resting place of one I 
called by the sacred title of Friend, Ada M. 
Colcleugh. "Colly," we, who loved her had 
called her, and standing in the Washington 
depot a day later Miss Stack pointed out the 
truck which had borne the body of our 
comrade from the train on a cold winter 
morn, while three of her sister nurses silently 
followed. 

Military music and bright flowers, the last 
honors acorded to our nation's heroes, were 
given you, Colly, dear. 

To me as to many others, the details of 
Miss Colcleugh's suffering and death came 
for the first time when we, S. A. W. N. 
comrades of '98 met in dear old Boston, and 
the kindness shown Colly made stronger the 
bonds of sympathy between our sister nurses. 
The messages which had been sent to Colly 
from Panama, New York and Washington, 
made us feel that we were truly part of the 
whole great sisterhood of nurses. 

Standing 'mid the rushing throng in that 
busy depot with big-hearted Miss Stack by 
my side, I thought of the day when Colly 
stood thus with me in a garden in Ilo Ilo, 
P. I. Near us stood our landlord, a comfort- 
able-looking Filipino with his watch dog. 
We were all listening to the music of the 
native band, Colly's brown eyes sparkling 
with fun as she challenged me to a walk 
to the sea shore. There sitting in the sand 
we exchanged confidences as women will. 
Later we again lived together in San Fran- 
cisco. One night there comes back so vividly. 
Colly, anxious for a case, as we nurses some- 
times are, when funds are low, then trembling 
with dread when in the wee sma' hours of 
morn, the darkest of the twenty-four, the 
'phone rang. I, awaiting a summons to a 
case already arranged foi, answered the 
'phone only to learn of great need of a nurse 
at once, and I roused Colly, bidding her 
hasten. She did so but with a strange feel- 
ing of dread, and she afterwards realized that 
her fears were well founded. She reached 
the place indicated to find a brilliant man in 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



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UNEASINESS 

whether due to temporary mal-digestion, or to a 
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almost invariably relieved by 




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Dose: POWDER, 20 grains. TABLETS, 2 to 4. ELIXIR, 2 tea- 
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THE NEW YORK PHAR. ASSN. 

YONKERS, N. Y. 



Kw\iKaYs\w\a 



GUARANTELHD ! 

jTHE new Pure Food and Drugs Act requires all manufacturers to sell 
* their products under a guaranty, and a general guaranty should be 

filed in the office of the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington. 

The following is a copy of a letter issued from the Department of 

Agriculture to us : 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
Office of the Secretary 
WASHINGTON 
• November 1, 1906. 

The Anttkamnia Chemical Company, 

St. LOuis, Mo. 
Gentlemen . — 

Vour guarantee as to the character of th£ materials manufactured 
and sold by you, given in accordatice with Circular 21 of this office, has 
been received, found to be in proper form and is regularly filed. The 
serial number attached thereto is No. 10. 

Respectfully, 

IV. M. HA YS, Act. Sec'y. 



\ 



All Antikamnia Preparations are sold under this guaranty and our 
Serial No. 1 appears on every package sold under the new law, thus 
assuring the medical profession of the absolute reliability of these 

phar™ac.«t,c.i,. ^^ ANTIRAMNIA CHEMICAL CO, " '■j»'^^."° • 



When you write Advertisers, please mention The Tbaineo Nuksx. 



56 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



his prime suddenly stricken with appendicitis 
and dying; but such scenes are not unusual 
in the life of a nurse, yet it is nevertheless 
nerve-trying. 

Colly left me in San Francisco to go to a 
hospital in Cuba, and quite by chance, we 
met a year later in the railway depot at 
Chicago, I going to Buffalo, Colly on her 



way' to Panama. We traveled together fo'r 
one night; this was our last meeting. She 
sleeps in beautiful Arlington, beneath the 
shadow of our stately monument. But the 
memory of her sweet life remains with us 
urging us on to higher and better efforts. 
Jean S. Edmunds. 
November, 1906. 




MI.SS IDA M. COLCLEUGH, CENTER FIGURE, LAt^LORD AND LANDLADY 
Side entrance to A'urses' Home. IL S. Army A'lnst's, rst Brigade Hostitai. Ilo lio Panay. P. I. 



Announcement 



We regret that many important news items liave reached us too late to find 
a place in this number. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



Headquarters for Nurses' Dresses 



JE are furnishing some of the largest hospitals with aU of their Nurses* Uniforms. Hundreds of 
nurses, all over the country, will wear no other uniform. Ready-to-wear — well-finished and 
well-fitting; or made to your measure at about one-third higher cost. These three numbers are 
unequaled at the prices. Call, write or phone us — we want your trade : 




%^%j'%j^%.,^'%/%.£%^\j%j>^^:- %jf\j^%^ 



\ ' 




STYLE A — One-piece Uniforms of striped gingham or plain blue chambray Waist has plain 
back, full front, bishop sleeves. Five-gore skirt, fastened to one-inch belt, wide hem — $2.00. 
Same, made to measurement — $3.00. 

STYLE B — Two-piece Uniforms. Of striped gingham (blue or pink), or plain blue chambray. 
TTie shirt weust has plain back, plaited front, bishc^ sleeves. Five-gore skirt with deep hem — '$2. 50. 
Same, made to measurement — $3.75. 

STYLE C^Two-piece Uniforms, in same model as Style B. Prices : of white duck — $3.50' 
made to order for $4.T5 ' **f white linen — $4.50 * n>ade to order for $6.T5. 



^trawbridge ®, ClotHier 

Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. 






When you write Advertisers, please mention The Trained Nubse. 



Clje hospital J^etiieto 



The thirty-eighth anniversary of the Pres- 
byterian Hospital, New York, was celebrated 
December 8. The exercises were held in the 
Florence Nightingale Hall and consisted of 
short addresses and music. The report pre- 
sented by the board of managers dealt largely 
with a description of the open air treatment 
of the hospital. 

The open air ward has now been perma- 
nently installed, and on pleasant days nearly 
all patients are sent up there. On many days 
every case in the children's ward is sent to the 
roof. Wheeled stretchers, three in a row, 
carry most of the cases absolutely confined to 
bed. 



may be gathered from the statement that 
two of the patients that were in too bad 
shape, at the close of the first season to be 
admitted to the State institution at Ray- 
brook, N. Y., were improved so much at the 
end of this, the second year, that the Ray- 
brook institution took them in. 

Residents of McKees Rocks will ap- 
ply for a charter for a hospital to 
be known as the Ohio General 
Hospital. It will be built of stone and brick 
on several acres of ground near McKees 
Rocks, will contain forty rooms and will cost 
about $70,000. The applicants for the charter 
are J. A. Williams, Charles G. Eicher, Miles 





P 


m 


^^^^^^^^■^A , M 




^^^^HHELp^ ^H^^kHliJ 


liitM 



A WARD AT XMAS TIME. WOMAN S AND CHILDREN S HOSPITAL, KANSAS CITY, MO. 



On the roof those more seriously ill sleep 
most of the time. The open air ward takes up 
a portion of the roof east of the sun house, 
protected from the north wind by a screen of 
glass rolling doors. The other sides are pro- 
tected in the manner of roof gardens, with 
canvas curtains stretched on a framework of 
iron piping. 

+ 

The Pine Tree Camp Sanitarium for Con- 
sumptives, situated near New Salem, N. Y., 
has closed its second season. 

An idea of the kind of work- done there 



Bryan, G. W. Beane, M. C. O'Donovan, C. W. 
Robinson and D. K. McGunnigle. 
+ 

Egypt can now pride herself on a hospital 
service the like of which is probably not to 
be found in the whole world. Some time ago 
Ernst Cassel gave $300,000 to the Egyptian 
government to establish ambulant eye hospi- 
tals. Dr. Max Callan, of London, was in- 
trusted with the organization of the service 
and he has accomplished his task. 

The ambulant hospital has the appearance 
of a military camp. A number of tents ac- 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




^ti DO YOU 

vse 




RECORD 

BOOKS 

and BLANKS? 



VAN RIPER'S 
are the best published 

Endorsed by all the 
leading Nurses in the U. S. 

Also Clinical Charts, Receipt Blanks. 
History Sheets, Operation Blanks, Bed- 
side Notes, Temperature Charts, etc 

Samples and Price Lists furnished free 
upon application. Estimates promptly 
furnished on Special Blanks of any land 

CHARLES A. LAWES CO. 

< Successors to Belden & Company) 
302 Dearborn Street, Xhicago, IH. 



To Thm XIwch \s Goo\>V 



1m/ HEN a Physician leams by experience 

■ ■ that a certain remedy produces positive 
results, he becomes familiar with its indications, 
limitations and therapy, and therefore wants 
no substitute or make-shift dispensed when he prescribes if}. 
When a Physician has for a long time prescribed 

AS A BLOOD BUILDER IN 
Ansmia, Chlorosis, Rickets, Amenorrhoea, Dysmenorrhoea, Chorea, Bright's Disease, &e^ 

he knows by experience that it is a standard of therapeutic worth and wants no other. 

BUT SOMETIMES THE PATIENT DON'T GET IT. DOCTOR! 

To assure the proper filling of your prescriptions, order Pepto-Mangan "Gude" in original bottle$. 

M. J. BREITENBACH COMPANY, 



LABOMATOIIVi 

Leipzig, Qcrmanv' 



NEW YORKk 



60 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



commodate the patients and their attendants, 
the largest serving as an operating room. 
Camp was pitched for the first time near 
Manufleh, in the Nile Delta, and Dr. Callan, 
with his native assistants, treated there the 
diseases that are caused by the terrible dust 
raised by the hot wind at the equinox. 

At present the hospital, under Dr. Callan's 
personal supervision, is in the oasis Median- 
el-Fayun, where already over 18,000 Egyptians 
have received medical treatment. 

The Philadelphia Clinic for Home treat- 
ment of Chest and Throat Diseases, 519 South 
Fifteenth Street, Philadelphia, has recently 
opened evening clinics, in addition to the day 
clinics which have been running since last 
March, for free treatment to the consumptive 
poor. It is estimated that about one-third of 



The board of directors of the West Penn 
Hospital, Pittsburg, Pa., have selected Major 
James H. Bigger, of the Pennsylvania Refon.n 
School, for superintendent of their institu- 
tion, to succeed Mr. Krepps, who resignel 
some time ago. 

Major Bigger has been connected with the 
Reform School at Morganza for sixteen 
years. He is well known as a man of high 
character and sterling qualities. He is also 
widely known in military circles. He was 
captain of volunteers during the - Spanish- 
American war and -is, now senior battalion 
commander of the Eighteenth Regiment. 
+ 

The new St. Luke's Methodist Episcopal 
Hospital, of Cleveland, Ohio, which will ab- 
sorb the Cleveland General Hospital, will be 





1 # , 


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\ <fm r^ ^HH^^^H^^^^^^^^^H 


.) 




A 




HJiJ^^^H 



A WARD AT XMAS TIME. WOMAN's AND CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL, KANSAS CITY, MO. 



the 9,000 consumptives living in Philadelphia 
annually earn over $1,000,000, but without 
medical care will in a few years become unfit 
to work, and in all probability many of them 
will have to be maintained in hospitals at an 
added expenses of another $1,000,000, making 
a total loss in wages and in cost of main- 
tenance of over $2,000,000 a year. The object 
is to lighten the struggle to these people 
during this trying period of their life, to help 
save their wages, and to forestall the danger 
of becoming public charges. Dr. Frank Read 
is president of the board of managers, and Dr. 
Thomas J. Mays is medical director of this 
institution. — Medical Record. 



one of the most efficient institutions of its 
kind in existence if the present plans are 
carried out. 

Work upon St. Luke's will be commenced 
next spring, it is planned. The building will 
cost about $100,000. F. W. Striebinger is the 
architect. The new hospital is to be erected 
in Carnegie Avenue S. E., near East Seventy 
first Street. It will accommodate 100 pa- 
tients. There will be a frontage of 125 fe^t 
on Carnegie avenue S. E. The hospital will 
be thoroughly fireproof, of pressed brick, 
stone trimmed, and with a slate roof. 

Among the faculty members in the new 
institution will be Dr. Joseph F. Hobson, Dr. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




hat plastic dressings possess marked thera- 
peutic value is evident from their increas- 
ing use in hospitals and by the medical 
profession. Believing that their valuable prop- 
erties are enhanced by the use of a superior 
base, we have always made Antithermoline from 
the finest quality of imported Kaolin, and 
clinical evidence has justified us in so doing. 

Antithermoline 

(G. W. CARNRICK) 

is a most effective application in all conditions 
of irritation, congestion and inflammation ; it 
contains no poisonous ingredients (hence may 
be applied to raw surfaces without discomfort), 
is not greasy, is miscible in water, is antiseptic 
and mildly astringent. It forms an elastic 
covering, preventing access of air and bacteria, 
and is therefore an ideal dressing for wounds, 
burns, ulcers, etc. :: :: ;: :: :: 

G. W. CARNRICR CO. 

42 Sullivan Street 
NEW YORK 



A copy of our "Nurse's Handy Book ^' sent to any nurse ivithout 
charge upon request 



FORMULA 

Each pound of Anti- 
thermoline contains 
4,000 grs. of imported 
kaolin washed and pur- 
ified, 14 grs. Boracic 
acid, 14 ers. oil of Eu- 
calyptus Menthol and 
Thymol, combined ; 4- 
9-10 fluid oz. glycerine. 



INDICATIONS 

Burns 

Bee Stings 

Bites of Poisonous 
Insects 

Poisoned Wounds 

Eczema 

Pruritus 

Intertrigo 

Congestions of 
Organs and Tissues 
of the Pelvis 

Pneumonia and all 
Inflammatory con- 
ditions of Respira- 
tory Tract. 



ANTITHERMOLINE 

is for sale by the Drug 
Trade only in 10 oz. 
50c. size. 1% lb. $1.00 
size. Also in 5. 10 and 
35 lbs. for hospital use. 
A package sent to any 
physician on request. 



When you write Advertisers, please mention Thi Tkained Nt;*sx. 



62 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



C. B. Parker, Dr. R. E. Skeel, Dr. J. N. Lea- 
ker, and several physicians now connected 
with the Cleveland General Hospital. 
+ 
The Albany City Homeopathic Hospital 
and Dispensary is intending to apply to the 
Supreme Court for permission to change its 
name to "The Homeopathic Hospital of Al- 
bany, N. Y. 

The annual meeting of the Board of Direc- 
tors of the Sydenham Hospital, in East 
116th Street, N. Y., was held on Thursday 
evening, November 23. 

After the reports of the various committees 
had been heard, President William I. Spiegel- 
berg, chairman of the board, introduced Mr. 
Guggenheim. The latter at first presented 



The exercises were held in the chapel of the 
building. John E. Parsons, president of the 
board of managers, presided, and after a few 
remarks introduced the first speaker, D. B. 
St. John Roosa, M. D., who paid a glowing 
tribute to J. Marion Sims, M. D., who founded 
the hospital fifty years ago in a private house 
at No. 83 Madison Avenue. An interesting 
address was made by General Horace Porter, 
in which he told reminiscences of the heroism 
of nurses in the Civil War and voicing the 
highest sort of praise for those who had sup- 
ported the hospital. 

The closing address was made by Bishop 
Potter, who said, "Fifteen years ago I 
dreamed of one day seeing this hill crowned 
with religious, philanthropic, and educational 
institutions. To-day I see the dream fulfilled 




AT CHRISTMAS TIME. WOMAN S AND CHILDREN S HOSPITAL, KANSAS CITY, MO 



$60,000 to the directors, saying that he had 
raised the amount among his friends, he 
having headed the list with $10,000. Mr. 
Guggenheim then spoke about the hospital's 
aims, and said he thought that in a few years 
it would be one of the largest hospitals in 
Harlem. He then made the announcement 
that he would build the institution a • new 
building, .its cost being about $500,000, pro- 
vided the Board of Directors guarantee a 
yearly income of $50,000 or $60,000 to main- 
tain the hospital. The income could be raised 
either through membership or by subscrip- 
tions. + 

The new building of the Woman's Hospital 
at 109th Street and Amsterdam Avenue, New 
York, was dedicated December 5, 1906. 



and the hill crowned with the Cathedral arch, 
the buildings of Columbia College, Barnard 
College, St. Luke's Home, St. Luke's Hospital, 
and the Woman's Hospital." 

About two hundred women who have given 
to the support of the hospital were present at 
the exercises. Mrs. Russel Sage, vice-presi- 
dent of the board of governors and chairman 
of the ladies' assistant board, was unable to 
attend. She has recently added to her numer- 
ous gifts to the hospital a contribution o' 
$50,000. Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson has 
recently presented $150,000. 

The Woman's Hospital is of imposing ap- 
pearance, built in the Italian Renaissance 
style, of white limestone and marble, seven 
stories in height. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



The 



'^lenburas Foods. 



Provide nourishment suited to the needs and digestive powers of the child from birth 
onward, according to the development of the digestive organs. 

THe ••Allenburys" MilK Food ''No. 1" 

Designed for use from birth to three months of age, is identical in chemical composition with 
maternal milk, and is as easy of assimilation. It can therefore be given alternately with the 
breast, if required, without fear of upsetting the infant. 

THe ••Allenburys " MilK Food 'VNo. 2" 

Designed for use from three to six months of age, is similar to "No. 1," but contains in 
addition a small proportion of maltose, dextrine and the soluble phosphates and albuminoids. 

THe ••Allenbtirys" Malted Food "No. 3"' 

Designed for use after the fifth or sixth month, is a partially predigested farinaceous food need- 
ing the addition of cows* milk to prepare it for use. 

Physicians familiar with the "Allenburys" Series of Infant Foods pronounce this to be the 
most rational system of artificial feeding yet devised. Their use saves the troublesome and fre- 
quently inaccurate modification of milk and is less expensive. Experience proves that children 
thrive on these Foods better than on any other artificial nourishment. 

SAMPLE AND CLINICAL REPORTS SENT ON APPLICATION 



THE ALLEN (Si HANBURYS CO., Limited 

TORONTO. CAN. LONDON. ENG. NIAGARA FALLS. N. Y. 



(ISsi^ 



The value of grape juice as a drink for convales- 
cents is admitted by the entire medical fraternity. 
The purity of the juice is the vital thing. 

Welch's Crape Juice 

is the juice of the grape in its natural state, put up 
with every precaution in new, hermetically sealed 
glass bottles. 

Sold by leading druggists everywhere. 3-oz. bottle, 
by mail. 6c. Pint botde, express prepaid, 25c. 
Our booklet, " The Food Value of the Grape," 
is worth reading. Sent free. 

WELCH GRAPE JUICE CO. 

Westficid, N. Y. 



ilCHS 



When yon write Advertisers, please mention Th« Tbaiwid Nuxsx. 



jBleto Bemettes anu appliancesi 



For the Neurasthenic 

Oftentimes the neurasthenic patient can be 
promptly started on the road to recovery by 
a temporary change of scene and the use of 
a good tonic. Gray's Glycerine Tonic Com- 
pound is of especial value in these conditions 
of nervous exhaustion, and it often supplies 
ju*t the right support and reconstructive ac- 
tion needed. 

+ 

Lysol in Surgery 

A three per cent, solution of Lysol in hot 
water may be used for sterilizing the hands 
of the doctor, his assistants and nurses, in- 
stead of soap or other cleansing agents. For 
a hand douche to be used during the opera- 
tion a one per cent, solution in hot water will 
be satisfactory for removing blood or pus, 
a nail brush being used. In preparing the 
field for operation the surface may be thor- 
oughly washed with a two per cent, solution. 

+ 
Mystic Cream 

We call the attention of nurses who suffer 
with rough, chapped hands, to a new prep- 
aration called Mystic Cream, advertised in 
this issue. This preparation is entirely free 
from any kind of grease, neutralizes the effect 
of Bi-Chloride and other irritating chemicals, 
and is quickly absorbed leaving the skin soft, 
white and smooth. 

Free samples are cheerfully mailed by 
Messrs. Ogden & Shimer, Middletown, N, Y. 

+ 

Assured Purity 

The neutrality and general purity of the 
salts entering the composition of Peacock's 
Bromides have been attested to by eminent 
chemists. This assurance in its purity and 
uniformity is of great moment to the general 
practitioner when he desires to employ a con- 
tinuous bromide treatment. It is a palatable 
preparation and as each fluid drachm con- 
tains fifteen grains of the combined bromides, 
the dose is easily adjusted. 



Much in a Little 

Sanitary napkins are now being packed 
one each in a compressed tablet; so small 
that they may be carried in a purse. Yet 
when these napkins are opened out they are 
full-sized sanitary pads that will absorb half 
a pint of fluid, which distributes itself 
throughout the pad and so prevents its be- 
coming soggy or uncomfortable. 

They are excellent as a sanitary towel, and 
cannot be improved on as an absorbent pad 
in obstetric, gynecologic, cancer and like 
cases. They occupy little room and have the 
greatest power to absorb. See advertisement 
on Lister's Napkins, Compressed, on another 
page of this magazine. 
+ 
Gratifying Success 

I seldom give my support to proprietary 
preparations, but as my experience with Res- 
inol has been so gratifying, I think it but jus- 
tice to make it known. I have found this prep- 
aration of exceptional value in the treatment 
of Pruritus, especially of the Menopause. 
Two cases which had existed for over six 
months were promptly relieved and cured by 
a few applications; the usual routine prepara- 
tions having been previously used without, 
benefit. ^ m. Augsberger, M. D., 

4. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Passiflora 

Daniel's Conct. Tr. Passiflora Incarnata is 
indispensable in the treatment of nervous 
diseases. For diseases of women where ex- 
treme nervousness is encountered and a 
gradual wasting away is discovered, and es- 
pecially during the menopause, it can always 
be depended on. 

Passiflora is used with exceptional success 
in dentition, relieving the irritability of chil- 
dren and enabling them to sleep soundly. 
Wherever a nerve calmative is required — in- 
somnia, St. Vitus' Dance, hysteria, restless- 
ness, typhoid fever, etc., Passiflora exerts a 
wonderul influence. Its effects are prompt, 
and, unlike the opiates, display no deleterious 
results on the patient. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



'Pure Gum '* With Us Means " Pure Rubber/ 




No More Colicky Babies 

Where the Davidson Patent Near Nsi> 
ture Nipple No. 60 is used. Does 
not collapse, is easily kept clean. Made of pure 
Para R.tibber. Sold only in clia* 
mon<l»skape<l boxes. For sale by all 
druggists. Free sample mailed for postage, 2 
cents. 

Davidson Rubber Co., 

Box 481 Boston, Mass. 



(?AP5HEAP 

i^**^ THE MODERN 

\ SAFETY PIN 




by Trained 

Nurses .^^=^^^ //y^iH 

not 

Pul 

Out 

^TIFF 
"^TRONfi 

C0ILLE5S 

THE ONLY SAFETY PIN 
MADE THAT CAN NOT aTCH 
IN THE FABRIC, 

^JUDSON PIN CO.MFGRS 

ROCHESTER.N.Y. 4 

5tn<l Postal to lol FVflnkliYiS+.HY.City 
POY pRee Sample*. 



Made 
mall 
Sizes 




■^URSES were among the first to recc^nize the benefits of 
■•■^ rubber heels. The first rubber heeb that they recognized 
were the pioneers, CSullivan's. These heels rendered them the 
benefits that they expected. In the course of time the popular- 
ity of the CSullivan heel caused substitutes to be put onthe 
market, and then to be attached to nurses' Oxfords and Juliets. 
These substitutes proved to be a disappointment to the nurses 
who wanted a noiseless, resilient and durable hecJ of new rubber, 
such as the O 'Sullivan Rubber Co. make, and such as you can 
buy from reputable dealers attached to muxes' Oxfords and Jul- 
iets already ready made. You can avoid disappointment by 
insisting when you buy the heeb separate, or shoes with heels 
attached, that the heels be O'Sullivan's, and obtain the noise- 
less tread. the resiUency, the economy and the comfort that you 
expect will be yours. From the makers unattached they are 35 
cents by mail. 

O'SIILLIVAN RUBBER CO., 'CIJ:'- 

LISTER'S NAPKINS 

Compressed 



Sanitary 



Necessity 




FOR WOMEN 



Lister's Compressed Napkins in tablet 
package are so small that one can be 
carried in a purse, several in a hand-bag ; 
and yet they have the capacity of ab- 
sorbing half a pint of fluid. They do 
not become soggy ; do not chafe ; are 
to be burned after use. They save time,, 
space and energy; therefore are the best 
sanitary napkin on the market. Just 
the thing when travelling. 

Price, 5 Cents each ; 60 Cents a dozen. 

Sold by the dozen only 

The Lister Surgical Co. 

100 William St. New York City 



When you write Advertisers, please mention The Trained Nurse. 



66 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Qood for Cuts 

Cando, N. D., Jan. 28, '05. 
Norwich Pharmacal Co., Norwich, N. Y. 

Gentlemen : — I quite by accident, of course, 
sliced off the fleshy portion of the end of my 
left index finger and cut the second finger to 
the bone. I dressed it with Unguentine and 
kept up the treatment; both fingers healed 
nicely. It being my left finger I was enabled 
to go on with my work. 

As a nurse, I am often called in accidents 
until the doctor can get there and oftimes am 
fifteen and twenty miles from a physician. 
Hence 1 keep on hand a small assortment of 
remedies of various kinds. Unguentine is al- 
ways one of the number. 
Very truly, 
Frances Connely, (Nurse and M.Ph.) 



A Handsome Brochure 

The department of experimental medicine 
of the great firm of Parke, Davis & Company, 
Detroit, Michigan, have recently issued a very 
handsome brochure describing their labora- 
tories. 

Park, Davis & Company have a plant which 
covers seven acres of ground and employes 
2,000 people steadily. This is the newest de- 
partment of this company, and one upon 
which much care, thought, and money has 
been lavished, and the company are entitled 
to feel justly proud of the results which have 
been obtained. 

On reading the Brochure one is favorably 
impressed with the sincerity of their desire 
to leave nothing undone to enrich the materia 
medica and incidentally elevate the standard 
of pharmaceutical science. 



Quality Appreciated 

The surprising success during the holiday 
season of the Freewood Perfume Company — 
whose advertisement appears in our back 
pages — is another proof that it pays better 
to give quality than to offer quantity and 
decorations only. Violet de Russie is a per- 
fume the strength of which surpasses the 
most renowned French products.' This state- 
ment is the outcome of comparative tests 
made by authorities on the subject, and is 
upheld by ladies whose judgment is unim- 
peachable. Each drop furnishes a rich odor. 



each drop is of value, therefore an ounce 
bottle for $1.00 lasts longer than many an- 
other two ounce bottle. Economy lies in 
buying quality. Its fragrance is exquisite. 
Every user of perfumes should give it a trial 
in order to establish about themselves an 
atmosphere of fragrant individuality. 



To Clean Gloves 

The best way to improve the appearance 
of gloves that have become soiled (other than 
sending them to a cleaner) is to use Ivory 
Soap Paste. It will not remove dirt that has 
become ingrained in the leather; but anything 
short of that disappears before it as if by 
magic. 

This is the formula : To one pint of boil- 
ing water add one and one-half ounces of 
Ivory Soap cut into shavings ; boil ten minutes 
after the soap is thoroughly dissolved. Let it 
cool. 

Put glove on hand. Dip a soft flannel into 
the Ivory Paste and rub it over the soiled 
parts. Remove with another soft cloth. Let 
the glove dry on hand. 

Ivory Paste can also be used to clean white 
kid and satin slippers, straw hats, canvas 
shoes, etc. It will keep for months if placed 
in a glass jar with a screw top. 



Qood in Typhoid 

There are many different opinions expressed 
as to the proper course to pursue in feeding 
typhoid fever patients, but clinical results 
have been so favorable to the use of Horlick's 
Malted Milk in cases of this nature that we 
deem it of sufficient importance to direct at- 
tention to its advantages as an agreeable, 
nourishing, easily assimilated food for such 
patients. It presents the entire nutrition of 
pure milk, in powder form, with a proper 
ratio of malted cereal nutriment, so prepared 
in vacuo that it is digested with the minimum 
effort. The casein of the milk has been so 
modified that it forms fine, flocculent curds in 
the stomach, thus obviating the distress and 
discomfort that frequently arises from the 
use of plain milk, which generally forms 
large, indigestible curds, serving to bring 
about complications that add much to the dif- 
ficulty of successful treatment. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




In substitute feeding of infants food value is a most 
important consideration. The 'Vital element" is produced 
by the elaboration of food having the proper and tiniform 
consistency. Children who do not show vitality are poorly 
nourished. Dairy milk is seldom uniform in composition 
and it is difficult to secure an approximately uniform aver- 
age up to the minimum requirements. 

Highland 
Evaporated Milk 

offers the following uniform analysis: 

Water Fat Milk Sugar Protein Ash 
68.75 8.75 11.85 9 1.65 

It is simply full-cream cow's milk obtained from many, 
herds and is of uniform and excellent composition. It is 
reduced in volume nearly two and one-half times through 
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68 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



The Sensible Treatment of La-Qrippe 

The patient is usually seen when the fever 
is present, as the chill, which occasionally 
ushers in the disease, has generally passed 
away. First of all the bowels should be 
opened freely by some saline draught. For 
the severe headache, pain and general sore- 
ness give one Antikamnia Tablet, or if the 
pain is very severe, two tablets should be 
given. Repeat every two or three hours as 
required. Often a single dose is followed 
with almost complete relief. If after the 
fever has subsided, the pain, muscular sore- 
ness and nervousness continue, the most de- 
sirable medicines to relieve these and to meet 
the indications for a tonic, are Antikamnia 
and Quinine Tablets, each containing two and 
a half grains Antikamnia and two and a half 
grains quinine.. One tablet three or four 
times a day, will usually answer every pur- 
pose until health is restored. 
+ 
Chronic Coughs and their Treatment 

Abstract of article by J. E. Alter, M. D.; — 
-In treating coughs we quite often en- 



counter obstinate cases , which, no matter 
what combative measures may be instituted, 
will continue without abatement. 

I had been accustomed to prescribe heroin 
alone, but about a year ago my attention 
was called to a preparation of that drug — 
Glyco-Heroin (Smith). Upon giving it a 
good trial I found that it gave me better re- 
sults than obtained when heroin alone was 
given, and much more quickly. Glyco-Heroin 
(Smith) has one distinct advantage over 
plain heroin in that it can be given for a 
long time without ill effects, and in the class 
of patierts in question this is, indeed, a most 
important feature. During the past year and 
a half I have treated a number of cases and 
recurrent winter coughs with Glyco-Heroin 
(Smith) and have obtained uniformly good 
results. 

+ 
Sextonol Tablets 

Readily assimilated blood, nerve and tissue 
nutrient, incorporating the six important 
Glycero-Phosphate salts in a compact and 
stable form, convenient for carriage and ad- 
ministration. It is far preferable to the bulky 
and expensive elixirs and syrups, in which 
the Glycero- Phosphates, are liable to decom- 
position and which contain alcohol, glucose, 



etc., constituting undesirable ballast for the 
patient's stomach. 

While the hypophosphites, as is shown in 
authoritative works on pharmacology, pass 
unchanged through the system, the Glycero- 
phosphates are completely assimilated. They 
thus replenish the enervated cells with phos- 
phorus in the form in which it is naturally 
present in the body, stimulate the appetite, 
improve nutrition, increase blood formation, 
and augment the rapid tissue interchange 
which constitutes health. Their continued 
administration never causes depression. 

+ 

Most Effectual 

By far the most effectual form of iron in 
the treatment of malarial anemia is that which 
is neutral in reaction and available for im- 
mediate absorption. The organo-plastic form 
of iron, as foimd in Pepto-Mangan (Gude), 
certainly fulfils the requirements of the 
physician with greater promptness and uni- 
formity than any oither product thus far 
evolved. 

This preparation — Pepto Mangan (Gude) 
— is by all means the most potent hemoglobin- 
producing form of iron, and it undoubtedly 
surpasses other ferruginous products as an in- 
vigorator of the digestive and nutritive func- 
tions. These assertions are easily confirmed 
by the microscope. 

It is also an accepted fact that Pepto-Man- 
gan (Gude) does not induce constipation, and 
it seems to materially hasten repair of the 
mucous surfaces of the alimentary tract re- 
sulting from thte structural changes incident 
to the malarial infection.- 
+ 
Announcement 

The Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Institute and 
School of Mechano-Therapy, Philadelphia, 
Pa., wishes to announce that the knowledge 
of mechanical treatments gained by their 
head nurse. Miss Louise Morstatt this fall in 
Europe under the instruction of Professors 
Drs. Schuetz, Berlin, Winternitz- Vienna, 
Schott-Nauheim, Bier-Bonn, Dupont, Paris, 
will be embodied in their courses in Massage, 
Medical and Orthopaedic Gymnastics, Elec- 
tricity and Hydro-Therapy in the winter 
courses opening January 15, '07. 

The total number of mechanical treatments 
given at this institution during the first 



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7D 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



eleven months of this year amounts to 6,168 
treatments, an increase of 2,374 treatments in 
eleven months over the preceding twelve 
months in 1905 amounting to 3,794 treatments. 
This fact sufficiently illustrates how mechani- 
cal treatments grow in favor with the medical 
profession as well as with the laity. 

Further particulars may be obtained by 
directly communicating with the institution. 
+ 
"Flat-Foot" 

"Flat-foot" is a constant menace to nurses. 

It is caused by failure to support the arch 
of the foot which is eventually broken down 
from the continued strain of being on your 
feet for hours at a time. 

Slippers and thin-soled shoes give the arch 
of the foot no support at all. The result is 
that many nurses suffer continually from their 
feet, overtax their strength and, in the end, 
are afflicted with this painful deformity. 

All danger of "Flat-foot" can be avoided 
by wearing the RED CROSS SHOE. The 
extra strong shank of the Red Cross supports 
the arch. It makes a steady bridge between 
sole and heel. The entire weight of the body 



is thus sustained without strain. Nurses 
stand all day in RED CROSS SHOES with- 
out even feeling tired. 

With this perfect support, the RED 
CROSS combines absolute comfort. It has 
a sole of especially tanned leather that is 
flexible. It bends with every movement of 
the foot and so stops th'e rub, the pinch, the 
chafe which stiff soles cause. 

It is noiseless. 

"Tender feet forced me to wear soft-sole 
shoes until I was threatened with 'flat-foot'," 
writes one nurse. "RED CROSS SHOES 
give my feet the necessary support; and they 
let me stand all day with perfect ease." 

"I am on my feet almost the entire day, 
seven days a week, all the year round," writes 
another. "Yet, with RED CROSS SHOES 
I never even have tired feet." 

The RED CROSS SHOE is made in all 
styles, all leathers. It is equally well adapted 
for sick room or street. It is kept by lead- 
ing dealers. If your dealer hasn't it, he can 
easily obtain it. Or you can send your size 
and order direct to Krohn, Fechheimer & Co., 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 



(Continued from page 48) 



nichigan State Nurses' Association 



That Michigan is very much alive to the 
necessity of working in the interjest of State 
legislation was shown at a recent meeting of 
the executive board of the Michigan State 
Nurses' Association at Grand Rapids. 

The reports of the special legislative sub- 
committees showed a thoroughly harmonious 
spirit, an interest in the cause amounting to 
enthusiasm and such well organized forces 
that the members of the board, although able 
to face failure, feel that this time the bill 
is sure to pass. 

Two years ago when the bill went up to the 
legislature, not enough preparation had been 
made ; people did not understand its purpose 
or scope, no one was ready to do much 
pushing, and no one was much surprised when 
the bill failed to pass. 

This year, under the capable direction of 
Miss S. E. Sly, president of the State Asso- , 
ciation. a thorough canvass of the State is 
being made by counties. 

Legislators are being personally interviewed, 



petitions are being widely circulated, and 
newspapers and periodicals are publishing 
items regarding the bill and its purposes. 

When the bill is finally placed in the hands 
of the legislators in January it will be looked 
after by four very well known men well 
versed in the ways of advancing legislation, 
who will see that it does not get "side 
tracked" on its way through the two houses. 

Miss Sarah E. Sly, Interstate Secretary and 
President of the Michigan State Nurses' As- 
sociation, is doing considerable work in help- 
ing to organize State associations. 

She recently spent several days in St. Louis 
and Kansas City, Mo., and later in Louisville, 
Ky., in the interests of State work. 

In both states associations were formed 
and much enthusiasm manifested over the 
prospect of securing State registration in the 
future. 

As an organizer Miss Sly shows great 
capability and has the knowledge of how to 
go about things at her finger tips. 



Cable of Contents 



Paos 

The Red Cross Nurses Corps Beatrice Stevenson y^ 

A Practical Talk to Nurses. . . Norton L. Wilson, M.D. 76 

Timely Thoughts 80 

The iMPROVEXtENT OF Present Methods of Teaching in Training 

Schools Registered Nurse 81 

La Grippe 6". Virginia Levis, M.S.N. 83 

Dietetics for Nurses A. L. Benedict, A.M., M.D. 86 

A General Massage Treatment Harriet H. Baird 91 

Obstetric Emergencies. Alfred Worcester, M.D. 94 

A Coating for Hospital Walls Claudia Q. Murphy 99 

The Import of Pain A. P. Reed, M.D. loi 

Department of Army Nursing Dita H. Kinney 102 

Editorially Speaking 106 

In the Nursing World no 

The Editor's Letter-Box 121 

Book Reviews 126 

The Hospital Review 130 

New Remedies and Appliances 136 

The Publisher's Desk 144 



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Clje CrameD Jiurse ana 



VOL. XXXVUl. 



NEW YORK, FEBRUARY. 1907 



NO. 2 



C!)e 2^ei5 Cross JBturses Corps 



BEATRICE STEVENSON 



IT is now two years since the re- 
organization of the American Na- 
tional Red Cross was effected. At that 
time it was announced that in each State 
or Territory where a branch was organ- 
ized one of the most important functions 
would be the enrolling of a corps of 
trained nurses for active service in time 
of war or of a great calamity in the State 
or its vicinity. It was further stated thit 
any nurse who had already entered her 
name upon the eligible train^l nurse list 
of the army might also enroll as a Red 
Cross nurse, that the society had two 
forms of agreement for its nurses, one 
in case a nurse was so situated that she 
cared to give her services, and the other 
providing for the same salary as that 
paid to army nurses, together with trans- 
portation and maintenance. Nurses en- 
rolled in New York State are required 
to show a certificate of registration with 
the regents of the University of the 
State of New York. 

At the annual meeting of the New 
York State Branch of the Red Cross 
held last November the chairman of the 
committee on the enrollment of nurses 
announced that only fourteen nurses had 



enrolled. This is remarkable, because 
there can be no question that the whole 
nursing profession, and in particular the 
Spanish- American War nurses and the 
nurses who have since .served in the 
Army Nurse Corps, are largely indebted 
to the Red Cross for the magnificent op- 
portunity it afforded them in 1898 of 
proving the kind of service that nurses 
could render the country in time of need. 
At the outbreak of that war, "women" 
nurses were not wanted in the army. 
Nurses who volunteered their services 
to the State officials on behalf of the 
soldiers were in some cases politely in- 
formed that their application had been 
placed on file, and that was the last they 
ever heard of it. Even as late as July 
17. when hundreds of men were des- 
perately ill, principally with typhoid 
fever, the surgeon-general of the army, 
although he had made arrangement for 
the employment of trained female nurses 
through a committee of the Daughters 
of the Revolution in general hospitals, 
for the benefit of the soldiers, wrote : 
'T do not approve of sending female 
nurses with troops in the field or to the 
camps of instruction. It is the intention 



74 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



to transfer the seriously sick men from 
our field hospitals to the general hos- 
pitals as soon as practical ; but we wish 
our enlisted men of the Hospital Corps 
to take care of the sick in the division 
field hospitals and in camps of in- 
struction, so that they may be fully pre- 
pared to perform the same duties when 
the troops are in active operation." 

However, as the result of a confer- 
ence held at the White House by request 
of President McKinley, between a com- 
mittee representing the American Na- 
tional Red Cross Relief Committee and 
the Secretary of War, followed by a 
meeting with the adjutant-general and 
the surgeon-general of the army, Mrs. 
Whitelaw Reid, secretary of Auxiliary 
No. 3 of the Red Cross for the Main- 
tenance of Trained Nurses, was author- 
ized to send ten female nurses selected 
by herself to Leiter Hospital, Camp 
Thomas, Ga. ; ten to the U. S. General 
Hospital at Fort Monroe, Va., and two 
to the hospital at Fort Wadsworth 
(which number was afterwards in- 
creased to forty-one) ; also twenty 
nurses to the hospitals in the city of 
Charleston. The nurses at Fort Wads- 
worth, Charleston and Leiter Hospitals 
were maintained and paid by the aux- 
iliary. At Fort Monroe the auxiliary 
provided maintenance for forty-three 
nurses, whose salary was paid by the 
government, and the auxiliary also paid 
the salaries and maintenance of two 
Red Cross nurses. At Governors Island, 
six more nurses were maintained and 
paid by the auxiliary. At Fort Hamil- 
ton, the salaries and laundry bills of 
twenty-three nurses were paid by the 
auxiliary ; the government provided tents 
and rations. 

In the latter part of July, there was 
considerable delay in transporting nurses 
ordered to the army hospitals to the 



scene of their work, owing to the fact 
that the nurses were selected by the 
Daughters of the Revolution Hospital 
Corps ; but, as Congress had provided no 
special fund for the transportation ex- 
penses, considerable delay occurred be- 
fore the nurses could reach the army 
hospitals. The Red Cross Auxiliary 
had collected a large fund to meet the 
expense of providing nurses for the sol- 
diers, so, after a conference between rep- 
resentatives of the Red Cross Auxiliary 
and the Daughters of the American 
Revolution Hospital Corps, the Red 
Cross placed a fund of $500 at the dis- 
posal of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, which was replenished from 
time to time until September 6, when 
$5,425.80 had been disbursed. There- 
after the government assumed the entire 
expense of transportation. 

One of the largest fields of the activ- 
ity of Red Cross Auxiliary No. 3 was 
at Chickamauga. Their offer to supply 
Sternberg Hospital with trained nurses 
and all equipment for service was ac- 
cepted, and in all the auxiliary expended 
at Chickamauga for building equipment, 
nurses, supplies and maintenance more 
than $9,000. This was the first large 
field hospital organized with women 
nurses. At Camp Wyckoff, Montauk 
Point, the Red Cross furnished sup- 
plies of all kinds for patients and nurses. 
At Camp Black, salaries and laundry 
bills of forty-two nurses were paid by 
the auxiliary, and the government pro- 
vided tents and rations. 

Much more could be written of the 
work of the Red Cross in 1898, but 
enough has already been said to indi- 
cate how much the efficiency of work 
done by the nurses during the Spanish- 
American War was due to the gener- 
ous aid and support of the Red Cross. 
The outcome of that work was the es- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



75 



tablishment of the Army Nurse Corps, 
so it would seem in order for the Span- 
ish-American Wai" nurses and the 
nurses who have since served in the 
Army Nurse Corps to be the first to 
come forward and indentify themselves 
with the work of the Red Cross. 

A circular of information about the 
work and re-organization of the Red 
Cross states that at present and for some 
time to come, to acquire a large and 
widely distributed membership so that 
the organization is really representative 
of the American people will be the duty 
of first importance of the Red Cross. 
The State is being organized along 
county lines, with the purpose that in 
each county there shall be a complete 
and efficient Red Cross organization. 
The only requirement for regular mem- 
bership is payment of one dollar annual 
dues. 

There are several ways in which a 
nurse can help in gaining new members. 
She can enroll in the Red Cross Nurses 
Corps (which does not require the pay- 
ment of any dues, unless the nurse 
wishes also to join as a regular mem- 
ber), or if her circumstances are such 
that she does not feel at liberty to en- 
roll for nursing service, she can become 
a regular member, at the same time ask- 
ing the secretary to notify her if at any 
time the services of nurses are required, 
as she might be able to come forward if 



an emergency arose ; she can try to in- 
terest her sister nurses in the Red Cross, 
and she has many opportunities of bring- 
ing in new members from among her 
patients. 

It is desired to have the Red Cross 
an organization of the whole people 
for Red Cross work, accordingly every 
individual nurse should make an eflFort 
to take some part in the Red Cross. 
The ethics of nursing emphasize the 
duty and moral obligation of the profes- 
sion to humanity at large. The Ameri- 
can National Red Cross is the reserve 
emergency organization of the American 
people, and there are now forty-three 
national Red Cross organizations in the 
world, among the most efficient being 
the Japanese, German and Italian — so 
no organization could be more far-reach- 
ing in its service to humanity. 

And, last of all, human nature ever 
demands something of self-inttrest as a 
culminating motive. The profession 
needs an outside interest so large that 
it overshadows the many trivialities 
which beset our present progress, the 
mole hills which continual introspec- 
tion of our own aflFairs has made ap- 
pear as mountains to us. If the whole 
body of the nurses would come forward 
and identify themselves with the work of 
the Red Cross we might see many of 
the problems now before us in a new 
light, and truer perspective. 




91 practical Calli to JBturses' 



NORTOX L. WILSON, M.D. 
Elizabeth. N. J. 



IT has been my good fortune to be 
associated with nurses for the past 
twenty-five years, although I have been 
in practice only twenty-two years, dur- 
ing which time 1 have had ample oppor- 
tunity to api)reciate the work of the 
trained nurse. I look upon the trained 
nurse as the right hand of the physician 
— it is she to whom we look for the car- 
rying out of our orders. The doctor 
takes his life in his hands when he en- 
ters the medical profession — so is it with 
the nurse when she enters upon her 
professional career. 

When first I was lecturing to the 
nurses I sometimes would say to them, 
"Enter upon your duties with but a sin- 
gle purpose, and let your profession be 
your sweethearts." You may judge for 
yourselves how much of an impression 
my remarks made upon those nurses 
when I tell you that twenty-two out of 
the seventy graduates from the Training 
School for Nurses in connection with 
the Elizabeth General Hospital and Dis- 
pensary have taken unto themselves hus- 
bands ; perhaps I should say. were too 
weak to withstand the seductive powers 
of the sterner sex. 

Permit me to read a short summary 
of our training school : 

The first class graduated from the 
training school of the Elizabeth Hos- 
pital and Dispensary was in 1892 (four- 
teen years ago). Three nurses gradu- 
ated in that class, none of whom have 
married, and all of whom are doing 
satisfactory work as private nurses. In 



the class of 1893 there vvere also three 
graduates, but, not having the backbone 
of the preceding class, they all fell vic- 
tims to the wooing of men. In 1894 
the graduates still consisted of the 
magic number of three, two of whom 
married ; the other one is still doing 
good work as a private nurse in the 
city of New A^ork. The next year, 
1895, there were four graduates; three 
took unto themselves husbands, the 
other one remaining in the ranks to help 
fight the battle against disease. 

1896 produced five graduates, three 
of whom are still in the ranks, one mar- 
ried, and one sacrificed her life, con- 
tracting diphtheria from a patient. 

1897 produced but one graduate, who 
is doing good work, especially among 
those afflicted with contagious diseases. 
The next class, that of 1898, sent forth 
eight graduates, five of whom have be- 
come wives, the other three remaining 
faithful to their professional vows. 1899 
had no graduating class, because the 
course of instruction was changed from 
two to three years. 1900 had seven 
graduates; three married, one went 
home to keep house for her father, the 
other three are still in the ranks per- 
forming their duty. Six graduated in 
1901 ; four married, two remaining loyal 
to the profession. In 1902 there were 
eight graduates, none of whom has mar- 
ried. The class of k>03 consisted of 
seven, none of whom has married. 
1904 turned out seventeen graduates, 
none married up to date. There were 



* Read at the meeting of the New Jersey State Nurses' Association. Contributed to The Trained Nursi 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



77 



no graduates in 1905, because the class 
had been doubled the preceding year. 
The present year graduated eight, and, 
so far as I know, they are all single. 

Total graduates, seventy. 

Total marriages reported, twenty-two. 

Total deaths, one. 

I must confess that formerly I looked 
upon the woman who entered the mat- 
rimonial bureau, as the training school 
was popularly called, as having but one 
purpose, viz. : that of securing a man. 
I considered the hours of study and in- 
struction a waste of time, but after due 
reflection I am convinced that the train- 
ing they received was of benefit, be- 
cause I actually know some trained 
nurses who have become good house- 
keepers and devoted wives. My atten- 
tion was recently called to some verses 
published in one of the issues of The 
Trained Nur.se, the last stanza of which 
runs thus : 

"And should she break some poor man's 
heart. 
I wouldn't put it past her, 
To up and say, in her usual way, 
Just use adhesive plaster." 

The profession of nursing is as old as 
the hills, and history tells us that women 
were trained to look after the sick, as 
far back as the sixteenth century. It 
was not until 1856 that a practical school 
was founded by Miss Florence Night- 
ingale, in connection with St. Thomas' 
Hospital, in London, that nursing be- 
caine a profession. In 1872 ^liss Louise 
Lee Schuyler founded the first training 
school for nurses in this country, in con- 
nection with Bellevue Hospital, since 
which time the noble army of workers 
in this field has increased rapidly. 

How much instruction shall we give 
our nurses? I am convinced that the 



older graduates of the training school 
in connection with the Elizabeth Gen- 
eral Hospital and Dispensary were over- 
trained ; that is to say, we gave them too 
many lectures. If I remember correctly, 
I used to give some ten or twelve lec- 
tures on physiology, and the lectures on 
the other subjects were quite as profuse. 
For the last few years it has been my 
habit to give only foui lectures, three 
on physiology and one on hygiene. 

The L'nited States Civil Service Com- 
mission, in advertising for nurses to go 
to Panama, examined them in : 

Anatomy and physiology. 

Hygiene for the sick-room. 

General nursing. 

Surgical nursing. 

Obstetrical nursing. 

Experience in nursing. 

Anatomy and physiology only counted 
5. while the next four subjects counted 
20 each, and experience in nursing 
counted 15. That gives you an idea of 
how our Government values anatomy 
and physiology as requirements for an 
efficient nurse. I think, however, that a 
nurse should know something of an- 
atomy, physiolog}'^ and hygiene, of the 
uses and effects of certain drugs, of the 
antidotes to poisons, of obstetrics, and 
possibly bacteriology, together with her 
training in a hospital, which includes the 
instruction given by the directress of the 
nurses and the head nurse. 

It is perhaps hardly necessary to point 
out to you that a nurse is not a doctor. 
Your position is subservient to the doc- 
tor ; you are to carry out his orders, but 
you are not entitled to prescribe for the 
patient or to decide what method of 
treatment is proper for the disease from 
which the patient is suflfering. The law 
is specific on this point, and says: "The 
person who shall prescribe, direct, 
recommend, advise, apply, give or sell. 



78 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



for tlic use of any person or persons any 
drug or medicine or other agency or ap- 
plication for. the treatment, cure or relief 
of any bodily injury, infirmity or disease, 
shall be regarded as practicing medi- 
cine. Any person practicing medicine 
without a license, shall be deemed guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
thereof, shall be punished by a fine of 
not less than one hundred dollars or im- 
prisonment in the county jail for not 
less than thirty days." Not only are 
you subject to the laws of the State, but 
the person who presumes to prescribe 
without possessing competent knowl- 
edge may be liable to an action for 
damages. 

Nurses, like doctors, learn much of 
the domestic aflfairs of their patients, 
and if you give verbal defamation of 
character you may be sued for slander. 
If you write that defamation it consti- 
tutes libel. You cannot, therefore, be 
too careful as to what you say or write 
concerning what you see and hear in 
the homes of your patients. 

I am not a behever in the labor union 
as it exists to-day, because it drags the 
skilled mechanic down to the level of 
the inferior workman. It takes away 
his individuality and prostitutes his 
liberty. It fixes the standard of com- 
pensation, making it equal whether the 
labor be skilled or unskilled. If they 
would grade the mechanic and pay him 
according to his worth then I would be 
in favor of the union, for I believe in 
banding together for protection. In 
union there is strength. 

What I have said regarding labor 
unions is equally true of nurses. Not 
every nurse earns $25 per week ; she 
may demand it, and she may get it, but 
all do not earn it. If the nurse is in- 
ferior she should receive inferior pay. 

Only recently I received a circular 



from a I'hiladclphia schot)l for nurses, 
which reads as follows : "In supplying 
nurses to families of moderate income, 
we are catering to the wants of at least 
95 per cent, of the community. Because 
a patient cannot pay the highest price 
for a nurse it does not follow that he 
should not have the best he can afford." 
This latter statement is correct, and as 
inferior nurses they receive inferior pay, 
and there is no reason why they should 
be placed on the same level with the 
trained nurse who devotes three years 
of her life in a hospital preparing her- 
self for her profession. The poor me- 
chanic, like the inferior nurse, exists, 
and always will exist, but you have been 
trained for the very best quality of 
nurses. I am of the opinion, however, 
that if your association could furnish 
nurses to the poor gratis, and to those 
who are in moderate circumstances at a 
moderate price you would not only 
limit the production of the inferior 
nurse, but you would give the patient 
the benefit of your superior skill. The 
nurse, like the physician, must do some- 
thing for "sweet charity." This, of 
course, could only be done by your 
alumnae societies sending one of their 
number to nurse the poor after she has 
returned from a pay case and has re- 
received the requisite rest, or by the es- 
tablishment of settlement nurse work- 
ers. I believe every city should employ 
a certain number of nurses according to 
its needs, not only to care for the sick 
poor, but to assist the physicians in look- 
ing after the health of the school chil- 
dren. 

What are the functions of the trained 
nurse? Your first duty, like that of the 
physician, is to educate the people, and 
I know of no better subject upon which 
you can talk than that of tuberculosis. 
Tell the people of the great danger 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



79 



from infection which hes in the in- 
discriminate deposit of sputum contain- 
ing the bacilH, which when dry and pul- 
verized may be inhaled by susceptible 
individuals and then cause the disease to 
be developed. In the matter of preven- 
tion, remember that nature has done 
much to secure us against infection. 
The nasal secretions of a healthy per- 
son are bactericidal and kill the germs 
before they can enter the lungs. The 
blood in health contains leucocytes — 
white blood corpuscles or phagocytes, 
which destroy the germs. They are 
scavengers which take up the danger- 
ous parasites and destroy them. If we 
are in perfect health the germ of tuber- 
culosis cannot fasten itself upon us. 
Tell the tuberculous patient never to 
spit except in a spittoon, a piece of 
cloth or a handkerchief used for that 
purpose. The spittoon should contain 
some antiseptic solution or at least 
water, so that the sputum cannot dry. 
Teach patients to keep their bodies clean 
and to scrub their teeth night and 
morning. Tuberculous patients should 
never kiss any one on the mouth or allow 
anybody to do so to them. They should 
learn to love fresh air and sunshine, and 
be taught to take nourishing food prop- 
erly prepared. In this way you can 
show the masses, rich and poor, how to 
eradicate a disease which is so eminently 
preventable and so often curable. The 
recent establishment of anti-tuberculo- 
sis societies in the State will, no doubt, 
call upon you to take charge of their 
sanitariums or the day camps. I would, 
therefore, advise you to post yourselves 
upon such matters, and I know of no 
more instructive article on this subject 
for nurses than that of Dr. S. A. Knopf, 
of New York. 

You go into the family to lighten its 
burdens, not to increase them, by de- 



manding attention. You should know 
how to do much with little. You should 
make the best use of the things at hand. 
The nurse who cannot go into the kit- 
chen and prepare a dainty meal for her 
patient without causing the cook to 
leave has not reached the height of her 
attainments. You should be prepared 
for any emergency. I remember a 
trained nurse, a woman of refinement 
and culture, and a graduate of one of 
the best schools in this country, who 
was a most excellent nurse in every re- 
spect but one, and that one quality, to 
my mind, was a very important one, and 
that was tact. She did not have the 
happy faculty of getting on with the 
members of the family. You will come 
in contact with parents of children who 
are under certain circumstances most 
unreasonable. In dealing with these 
people you must exercise that rare qual- 
ity, tact. When your judgment fails in 
such matters, consult the attending phy- 
sician, and he will no doubt be able to 
suggest what you are to do. 

Never be afraid to ask the advice of 
the doctor; he is your friend; and if 
you are a competent nurse, he may more 
than once have to ask your advice. 
Never ask questions relating to the case 
which might embarrass the doctor or the 
patient. Never volunteer the informa- 
tion that Dr. A. made a wonderful opera- 
tion, or that Dr. B. is not fitted to prac- 
tice medicive. Patients have very strong 
likes and dislikes regarding the medical 
profession, and you may find that what 
you have said hurts their feelings. Re- 
ligious subjects should never be intruded 
by the nurse, for this is the one other 
subject upon which people have well- 
grounded opinions. Of course, I do not 
mean that you are not to answer ques- 
tions, but you must put art, which means 
skill, into your answers. 



80 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



How can the nurse make the sick- 
room a sun parlor when the blinds are 
drawn and perchance the patient is 
sightless? The power of nursing is not 
given to every young woman, even 
though she may stand at the head of 
her class, for the woman who takes up 
nursing as a profession must be a tyi^e 
peculiarly fitted for such duties. Next 
to the mothers of this country I admire 
the trained nurse of this country, and 
I say of this country because I believe 
the nurses of this country to be superior 
to those of any other country. I admire 
the nurse's devotion to her patients, the 
silent way in which she moves about the 
sick-chamber, the firm but gentle man- 
ner in which she takes the patient's hand 
and counts the pulse, while her counte- 
nance is bright and inspiring; I admire 



the soft voice with which she reassures 
the patient many, many times during the 
(lay of his improvement ; the tactful 
manner in which she avoids depressing 
the patient when she knows the serious- 
ness of the case ; I admire the ease and 
grace with which she readjusts the pil- 
low upon which lies the fevered head; 
the watchful care with which she ad- 
ministers the cooling draught, or the 
medication, or the sponging of the body, 
the taking of the temperature and the 
accuracy with w'hich she records the 
happenings in the sick-room. These 
and many other little things go to make 
up the successful trained nurse. Be 
frank and truthful, gentle and kind, and 
the world will bless you for these quali- 
ties combined. 



Timely Thoug^hts 



Liule self-denials, little honesties, little 
passing words of sympathy, little nameless 
acts of kindness, little silent victories over 
favorite temptations — these are the silent 
threads of gold, which, when woven together, 
gleam out so brightly in the pattern of life 
that God approves. — Dean Farrar. 



Nothing lifts up the spirits so much as just 
to lift the chest up. It takes a load ofif the 
head, off the mind, off the heart. Raise your 
chest so high that the abdominal organs per- 
form their functions in a proper way. When 
one is all doubled over, the head and spine 
are deprived of blood that they are entitled to. 
When the chest is lifted up, the abdominal 
organs are compressed, and the blood that 
has been retired from the circulation 
and accumulated in the liver and the stomach 



is forced back into the current where it be- 
longs. The head and spinal cord get their 
proper supply of blood, and one feels refreshed 
and energized immediately. — Good Health. 
+ 
Man is not all head. You and I arc not 
merely so many thinking machines, who never 
can do anything until we have reasoned out 
the pros and cons, like a lawyer, balancing 
opposing considerations Ijefore giving it 
wrong. There is the heart to be taken into 
account as well as the head; and men are so 
constituted that with most of us the heart is 
truer than the head, and the way of love will 
keep you right when what you think to be 
the way of knowledge will only lead you 
wrong. Charity never faileth, and charity 
means the affection of tlie heart ; and again 
we are told that it is with the heart that man 
believeth unto .salvation. — Canon Ashwell. 



Cf)e 3mprot)ement of ^resient ;^tt|)oli6 of Ceaci): 
mg in Cratning ^cf)oolj3 



A REGISTERED NURSE 



IN considering this subject, one must 
assume that all schools are willing 
and have the facilities for improving 
their present methods. !Many of the 
ideas embodied in this paper might be 
found wholly impracticable in some 
places, at present, but it expresses the 
idea of the writer as to what might be 
done. 

( I ) The persons in charge and re- 
sponsible for the instruction of pupils 
should have no other duties. They 
should be free to give their whole at- 
tention to this most important work, and 
not be hampered by anything which 
would interfere with it. 

In many schools the teaching is done 
entirely by the superintendent and her 
assistants. This should be avoided if at 
all possible. The teaching should not be 
regarded as a side issue to be done or 
not, according to the requirements of the 
other work of the hospital. If the head 
nurse, or superintendent, or both, can 
find time to prepare the lesson and is 
not thoroughly tired out, class will be as 
usual ; otherwise the familiar notice, 
"No class," will be in evidence. 

It will readily be apparent that women 
whose time is taken up by multitudinous 
duties involving continual strain, both 
mental and physical, should not be ex- 
pected to perform a work so important 
as teaching. The superintendent and her 
assistants are obliged to utilize the time 
for studying, in which they should rest, 
and the pupils receive only such instruc- 
tion as they can give them at a time 
when mind and body are tired out. 

This condition can onlv be obviated 



by paid instructors, or, in a small school, 
one. who might if necessary combine 
with her other duties some clerical work, 
the purchasing of certain supplies, or any 
light work not involving too much strain, 
but, at the same time, by so doing, 
make such a position possible, when 
under other conditions it might not be 
so. This, of course, in a school where 
lack of money would have to be taken 
into consideration. 

With the provision for a teacher there 
should be none of the present uncertainty 
regarding classes. Xo irregularity as to 
the hour, length, session and thorough- 
ness of instruction. The superintendent 
and her assistants would be relieved of 
an enormous responsibility, and the pu- 
pils would profit by knowledge imparted 
to them from one whose mind was free 
from other cares and well fitted to give 
them the benefit of carefully prepared 
lessons. 

The personnel of the teaching staff 
should be given very serious considera- 
tion and selection made from those who 
have been specially trained for this par- 
ticular work. 

It would seem most desirable to have 
all instruction given by the.se teachers 
instead of having to depend upon the 
visiting stafT of the hospital for many of 
the lectures. The latter are frequently 
unable to keep their appointments, often 
too busy to give the cour.se entrusted to 
them the proper amount of preparation, 
and many times unable to give any time 
during the day, and. therefore, must 
give their lectures at night. 

(2) A preparatory course, however 



82 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



simple, should take the place of the hap- 
hazard instruction often given pupils, 
and probationers should not be allowed 
to serve in the wards until a reasonable 
amount of instruction had been given 
them, and then only when it is possible 
for them to work under the supervision 
of an older nurse, preferably the head 
nurse or her assistant. 

Without going into details as to time, 
etc., it would be well to note that all 
practical instruction should be given by 
the same teacher, so that some uniform- 
ity in work might be achieved. If quite 
impossible to have a preparatory course 
under the supervision of a teacher who 
has no other duties, the practical work, 
at least, might be assigned to one of the 
school staff, having her give all prelimi- 
nary instruction. 

The present custom, which still ob- 
tains in many schools, of assigning pro- 
bationers to any ward where they may 
be needed, and letting them take their 
chances of getting what attention a busy 
head nurse or possibly a pupil nurse can 
give them, is conducive to much irregu- 
larity and unevenness in their work, and 
is much to be deplored as unfair to pu- 
pils and unsatisfactory to patients. This 
condition of affairs is usually due to one 
of two things: (a) Either the indiffer- 
ence of the board of managers, who do 
not recognize the immense importance 
of a good foundation and a fair start for 
the pupils, or (b) to a lack of money. 

(3) All class instruction should be 
given during the day, preferably in the 
morning hours or early in the afternoon, 
and time spent at class or lecture should 
not be counted as pupils' recreation or 
rest time, but included in their working 
hours. 

The custom of holding classes and lec- 
tures at night defeats its own ends. The 



pupils are tired and often sleepy and are 
not in proper condition, either mental or 
physical, to receive and retain impres- 
sions. Long hours and hard work are 
not conducive to receptiveness, and every 
effort should be made to remedy this 
practice of evening instruction. 

(4) More time and attention should 
be given to practical nursing, to the art 
of making sick people comfortable, 
which is, after all, what good nursing 
means. As in almost every other 
suggestion regarding improvement in 
methods, this would entail a larger nurs- 
ing force than is usually supposed to be 
necessary. Instead of requiring a pupil 
to attend a certain number of patients, 
and do what she can for them in a given 
time, how much better for the patient 
as well as the nurse if she might be en- 
couraged and taught how to make one- 
third or one-half of the number of pa- 
tients comfortable and to do the almost 
innumerable little things which have 
so small a place in the busy wards of a 
hospital. 

The substance of this paper may be 
briefly summarized in this manner : 

( 1 ) Teachers free to devote their 
whole time to instruction of pupils. 

(2) Carefully planned preparatory 
course ; or, at any rate, instruction pre- 
vious to entering upon ward work. 

(3) No night sessions — either classes 
or lectures. 

(4) More time given to actual care of 
patients. 

These improvements might well be 
considered from a humanitarian stand- 
point. 

All suggestions for better methods 
affecting not only pupils but patients en- 
trusted to their care. This is first, last 
and at all times the end toward which 
all schools must work. 



ila (grippe 

S. VIRGINIA LEVIS, M.S.N., 



Author of "Nursing" 



"A ROSE bjTany other name would 

-^^ smell as sweet," — no doubt. 
Still, there is something in a name after 
all. If you told your patient that he 
had an attack of old-fashioned influenza 
he might not feel quite so impressed as 
if you had spoken of epidemic catarrhal 
fever, or contagious catarrh, or la grippe, 
or even plain grip. 

An English publication says of Sir 
John Moore, that when he was a boy the 
term influenza was in constant use "to 
describe an attack of acute catarrh of the 
respiratory and mucous membranes 
from the nose to the bronchial tubes. It 
was, as 'twere, an echo of the great 
pandemic of influenza which raged in 
the winter of 1847-1848. As the years 
rolled by, the name fell more and more 
into disuse until influenza at last became 
a mere tradition in medical nomencla- 
ture. And so things continued until the 
year 1889, when, with all the sudden- 
ness of a volcanic eruption or of a dev- 
astating conflagration, the disease once 
more spread over the habitable globe." 

La grippe is defined as an acute^ spe- 
cific, infectious fever; as a specific catar- 
rhal inflammation of the mucous mem- 
branes of the air-passages, contagious 
and often epidemic ; sometimes pan- 
demic; or there may be merely a few' 
sporadic cases. 

A summing up of the symptoms, all 
of which are by no means 'present in 
every single case, includes chill in the 
early stage, lassitude, prostration to a 
marked degree. In fact, the debility is 
out of all proportion to the intensity of 
the fever and catarrhal processes. Other 
accompaniments are a catarrhal inflam- 



mation of the digestive tract as well as 
that of the respiratory tract; disturb- 
ances of the nervous system, even to de- 
lirium; intense headache; dizziness; 
acrid discharge from the nose ; sleepless- 
ness ; persistent cough, which is worse 
at night ; expectoration ; remittent fever- 
ishness with nocturnal exacerbations. 
This specific disease-poison has been oc- 
casionally mistaken for typhoid fever. 

In some epidemics la grippe is said 
to be as fatal as cholera. This is most 
probably due to the complications, 
though ; for, while physicians realize its 
far-reaching and mailgnant eflfect upon 
the death rate, they do not appear to 
consider it in itself a mortal disease. The 
bacillus of Pfeiffer is the specific poison, 
and is not influenced by soil, climate, 
season, or atmospheric changes. For the 
remarkable outbreaks of the malady 
which occur from time to time, physi- 
cians seem at a loss to account. 

The most prominent types, of which 
there are not a few, are, first, the neu- 
rotic, neuralgic or rheumatoid. Doc- 
tors say there has been a notable preva- 
lence of neuritis since the commence- 
ment of the 1890 epidemic. Second, 
there is a cardio-pulmonary type, in 
which the ebbing of strength in aged 
persons is sometimes appalling and fre- 
quently absolutely beyond control ; third, 
the gastric or gastro-intestinal type, in 
which anorexia is present sometimes to 
the extent of loathing for all food; 
fourth, the febrile type, which prevails 
among young children especially. Ca- 
tarrhal symptoms, though often mani- 
fest, are not an essential feature of the 
disease. 



84 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



The febrile phase usually persists for 
two or three days to be succeeded by 
marked subnormal temperatures so con- 
stantly present as to become, in adults, 
an important diagnostic sign. 

The onset of la grippe is sudden in 
the majority of cases. It is sometimes 
spoken of as lightning-like. For in- 
stance, here is a man in apparently per- 
fect health who is stricken with a sud- 
den feeling of profound depression and 
general discomfort, much as if he had 
been struck by a heavy and unexpected 
blow. He may' feel chilly, or be shaken 
with a rigor like one in an ague fit. He 
may have headache, with such pains in 
the eyes as to render the eyeballs ex- 
quisitely tender on pressure. Then the 
whole body is racked with rheumatic 
pains. There may be, also, a temporary 
loss of the special senses of taste and 
smell, or even hearing. Then, again, 
notwithstanding the intensity of the pre- 
monitory symptoms, the patient may be 
surprised to find himself practically well 
in two or three days. 

A very common condition is one of 
chill followed by fever, the temperature 
reaching perhaps loi or 103 degrees; the 
pulse is quick and compressible ; severe 
shooting pains in the eyes (perhaps be- 
hind the eyes or involving the eye-lids) ; 
shooting pains in the frontal sinus ; 
myalgic pains in joints and muscles. 
After the chill and fever, are experienced 
chilliness along the spine ; painful throat 
with hoarseness ; coryza ; deafness ; 
sneezing ; eyes, injected and watery ; a 
dry, irritating cough progressing from 
laryngeal to bronchial ; the tongue is 
furred ; there is loss of appetite with 
epigastric distress, nausea and vomiting. 
Diarrhea is frequent. In a case where 
the digestive symptoms are most promi- 
nent, dysentery may occur. Accompany- 



ing cither the digestive or respiratory 
form of attack, may be marked disturb- 
ances of the cerebro-spinal functions ; or 
these latter symptoms may be the most 
prominent of all. Always associated 
with the above picture is the marked de- 
pression of spirits, and the peculiarly 
marked debility. 

Delirium is rare, but great stupidity 
and cutaneous soreness and pain fulness 
are common. The first symptoms are felt 
after two, three or four days from the 
time of infection. 

Where the digestive organs are the 
chief centre of the trouble, there may be 
either diarrhea, dystentery or constipa- 
tion ; severe abdominal pains ; severe 
inflammation of stomach and bowels, 
and even fatal peritonitis. These are the 
cases apt to be mistaken for typhoid 
fever. Many careful observers have 
noted the frequent connection between 
epidemics of influenza and the increased 
number of appendicitis cases. As to the 
connection between the disease under 
consideration and cataract, while la 
grippe has no direct influence in caus- 
ing it, there is no doubt that if senile 
cataract be present it will hasten the ma- 
turing of it. 

While the disease is so common that 
no doubt many a case never comes to the 
notice of a doctor, yet complications are 
so far from uncommon that such laxity 
is far from commendable. The most fre- 
quent complications are those involving 
the respiratory organs. In feeble or 
aged ])ersons, particularly, a grave 
bronchitis may develop, with fever, ty- 
phoid delirium, and a tendency to cedema 
of the lungs. Croupous and catarrhal 
pneumonia are common and fatal compli- 
cations. Cerebro-spinal meningitis may 
follow ; or there may be kidney, heart, or 
liver trouble ; or the patient may gradu- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



85 



ally develop tuberculosis. There was a 
marked increase of pulmonary phthisis 
since the pandemic of 1890, which must 
be regarded as more than a coincidence. 

In froin about four days to a w'eek 
the fever declines, when begins a pro- 
tracted convalescence. Far from pro- 
tecting the patient against future attacks, 
one attack renders the system peculiarly 
susceptible to repeated illnesses, some 
individuals falling victims almost every 
year. Such should by all means avoid 
contagion wherever possible ; though 
when the malady becomes epidemic, 
they, of course, could scarcely hope to 
escape unless every precaution has been 
taken to maintain a certain health stand- 
ard which will act as a preventive. 

An isolated case may easily be mis- 
taken for a "bad cold," but in a person 
known to be susceptible to the grip 
germ such symptoms should be regarded 
as suspicious. Especially when there is 
an epidemic, the sudden onset, the 



marked general catarrh, and, perhaps 
more than the other signs, the decided 
prostration, should mean an immediate 
call for medical aid. In the nervous 
form of la grippe, it presents many 
symptoms in common with cerebro- 
spinal fever. 

For its special ravages, the germ 
seeks the weakest organs, whether they 
be heart, lungs, kidneys, liver or other 
susceptible parts, so that the sequlae are 
only too frequently grave. Should the 
nervous system suffer most, patients 
sometimes complain of gradual loss of 
hearing in both ears, perhaps without 
any other symptom ; or neuralgia may 
supervene ; or a persistent headache ; or 
neuritis ; or a persistent insomnia, which 
may lead to melancholia or even mania. 
Any enlargement of the lymphatic glands 
should, of course, receive attention. The 
careful nurse will recognize a departure 
from the normal function of any organ. 



To Study Sleeping Sickness 

The French Geographical Society has col- 
lected the sum of $40,000 for the purpose of 
organizing a mission to West Africa to study 
the sleeping sickness in the French Congo. 
.\ central laboratory will be established in 
Rrazzeville. 

+ 

Sisterhood 

Think that every patient is your sister. Im- 
agine that you see your own sister in that 
bed before you ; and treat her in every re- 



spect as you would like your own sister to 
be treated. Susan Dimock. 



The Nurses As Housekeeper 

Proper preparation for private family nurs- 
ing includes thorough education and practice 
in all branches of housekeeping. In the aver- 
age family, and especially when the mother is 
the patient, a nurse who is not a proficient 
housekeeper is worse than useless. — Alfred 
Worcester, M. D.. in the Boston Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 



Mttttits for jEurses 

A. L. BENEDICT^ A.M., M.D., 

Consultant in Digestive Diseases, City Hospital for Women and Riverside Hospital. Attendant in same, 

Mercy Hospital, Buffalo, N. Y. 

IV. THE PROPORTIOXS OF PROTEID, CARBOHYDRATE AND FAT IN ORDINARY FOODS 



THE problems of dietetics would be 
much simplified if it were pos- 
sible to administer nutriment as so much 
proteid, carbohydrate and fat. But, in 
the first place, excepting certain fats and 
oils, none of these three active princi- 
ples of food stuffs occur in anything like 
the pure, unmixed state in nature. In 
the second place, although butter, vari- 
ous oils, sugar, tapioca, corn starch, etc., 
representing nearly pure fat and carbo- 
hydrate, are marketed at reasonable 
prices and though it is possible to ob- 
tain artificially purified proteid at a 
rather high price, these cannot be used 
in considerable quantity and for consider- 
able periods, in any combination, so as 
to be available for the exclusive nutri- 
tion of the animal body. In the third 
place, there is no single natural or com- 
mercial food which contains all three of 
these organic nutritive principles, pro- 
teid, carbohydrate and fat, in such pro- 
portions as to be available for the ex- 
clusive nutrition of the adult body, al- 
though milk contains all three in the 
requisite proportions for nourishing the 
infant. 

It is not entirely clear why pure pro- 
teid, carbohydrate and fat are not avail- 
able for nutrition. Two reasons against 
their use are, however, well understood. 
It is obvious that if the food swallowed 
were entirely free from indigestible 
residue there would be no need of a 
drainage through the bowel to provide 
for the clearing of the alimentary tract 



from waste introduced as food. How- 
ever, even when no food at all is taken, 
considerable quantities of faeces are 
voided — approximately half of the 
amount under an average diet. This 
half consists of bacteria, epithelium 
shed from the bowel and some strictly 
waste material excreted through the 
bile by the liver. It is also inevi- 
table that, along with the food proper, 
some foreign, indigestible substances 
would be swallowed and insoluble 
salts of lime, magnesium, etc., will 
inevitably be formed in the bowel 
by chemic interaction. Thus life would 
be impossible unless there was provision 
for the clearing of the alimentary canal 
by drainage. It is a matter of the sim- 
plest observation that unless food con- 
taining a reasonable amount of indigest- 
ible material is swallowed, the contents 
of the bowel are not sufficient to pro- 
vide the necessary stimulation of peris- 
talsis and to afford a sufficient mass upon 
which the intestine can act as an extru- 
sive agent. Hence, if pure organic foods 
are given, there result intestinal slug- 
gishness, increased time for bacterial ac- 
tion and intoxication from these bacte- 
rial poisons. 

A second objection to the use of 
chemically pure proteid, carbohydrate 
and fat, or to any one food stuff con- 
taining all three in proper proportion, is 
that the monotony of such a diet would 
diminish the appetite and would fail te 
provoke a sufficient degree of digestive 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



87 



secretion. The same objection would 
also apply to a single food stuff, if there 
were one containing the proper propor- 
tions of proteid, carbohydrate and fat. 

The importance of variety and appe- 
tizing qualities in food is often over- 
looked, both in the management of pa- 
tients and in the conduct of institutions. 
The reflex stimulation of the gastric and 
even of the pancreatic secretion by 
sapid food is just as real as the 
exactly analogous phenomena of the 
watering of the mouth. If the food 
does nof make the mouth water, 
neither will it properly excite the 
deeper digestive reflexes. Even in the 
most serious conditions, in which strict 
limitation of diet is necessary, it is pos- 
sible at least to serve the nourishment 
in an attractive way and to vary the 
flavor and appearance while preserving 
the essential identity of a carefully 
planned dietary. In less acute digestive 
troubles, while it is easier to prescribe 
a monotonous diet, it is perfectly feas- 
ible to administer a wholesome and 
easily digested ration, in tasty form. 
For institutions of various kinds, though 
financial economy may be necessary, it 
should always be borne in mind that food 
that is not appetizing produces exactly 
the same ultimate results as food which 
is insufficient by analysis of its active in- 
gredients, namely, inadequate nutrition 
and impaired strength. For persons in 
health, it is, on the whole, far better to 
eat solely with reference to pleasing the 
palate than to lay out a monotonous 
dietary containing the requisite amounts 
of the nutrient principles and theo- 
retically readily digestible. The wisest 
plan for a person in health is to avoid 
overeating, to omit articles proved by 
experience to be injurious, to eat des- 
serts only after satisfying hunger by 



plain, hearty food, to insist on absolute 
neatness, to avoid tainted foods of all 
kinds, to insist that every article shall 
be well prepared and served, but, other- 
wise, to rely mainly on the appetite. 

At different times and in different 
places, almost every plant and animal, 
not positively poisonous, has been used 
as food. It might seem like a hopeless 
task to try to bring order out of this 
dietary chaos, but the similiarity of 
physiologic processes in related animals 
and plants renders it possible to reduce 
all food stuffs to a fairly simple classifi- 
cation in spite of superficial differences 
of color, odor, taste, etc. 

A. VEGETABLE PRODUCTS 

1. Vegetables almost devoid of nutri- 
tive value, but allowable in health as 
relishes, to furnish water, salts, etc. : 

Asparagus, cabbage, cauliflower, cel- 
ery, sprouts, cucumbers, beet greens, 
lettuce, rhubarb, sauerkraut, spinach, to- 
matoes. 

Some cabbages, egg-plant, kohl-rabi, 
leeks, pumpkin, radish, okra, contain 
nearly enough carbohydrate to warrant 
their inclusion in the next group. 

2. Carbohydrate vegetables and fruits, 
containing less than 5% of proteid and 
fat (seldom more than 1% of fat and 
2 to 3% of proteid) but 5% or more of 
assimilable carbohydrate : 

a. Vegetables. (The figures apply to 
assimilable carbohydrates.) 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Artichokes, 15-16 Carrots, 6-11 

Turnip greens, 6 Parsnips, 8-16 

Sweet potatoes, 16-45 Squash, 3-15 

Beets, 2-15 Dandelion greens, 10 

Onions, 3-14 Potatoes, 12-26 

Rutabagas, 5-9 Turnips, 2-?Q 



88 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



b. Fruits. 





Ter cent. 


Per cent. 


Apples, 


2-20 


Red raspberries, 


10 


Cherries, 


n-20 


Yellow bananas. 


16-30 


Grapes, 


15 


Currants, 


12 


Muskmellons, 


7 


Whortleberries, 


10 


Persimmons, 


;jo 


Oranges, 


1-18 


Prunes, 


18 


Plums, 


20 


Watermelons, 


G 


Black raspberries, 12 


Apricots, 


13 


Blackberries, 


7-16 


Cranberries, 


8-9 


Figs, 


18 


Huckleberries, 


16 


Lemons, 


7-8 


Nectarines, 


16 


Pears, 


11 


Pineapples, 


9 


Pomegranates, 


17 






Strawberries, 


4-10 



The principal difference between vege- 
tables and fruits, as the terms are used 
in the dining-room, is that the former 
have most of their carbohydrate in the 
form of starch, the latter in some form 
of sugar. Bananas, however, contain a 
considerable amount of starch and are 
very similar to potatoes. . Indeed, they 
are the only form of raw starch ordinar- 
ily eaten by man in any considerable 
amount. The sense of taste affords an 
appro^cimate guide to the amount of 
sugar present. Fruit sauces are usually 
sweetened by sugar artificially 'added and 
contain from lo to ' 20% of carbo- 
hydrate, mostly sugar. The analyses 
are by the Department of Agriculture. 
What constitutes the difference between 
buckle and whortleberries, is not ex- 
plained. 

3. Proteid and carbohydrate vege- 
tables, containing about 1% of fat and 
about two to three times as much carbo- 
hydrate (mainly starch) as proteid. 
These are the cereals, inclu(!ing some 
members of the pea family and the 
cereals proper, which are called grain 
and belong to a branch of the family of 



gras.ses. 

Proteid 

Fresh string beans 2.3% 

Fresh butter beans 9.4% 

Fresh Lima beans 7.1% 



Carbohy- 

Fat (Irate 

0.3%, 5..')% 

0.6% 25. %r 

0.7% 20.3%, 



Dried Lima beans 18. % 1.5% 6L % 

Dried ordinary beans 22.5% 1.8% 55.2% 

Dried lentils 25.7%; 1. % 56. % 

Fresh peas 7. % 0.5% 15.2% 

Dried peas 24.6%, 1. % 47.5% 

Canned corn, peas, beans, 

etc., appro.ximately 3. % 1. % 13. % 

Dry cereals ( breakfast 

foods), appro.ximately. .10. % 6. %; 64. % 

Macaroni 10. % 75. % 

Bread 8. % 1.5%o 50. % 

Biscuit 15. % \. % 73. %, 

Crackers (considerable va- 
riation, especially fat).. 10. % 8. % 70. % 
Cake varies, but may usually be counted as 
bread plus about 10% of sugar. - 

4. Vegetables, mainly nuts, rich in 
fat and containing appreciable amounts 
of proteid and carbohydrate. Aside from 
nuts, there are only three vegetable 
products, used as food, that are rich in 
fat — olives, 25 to 27% ; green and red 
peppers, 6 to 10% when dried; cacao 
(chocolate) beans, 50%. None of these 
are eaten in sufficient quantity to render 
them important as nutritives. Nuts in- 
clude several botanic kinds of fruits, the 
essential characteristic that seems to de- 
termine their richness in fat being their 
tough, nearly water-tight shell. Cacao 
beans ard as truly nuts as Brazil nuts 
and olives are very closely related to 
almonds. The only so-called nut that is 
not rich in fat is the Chinese lichi nut, 
which is not really a nut at all. The only 
nut which is distinctly starchy and not 
fatty is the chestnut. Few nuts contain 
less than 35% of fat and many contain 
as much as 50 to 70%. 

15. ANIMAL FOODS 

I. Animal foods almost devoid of 
nutritive value : 

Epithelium, dense fibrous tissue, mu- 
cin, elastic tissue, etc., are practically de- 
void of nutritive value either because 
strictly indigestible or because the den- 
sity of structure mechanically prevents 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



89 



the entrance of the digestive juices. 
Chicken and fish skin, tendon ends and 
even lough muscle in large pieces, im- 
perfectly masticated, yield practically 
no nutriment. Contrary to the prevalent 
popular opinion, which is, unfortunately, 
shared by many "practical" physicians 
and nurses, any kind of broth, beef tea, 
etc., made by extraction at a tempera- 
ture above 60 Centigrade ( 140 F'ahren- 
heit) is nearly devoid of nourishment. 
A little gelatin, glycogen, etc., as well 
as salts and excrementitious waste is 
thus extracted, but neither fat, which is 
insoluble in water, nor proteid, which is 
coagulated at 60 C, can enter into such 
teas and broths. Such preparations may 
be allowable, on account of their appe- 
tizing taste and because the waste mat- 
ters include one which is closely related 
to the active principle of tea and coffee, 
but they are contra-indicated in all cases 
in which the kidneys are impaired or in 
which the system is already overloaded 
with waste matters. Beef tea, indeed, 
differs very little in composition from 
urine. While meat broths taste strong, 
they are, in reality, almost as nearly de- 
void of nutriment as egg tea ; that is 
to say, the water in which eggs are 
poached. 

2. Carbohydrate animal foods : 

No natural food stuff of animal ori- 
gin, rich in carbohydrates and poor in 
fat and proteid exists. Glycogen, milk 
sugar and gelatin will be mentioned sub- 
sequently. 

3. Proteid animal foods, containing 
little fat or carbohydrate : 

All lean meat (muscle), whether from 
quadrupeds, fowls or fish, contains ap- 
proximately 20% of proteid, 1% of fat 
and up to i or 2% of glycogen and gela- 
tin. Oysters contain about 6% of pro- 
teid and from little up to about 3% of 
glycogen, according to the state of the 



liver. The purest natural proteid food 
is white of egg, which contains 12% of 
proteid or about 6 grams, for the aver- 
age egg. 

4. Proteid and fat animal foods: 
While beef muscle may be cut free 

from fat, mutton and pork usually con- 
tain fat infiltrated into the muscle, and 
the same is true of tongue. Thus, fairly 
fat pork and mutton contains about 15% 
of proteid and 35% of fat. Smoked 
ham, which is partially dried, contains 
about 20% of proteid and 40% of fat. 
Shell fish, other than oysters (lobsters, 
crabs, etc.), contain about 15% of pro- 
teid and 10% of fat. Canned fish or 
fresh fish with the fat, contain about 
20% of proteid and 12% of fat. All of 
these contain up to i or 2% of glycogen 
and gelatin. Egg yolk contains about 
5% of proteid and 10% of fat or 2.5 
grams and 5 grams, respectively, for an 
average egg. The whole egg contains 
13% and 11% or 8.5 grams and ^5 
grams, respectively. 

5. Animal foods consisting mainly 
of fat: 

The clear fat of any animal contains 
about 80% of chemically pure fat and 
about 1% of proteid, with practically no 
carbohydrate. Fat pork, fresh or as 
bacon, etc., with a strip of lean, con- 
tains about 70% of fat and 8% of pro- 
teid. and there are, of course, all possible 
degrees down to the minimum of 1% 
of fat for lean beef muscle. Butter, con- 
sisting of fat to the extent of 90% and 
tried fats, such as lard and suet, of about 
the same composition, may be mentioned 
here, but properly belong among artifi- 
cial foods. 

6. Animal foods containing all three 
organic principles in appreciable 
amounts : 

Milk contains approximately 4% each 
of proteid, fat and carbohydrate and is 



90 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



often called a complete food. The rela- 
tive proportions of the organic ingredi- 
ents are not, however, well adapted to 
the needs of the adult body ; it is lack- 
ing in iron, of which the infant has an 
abundant store in the liver and spleen, 
and it contains too much water. Cream 
contains about 3 to 3.5% of proteid and 
carbohydrate and 20 to 25% of fat. 
Commercial cream often falls below this 
fat standard. Cream cheese contains 
about 25%of proteid, 30% of fat and 5% 
of carbohydrate. Various viscera contain 
greater amounts of glycogen than mus- 
cle. Liver, freshly cut from an animal 
during the period of digestion, contains 
about 2.5% each of proteid and fat and 
10% of carbohydrate; but the viscera, 
being concerned in the formation of 
waste products, are not desirable foods, 
especially for persons requiring dietetic 
management. 

. ARTIFICIALLY PREPARED NUTRIENTS 

Many proprietary foods are on the 
market, some excellent for temporary 
use and even fulfilling the percentage 
requirements of a complete food, some 
falling far short of the claims of the 
manufacturer, some varying greatly in 
diflferent samples, some containing ex- 
cessive amounts of alcohol. 

Of artificial foods consisting of single 
organic ingredients, barring insignificant 
impurities, there may be mentioned the 
following : 

Proteid Food.s. Expressed meat 
juice and the various liquid meat ex- 



tracts contain 7% or less of proteid, 
with salts and extractives which are 
largely excrementitious products. Con- 
centrated meat extracts are likely to 
contain an excess of the latter. It is 
a very common misconception that these 
extracts represent concentrated nour- 
ishment. On the contrary, it is a sim- 
ple matter of arithmetic to show that a 
liter (1,000 C.C, a little over a quart) 
of any liquid meat extract, contains only 
70 grams or less of proteid, not much 
more than the minimum daily require- 
ment according to Chittenden, and prac- 
tically nothing of the needed fat or car- 
bohydrate. Various proteids are on 
the market, mainly prepared from casein 
or else from the residue of oil-yielding 
seeds. The price of these proteids is 
prohibitive for ordinary dietary pur- 
poses, but they are available, subject to 
the acquiescence of the patient and to an 
actual demonstration in each case of real 
merit, for nourishing those of feeble di- 
gestive power. 

Carbohydrates. White sugar is 98% 
pure, brown sugar 97% pure, of saccha- 
rose. Thick glucose syrup is about 90% 
pure, of dextrose. Milk sugar is practi- 
cally pure. Glycogen is also obtainable 
commercially. Tapioca and corn starch 
are 98% pure, of starch. Gelatin may be 
mentioned under this head as acting as 
a carbohydrate or fat substitute. 

Fats. Butter contains about 90% 
of fat, lard and suet about 85%, while 
olive, peanut and other salad oils con- 
tain nearly 100%. 



a (Central iWassage Creatment 



HARRIET H. BAIRD 



State Hospital, Warren. Penna. 



BY general massage we mean the 
treatment applied to the whole 
body, with the exception of the head, 
neck and shoulders. 

Massage is a series of passive sys- 
tematic movements executed on the 
patient's body in a variety of ways. 
The manipulations are certain ; that is, 
they are given or fixed, so that an 
uninstructed person cannot pick up 
the movements ; it is an art that can- 
not be self-acquired; all manipula- 
tions are passive, they are applied to 
the patient without his assistance or re- 
sistance ; they are arranged so as to act 
systematically upon the different tissues 
of the human body. 

Dr. Mezger divides the massage treat- 
ment into four principal manipulations : 

I. EFFLEURr\GE, 

II. FRICTIONS, 

III. PETRISSAGE, 

IV. TAPOTEMENT. 

These are all subdivided. 

When ordered to give a treatment of 
massage, the nurse should always ob- 
serve a few simple rules of preparation : 
Her dress should be loose and free; 
corset should be removed ; perfumes 
and strong toilet soaps should be dis- 
carded ; rings should be removed ; the- 
nails should be closely trimmed. 

Unless ordered by the physician, the 
nurse should not anoint her hands with 
ointment or oil of any kind. The patient 
should be placed between blankets or 
sheets on a bed or massage table. The 
temperature of the room should be 68 
to 70 degrees F. Bare only the part 
worked on at a time. 



The nurse should begin with the right 
foot, in the following order: 

MASSAGE OF FXX)T — RIGHT 

1. Rotation of toes — beginning with the Httle 

toe. 

2. Effleurage — with the thumbs — going be- 

tween tlie interossei muscles. 

3. Friction — with the thumbs — going over 

same part. 

4. Effleurage— (2). 

5. Clapping — with both hands around the 

foot. 

6. Effleurage— (2). 

7. Effleurage — with the palm of the hand — 

over the sole of the foot. 

MASSAGE OF ANKLE — RIGHT 

1. Effleurage — with the tips of the fingers — 

going around the ankle. 

2. Friction — with the tips of the fingers — 

over the' same part. 

3. Effleurage— (1). 

MASSAGE OF LEG — RIGHT 

1. Effleurage — with both hands, thumbs op- 

posite — going from ankle to knee. 

2. Friction — with the thumbs — one on each 

side of the tibia. 

3. Effleurage— (1). 

4. Pinching — thumbs on the outside of tibia 

and fingers on the inside. 

5. Effleurage— (1). 

6. Transverse friction — with both hands. 

7. Effleurage— (-1). 

8. Petrissage proper — or kneading of the 

gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. 

9. Effleurage— (1). 

10. Clapping — never strike directly on the 

bone. 

11. Effleurage— (1). 

12. Hacking. 

13. Effleurage— (1). 

MASS.\GE OF KNEE — RIGHT 

1. Effleurage — with the thumbs — going over 

the patella. 

2. Friction — with the thumbs — going around 

the patella. 
:>. Effleurage — (1). 



92 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



MASSAGE OF THIGH AND HU* — KIGHT 

I'IRST — Have patient turn on left side. 

1. Effleurage — with both hands — going from 

the ankle up over the posterior part of 
'the leg — around the hip and down the 
front of the leg. 

2. Friction — with the thumbs up to the hip 

and over the glutei muscles with the 
palms of the hands. 

3. Effleurage— (1). 

4. Fist movement — for hip joint. 

5. Effleurage— (1). 

6. Thumb movement — (4). 

7. Effleurage— (1). 

9. Petrissage proper — dividing the thigh into 
three groups, according to the femoral 
muscles, posterior, anterior and interior 
— always begin with the posterior femo- 
ral muscles first, lastly kneading the 
glutei muscles. 

12. Effleurage— (1). 

13. Clapping. 

14. Effleurage— (1). 

15. Hacking. 

16. Effleurage— (1). 

17. Beating — over the posterior part of leg 

and over the glutei. 

18. Effleurage— (1). 

Ten minutes is usually spent on each lower 
extremity. 

MASSAGE OF HAND — RIGHT 

1. Rotation — of fingers. 

2. Effleurage — with the tips of the fingers — 

between the interossei muscles. 

3. Friction — with the tips of the fingers — 

over the same part. 

4. Effleurage— (2). 

MASSAGE OF WRIST — RIGHT 

1. Effleurage — with the thumbs around the 

wrist. 

2. Friction — with the thumbs around the 

wrist. 

3. Effleurage— (1). 

MASSAGE OF ARM — RIGHT 

1. Effleurage — with one hand — going up the 
ulna side of arm — turning at the elbow 
— and going up the inside of arm to 
shoulder and down the outer side of 
arm — the reverse with opposite hand. 
2. Friction — with the thumbs — from wrist 
to shoulder. 



:5. Effleurage- (1). 

4. Transverse friction — with both hands. 

5. Effleurage— (1). * 

0. Petrissage proper — knead the muscles of 

the forearm well then the upper arm, 
paying strict attention to the biceps and 
triceps muscles. 

7. Effleurage— (1). 

8. Clapping. 

9. Effleurage— (1). 

10. Hacking. 

11. Effleurage— (1). 

You should spend about ten minutes on the 
upper extremities. 

MASSAGE OF CHEST 

1. Effleurage^-with both hands — one hand on 

each side of the sternum. 
Always follow the pectoral muscles. 

2. Friction — with the tips of the fingers — 

over the same part. 

3. Effleurage — (1). 

4. Kneading — beginning at left shoulder and 

going across to the right. 

5. Effleurage— (1). " 

6. Clapping. 

7. Effleurage— (1). 

8. Hacking. 

9. Effleurage— (1). 

Spend about three minutes on the chest. 

MASSAGE OF 15REASTS 

1. Effleurage — with both hands — in the form 

of figure 8. 

2. Effleurage — with both hands — around one 

breast at a time. 

3. Effleurage — with both hands — in form of 

figure 8. 

4. Friction — with the tips of the fingers (one 

hand) around the base of the breasts. 

5. Effleurage — (l). 

6. Cupping or filling. 

7. Effleurage — (1). 

8. Vibration. 

9. Effleurage— (1). 

10. Petrissage proper — work from the base of 

the breast to the nipple. 
In cases of caked breasts it is necessary to 
use petrissage to relieve distended ducts. 

11. Effleurage— (1). 

12. Clapping — lightly. 

13. Effleurage— (1). 

Spend about ten minutes on the breasts. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



93 



MASSAGE OF STOMACH 

FIRST— Have patient flex knees. 

1. Effleurage — with one hand. 

2. P'riction — with the tips of the fingers (one 

hand). 

3. Kffleurage— (1). 

4. Vibration — one liand. 

5. Effleurage — (1). 

6. Petrissage proper — very important. 

7. Efileuragc — (1). 

8. Clapping. 

9. Effleurage — (1). 

10. Hacking — (Hghtly). 

11. Effleurage— (1). 

MASS.\GE OF .\BI)0MEN 

First— HAVE PATIENT FLEX KNEES— 
SO AS TO RELAX ABDOMINAL MUS- 
CLES. 

Second— l^S GIVING EFFLEURAGE— AL- 
WAYS FOLLOW THE ASCENDING, 
TRANSVERSE, AND DESCENDING 
COLON. 

77i/r(/— PETRISSAGE PROPER (or knead- 
ing) IS VERY I M PORT AXT— FECAL 
LUMPS ARE OFTEN FOUND AND 
SHOULD BE GENTLY AND GRADU- 
ALLY BROKEN UP. 

1. Effleurage — with both hands. 

2. Effleurage — with one hand — working from 

the umbilicus outward. 

3. Effleurage- (1). 

4. Friction — with the tips of the fingers (one 

hand) — working from the umbilicus out- 
ward. 

5. Effleurage — (1). 

6. Friction — with the tips of the fingers (one 

hand) — working around the outer wall 
of abdomen. 

7. Effleurage — (1). 

8. Kneading with the fist — one hand. 

9. Effleurage — (l). 

10. Kneading with the thumbs. 

11. Effleurage— (1). 

12. Vibration — one hand. 

13. Effleurage— (1). 

14. Petrissage proper — very important. 

15. Eflfleurage- (1). 

16. Clapping. 

17. Effleurage — (1). 

18. Hacking — lightly. 

19. Eflfleurage- (1). 

Spend about ten minutes on abdomen. 



.MASS.^GE OF B.\CK 



First— NEVER WORK 
THE SPINE. 

1. 



DIRECTLY ON 



3. 



9. 



12 



Effleurage — with both hands — in form of 

figfure V. 
Eflleurage — with both hands — in form of 

figure 8. 
Friction — with both thumbs — one on each 

side of spine. 
Effleurage — (2). 
Friction — with the thumb and finger (one 

hand) — fingers on one side of spine 

and thumb on opposite side. 
Effleurage— (2). 
Kneading — with the heel of hand — along 

each side of spine. 
Effleurage — (2). 
Kneading — with the clenched fist — along 

each side of the spine. 
Effleurage — (2). 
Friction — (or waist movement) — ^given 

with the thumbs — beginning at the base 

of back and going up to the shoulders. 
Effleurage— (2). 

13. Rolling — Divide the back into four parts 

— two on each side of spine. 

14. Effleurage— (2). 

15. Petrissage proper — divide the back into 

four parts — two on each side of spine. 

16. Effleurage— (2). 

17. Clapping. 

18. Effleurage— (2). 

19. Hacking. 

20. Effleurage— (2). 

Spend from fifteen to twenty minutes on the 
back. 

Never give a general massage treat- 
ment unless ordered by the attending 
physician. 

Never give a treatment until two hours 
after meals. 

Always have the patient rest for at 
least one hour after treatment. 

Every nurse graduated from a recog- 
nized training school, with a two years' 
course, should be able to give a treat- 
ment of general massage satisfactory to 
the patient, the attending physician and 
herself. 



©bfitetric emergencies 



ALFRED WORCESTER, M.D. 



OF the causes of death to women 
during pregnancy and labor, hem- 
orrhage is one of the largest. Besides 
the deaths that are caused by it, there are 
a great many cases of prolonged weak- 
ness which are so caused. 

The danger of hemorrhage in preg- 
nancy is present from the beginning. 
You know that in abortions the danger 
of hemorrhage is the greatest of the 
dangers attending such accidents. The 
abortion is sometimes induced by a 
wrong attachment of the placenta. The 
placenta normally is attached up in the 
fundus of the uterus ; but if it is attached 
low down in the uterus, and especially 
if over the internal os, then trouble is 
inevitable. Such low attachment of the 
placenta is now thought to be one of the 
chief causes of spontaneous abortion. 
Vou will sometimes find an otherwise 
healthy woman aborting time after time. 
Generally the abortion begins with a 
moderate flow, a loss of blood that would 
not be alarming were she not pregnant, 
but any discharge of blood from the 
uterus during pregnancy is of serious 
import, for it may mean that the placenta 
has lodged over the cervix instead of 
attaching itself up in the fundus. 

The longer the woman's pregnancy 
lasts in such instances the greater the 
danger. If it goes to term, the only pos- 
sible chance for the emptying of the 
uterus is by the previous detachment of 
the placenta from its site, which means 
the death of the child, unless immedi- 
ately delivered. Not only is the death of 
the child inevitable, but the woman her- 



self will surely lose a large amount of 
blood before the child is born, and so is 
liable to bleed to death after the child 
is born. Nature is very kind to the preg- 
nant woman, where the placenta is at- 
tached in this faulty manner, in spontane- 
ously bringing about an abortion. This 
condition of placenta praevia, which is 
one of the most frightful conditions that 
the obstetrician has to meet, is not sel- 
dom first discovered by the nurse, who 
therefore must be ready to apply first 
treatment. Not seldom it happens that 
the first warning of placenta praevia 
comes in a frightful gush of blood dur- 
ing the first stage of labor. More often 
the hemorrhage begins about the seventh 
nonth, and at first is not alarming, but 
it dift'ers in character from any other 
flow. In other conditions of hemorrhage 
from the uterus, the blood is usu:dly 
slowly discharging from the uterus, and 
slowly escapes from the vagina, but in 
cases of placenta praevia it gushes out. 
The usual story that patients give is 
that a gush of fluid was felt discharg- 
ing, with no Pel in or any accompanying 
symptoms whatever, but a sense of weak- 
ness, dizziness and faintness following. 
I remember only too well a case of this 
kind. A woman came to my oflice say- 
ing that she had had a gush of blood that 
afternoon. One of her friends had just 
died from placenta praevia a few weeks 
before, who had had a similar gush of 
blood of which she had not told the phy- 
sician. This woman said : "1 have come 
to tell you because I remember my friend 
did not tell, and the doctors said if she 



* A lecture to the \\'altham riraduate Nurses, published in '"The News Letter" of Waltham. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



95 



had done so, her Hfe might have been 
saved." I told her to let me know the 
instant her labor pains began, or if an- 
other gush of blood came. A few days 
afterwards the message came that doc- 
tors were wanted there. She was in la- 
bor and flowing badly. With the help 
of several nurses and several other doc- 
tors, I undertook to deliver, but in spite 
of every effort we lost the mother. I 
do not want to disturb your peace of 
mind with such awful stories as you go 
out into midwifery nursing, still it is my 
duty to tell to you how frightful the dan- 
ger is in this condition of placenta prae- 
via, and to point out all the things that 
nurses can possibly do, before the doctor 
arrives, if face to face with this emer- 
gency. 

I have spoken of placenta praevia as 
one cause of the frightful hemorrhages 
occurring in child bearing. There are 
other causes, and we will now take up 
the different conditions under which 
hemorrhage occurs, and then the proper 
treatment. 

Next to placenta praevia as a cause of 
hemorrhage, I should name laceration of 
the uterus during labor. The cervix of 
the uterus always tears during labor at 
full term. In normal conditions these 
lacerations extend only a little way and 
more often to one side than bilaterally. 
But sometimes the rent extends from the 
cervix up the side of the uterus even into 
the abdominal cavity. That, fortunately, 
is very rare. More rarely still the fundus 
of the uterus ruptures during the labor, 
and then the foetus escapes through the 
rent in the fundus into the abdominal 
cavity. But it is the rents in the cervix 
of which I am now particularly speak- 
ing. These rents necessarily go through 
the arteries and sinuses of the cervix. 
The cervix is full of blood vessels ; they 
are large in the non-pregnant uterus, and 



at full term they are much larger, as 
large as a lead pencil, so that a great 
amount of blood can be discharged from 
them if torn. 

Another and the most common cause 
of post-partum hemorrhage is the fail- 
ure of the uterus to contract properly, 
for failure of proper uterine contraction 
leaves open the mouths of those vessels 
that have been bringing blood to the 
placenta, and so the life blood of the 
woman is allowed to discharge into the 
uterus. Sometimes the placenta detaches 
before the child is born, and then there 
is great chance for concealed hemor- 
rhage. The membranes have not broken, 
the cervix has not dilated, or only par- 
tially dilated, and the blood is allowed 
to escape into the cavity of the uterus 
up above the child. In such cases you 
find all the evidences of severe hemor- 
rhage, and yet no blood escaping. 

The term "concealed hemorrhage" is 
also applied to another condition that oc- 
curs after the birth of the child, where 
the clotted blood in the cervix prevents 
the escape of blood from the cavity of 
the uterus, and the woman may so bleed 
to death without any blood escaping 
from the vagina. 

Now, with these different causes of 
hemorrhage in mind, let us take up the 
immediate treatment — the treatment that 
the nurse, if present, ought herself to 
apply. In speaking of the treatment of 
hemorrhages, we must deal first with 
that which leads to the stopping of the 
hemorrhage, and then with the treatment 
that is afterwards necessary to restore 
the patient. If you are confused as re- 
gards these two very different purposes 
you may do wrong by doing the right 
thing at the wrong time. There is the 
same danger in the treatment of other 
kinds of hemorrhage. 



96 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Suppose you Irive to deal with a man 
who is shot in the leg, and is ble?('ins^ 
to death from the wound. There are 
two things to be done ; one is to stop the 
outflow of blood, and that is the first 
thing to do, before trying to revive him. 
If he has fainted from loss of blood his 
heart has almost stopped beating, and 
the blood in the wound has begun to 
coagulate. If you revive him before the 
arteries are compressed, he will ])unip 
out his life blood. So it is in the uterus. 
if you first attempt t(j revive the patient 
before compressing the uterine arteries, 
you may stimulate the woman to pump 
out her last drop of blood. Keep in 
mind, therefore, the two different pur- 
poses, one to stop the outflow, the other 
to revive the patient. The outflow of 
blood either from wounded arteries, or 
from the uterus, can be effectually stop- 
ped only by pressure applied above the 
open ends of the arteries. That is the 
one fundamental fact to be remembered. 
Of course you must know where the 
blood is coming from, and the course of 
the blood vessels, to know where to ap- 
ply the pressure. The uterus is supplied 
with blood by vessels that come through 
the broad ligaments from each side, and 
it is a very difficult thing to bring pres- 
sure to bear directly upon these vessels, 
but you can almost always stimulate the 
uterus itself to contract and so compress 
the blood vessels in its own substance. 
The uterus is always sensitive to mas- 
sage, and by sc|ueezing it and rubbing it 
you can generally make it contract, and 
so bring pressure to bear upon the bleed- 
ing vessels. Ice applied over the uterus 
will often stimulate contractions. Some- 
times, however, the uterine muscle will 
not respond to any artificial stimulation 
and will not contract. In such cases the 
vessels must be compressed by the nurse. 
Then the only way of doing this is to 



apply counter pressure. If you simply 
force the uterus down into the pelvis, you 
cannot get any pressure to bear upon the 
vessels. Sometimes the belly walls are 
so loose and flaccid after the delivery 
that you can reach in behind the uterus, 
and pull it over, and force it right down 
on the pubic arch. That will stop the 
hemorrhage, and it is the first and best 
manoeuvre in the treatment of post- 
l)artuni hemorrhages. Where this is not 
possible, by putting one hand up into the 
vagina and uj) into the uterus, if pos- 
sible, and with the oth3r hand on the 
belly crowding down the uterus on to 
your fist which is inside, you can bring 
the pressure to bear that is necessary to 
stop the blood spurting from the vessels. 
Indeed the presence of a hand inside the 
uterus serves also, and better than any 
outside manipulation- does, in provoking 
the uterus to contract. That is the best 
way to do where the blood is pouring 
out of a woman, when in order to save 
the life you must do something and do 
it c|uickly. In such an awful emergency 
put your right hand up into the uterus, 
and then press down from the outside 
on to the uterus with all your strength. 
Those are times which try the strong- 
est nerves, but before you come to that, 
which will only be once in a thousand 
times, you will probably often encoun- 
ter the lesser hemorrhages. The out- 
side manipulation of the uterus is always 
to be done. That is the essential part of 
every treatment, and must be carried on 
simultaneously with all other forms of 
treatment. The hot douche, 120 degrees, 
where the nozzle is carried up into the 
uterus, is often useful. Inserted into the 
vagina alone this would be of no more 
use than a hot foot bath. You must 
carry it up into the uterus, and if you 
have no nozzle suitable, vou can carrv 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



97 



up the tube of a fountain syringe. But 
you must never for a single instant take 
the pressure off from the uterus on the 
outside, whenever you are in the least 
fear that the woman is bleeding too 
much. Your left hand must stay there 
until the physician arrives. The addition 
of acetic acid to the water of the intra- 
uterine douche certainly makes the 
uterus contract better than plain hot 
water. A 2 per cent, solution can be so 
used. 

Now suppose that the hemorrhage oc- 
curs in an abortion. There is then no 
need for pressure from above. The 
small uterus cannot fill with blood. Nor 
can you in such cases carry up anything 
into the uterus. The only thing that you 
can do in this condition is to pack the 
vagina, with gauze or cotton. Even 
holding cloths firmly against the vulva 
does a good deal toward stopping the 
hemorrhage, but even so you find the 
blood leaking down, although not nearly 
so fast as if you should take the tampon 
away. That is also the treatment you 
should apply in ante-partum hemorrhage 
as for instance in case of placenta prae- 
via. For concealed hemorrhage there is 
absolutely nothing that a nurse can do. 

Now we will take up the treatment 
that may be employed to revive the pa- 
tient. The thing to do is to get what 
blood there is left in the body back into 
the brain and medulla. The foot of the 
bed should be raised three feet. Brandy 
is to be given, and lots of water, making 
the poor woman drink as fast as she pos- 
sibly can, and warm water by the gallon 
is to be injected into the bowels. Intra- 
venous and sub-cutaneous injections of 
normal salt solution are even more effect- 
ive, but this is the physician's rather than 
the nurse's business. 

After hemorrhage, the next important 
emergency liable to occur during preg- 



nancy is eclampsia. No matter how 
' much we try to impress upon the stu- 
dent nurses the cause and the prevention 
of eclampsia, when we get these cases we 
too often find the nurse not having taken 
the needed precaution, and not even hav- 
ing called attention to the dreaded facts. 
Until a nurse has seen a case of eclampsia 
she does not fully realize the awfulness 
of it, and the necessity of preventing it. 
Nobody knows exactly what causes it. 
It used to be thought that it was due 
simply to interference- with the kidney, 
but now it is believed that interference 
with the function of the kidney is only 
one of the symptoms of the disease. It 
may be, after all, that it is one of the 
germ diseases. The symptoms are head- 
ache, flashes before the eyes, imperfect 
vision, puffiness of the hands and face, 
and grea'tly diminished urine containing 
albumen. Those symptoms you always 
have to be on the watch for. You must 
never slight the complaint of a pregnant 
patient that she has headache. It is a 
very serious symptom, even if she is ac- 
customed to it when not pregnant. 
Bright flashes before the eyes are almost 
always a sure sign. Puffiness of the legs 
and thighs is not of much account, but 
the oedema of the hands is of very great 
importance, and so is stickiness of the 
fingers. One patient that I have, who, 
when pregnant, always suffers from 
eclampsia, can tell when she is in dan- 
ger because her needles rust. That 
means, of course, that all that time the 
skin is secreting the salts that should go 
off by the kidneys. With good nursing, 
even if the danger is very great, the con- 
vulsions can be warded off. A few years 
ago, a student nurse for six weeks took 
care of a patient who on some days 
secreted only four ounces of urine, who 
went day after day without sleep, and 
suffered from headache and nausea, but 



98 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



this nurse by watching for the threat- 
ened attacks and by keeping up the con- 
tinued cathartics and occasionally steam- 
ing her into a dripping sweat, managed 
to bring the patient to term, when she 
was delivered of a splendid boy. More 
depends upon the nurse than on the 
physician in saving a woman who is 
threatened with eclampsia. If not 
properly cared for, she is liable to die, 
and almost sure to lose her baby. 

Strong coffee, sweet spirits of nitre, 
immense amounts of water, all may be 
given for stimulating the kidneys. Mak- 
ing the patient sweat is something that 
the nurse can always do. One of the 
easy ways of doing this is to put the pa- 
tient into a very hot bath. Get her into 
the tub at 115 degrees, and let the hot 
water run to the point of decided dis- 
comfort, and when she goes back to bed 
she will be as red as a lobster, and soon 
will perspire. You can always steam the 



patient, if you remember how to keep 
the patient blanketed and not to let a 
single inch of her skin be exposed to the 
steam. It needs constant watchfulness. 
General cathartics, which, of course, it is 
the physician's business to prescribe, will 
do- good. 

In an attack of eclampsia there is little 
to be done, besides taking care that the 
patient does not bite her tongue. There 
is no danger of death during the attack. 
Ether should be put on if the nurse can 
reach it, and the nurse should send for 
ether, if she can get it easier than she 
can get a doctor. She should send for 
any doctor she can possibly reach with- 
out waiting for the doctor especially in 
charge. Eclampsia properly treated is 
not so very bad. The trouble can often 
be averted; the child's life and the 
mother's life can be saved, and you can 
be sure where this is done it is due to 
the nurse more than to the doctor. 






SCENE ON THE ISLAND OF MARKEN, HOLLAND. SECOND PRIZE IN PKIZK PICTURE CONTEST TAKEN 

BY MISS GRACE ANGELL. 



a Coating for f^Oispital WM^ 



CLAUDIA Q. MURrilV, 
(!rand Rapids, Mich. 



THE question of the expense in 
maintaining hospital walls is one 
of the most important problems that 
come before any hospital board or to any 
hospital superintendent. It is a question* 
also which is most persistent. It comes 
up daily, and insistently demands action, 
for, while the walls in any other building 
may be overlooked, and possibly neg- 
lected, the usefulness of the hospital is 
prejudiced when there is the slightest 
suspicion with regard to the cleanliness 
of the hospital walls. This, too, es- 
pecially in wards. 

Time honored custom has been to 
paint the wall, and the theory has been 
that it were best to paint it because the 
paint was susceptible of being washed. 
Almost every physician in the country, 
if asked what was the most sanitary wall, 
would say that the painted wall was 
the most sanitary, because it could be 
washed. 

Now, while it is absolutely true that 
a painted wall can be washed, isn't there 
an easier way, as well as a cheaper way, 
than to paint a wall and then to wash 
*it? For, washing requires labor and, 
even if perfectly done, is at best a ques- 
tionable practice, and, again, paint is ex- 
pensive, especially with the price of lin- 
seed oil at the point where it is to-day, 
leaving out the question entirely of the 
sanitary qualities of paint. 

In the first place there is the trouble 
involved. When you paint a wall it is 
necessary to move out every piece of 
furniture that is near the wall ; you must 
remove every patient, and close the 
room up until the odor of the paint is 



thoroughly eliminated. This means the 
absolute loss of the use of that room or 
ward for several days, if not for a week. 
This because of paint. 

Then with the washing. It is a labor 
which produces much discomfort, and 
it is a question whether any person, in 
washing a wall, washes it thoroughly, 
changes the water sufficiently often and 
completely cleanses the wall. They may 
slop over the entire surface with water 
more or less warm, usually less, but it 
is a very grave question to any one who 
has watched the operation whether the 
wall is thoroughly washed or not, and it 
is certainly a hard job as well as a mussy 
one. 

Wouldn't it be easier to put a coating 
of lime on the wall that could be brushed 
on with a big brush with a surface of at 
least twelve inches at a time, and recoat 
it with a brush every time it was neces- 
sary? When lime is used, there is no 
disagreeable odor and no length of time 
•consumed in drying, for a solution of 
sulphate of lime on a wall will dry al- 
most as fast, if not quite as fast, as it is 
laid on, so it is a much quicker method 
than paint or even washing, and it is 
certainly much more cleansing, for we all 
admit that lime is a perfect germicide. 

Then consider the question of expense. 
Lime is miscible with water, which is 
without cost; lead is miscible only in 
oil, which costs 40 cents a gallon ; so the 
question of expense with paint is a large 
one, and that of sulphate of lime, which 
mixes with water, is small, with the dif- 
ference as ten to one. 

In considering the question of main- 



100 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



tenance of hospital walls, it is certainly 
wise to consider it from an economic as 
well as from a prophylactic side. The 
best sanitarians insist that hydrate of 
lime or whitewash is the ideal disinfect- 
ant for walls. Sulphate of lime possesses 
the same characteristics as hydrate of 
lime in its germicidal qualities. 

Sulphate of lime can also be tinted 
any color, any shade or any hue. It is 
soluble in water, dries quickly, and is an 
ideal wall coating. It is certainly worthy 
of the consideration as well as action of 
of the most careful and conservative hos- 
pital management, and the writer would 
be glad to see it tested out in more hos- 
pitals than use it at present. 

There is much discussion from time to 
time on the disinfection of walls after 
disease and there is a great question as 
to how much disinfection disinfects. It 
is a question that comes up to many 
nurses as well as to many hospital super- 
intendents; it is a question that comes 
up in homes as well as in hospitals. Does 
disinfection disinfect the wall? 

Dr. H. G. Darwin, the first deputy 



commissioner of the Tenement House 
Department in the city of New York, 
says : "It has been the experience of the 
Department of Health in this city that 
disinfection, as ordinarily practised, is 
insufficient in the greater number of 
cases, unless the old paper or old ma- 
terial on the wall is removed." This is 
just as true with regard to any other 
coating as with regard to paper. The 
only safe way to handle a hospital wall 
is to recoat it. No one is very sure of 
how much disinfection disinfects. We 
hope disinfection is complete, but we are 
frequently astounded to learn that we 
have only used half jneasures instead of 
whole measures. 

Every hospital wall should be clean. 
It should be thoroughly aseptic. It is 
unfair to any patient to take them into a 
ward or into a room when the system is 
at a low ebb of vitality and subject them 
to even a possibility of infection from the 
the wall or any other source, for the pa- 
tient, being ill, presents a more depleted 
condition of the system and a greater 
susceptibility to any infection. 



Salt Hot Water Applications 



A recent number of a Swiss medical paper 
recommends the use of hot salt water in the 
treatment of ulcers. The water should be 
heated to 120° R, and 100 grains of salt added 
to each quart. Four quarts should be used at 
each irrigation. The warm douche should be 
directed over all the surface, but especially 
to the edges of the ulcer. After the syringing 
the wound should be covered with sterilized 
lint soaked in hot salt water, similarly pre- 
pared, and then covered with cotton. It 



should then be bandaged from the end of the 
limb upwards, so as to maintain a uniform 
pressure. In removing the dressings, great 
care must be taken not to destroy the thin 
skin which has formed. At first the ulcer 
should be syringed once a day, but as it heals, 
it need not be done so frequently. The regu- 
lar application of the hot water forms around 
certain ulcers a scaly surface, which must be 
carefully removed, so that the action of the 
warm water may reach the ulcer. — Nursing 
Times. 



Cfje fmport of ^ain 



A. P. REED, M. D. 



PAIN is nature's warning that some- 
where in her economy there is in- 
harmony. 

The difficulty in correctly heeding 
this warning lies in the fact that pain 
does not always occur at the seat of 
the trouble. For instance, pain in the 
head may be reflex from stomach or 
liver affections, uterine disease, etc. 

When it occurs paradoxysmally it is 
stabbing and darting in character. 

Pain throbs with the heart beat when 
there is local swelling of part affected. 
In this case pain points directly at the 
seat of the trouble. Bruises of the 
muscular tissue is most apt to be 
marked by what we term an ache rather 
than by sharp pain, whereas wheri 
nerves are injured the pain is lancinat- 
ing, since all pain is caused either by 
direct or indirect irritation of nerves 
which represent the medium of all sen- 
sation. 

The difference between the sharp cut- 
ting pain of neuralgia and the dull 
aching of rheumatism is the difference 
between direct and indirect nerve irrita- 
tion. 

As a rule, acute pain means an active 
process, and a dull pain forbodes slow 
and chronic inflammatory changes 
which are often the changes or organic 
disease. 

So, also, does the sharp pain mark 
functional disturbances. Other things 



being equal, sharp pain is oftenest found 
where nerves are numerous, while dull 
pain occurs most where these human 
telegraph wires are least found. Loca- 
tion of the seat of disease is often shown 
by facial expression under pain. A 
drawing up of the upper lip under the 
influence of pain is said to indicate 
peritonitis, while in other abdominal 
pain there is often a twitching of the 
facial muscles, notably those about the 
eye and lip. 

Tenderness from pain is apt to mark 
neuralgic pain, a fact well illustrated by 
the pain of sciatica in which affection 
a line of keen tenderness down the leg 
from the hip marks the course of the 
sciatic nerve. These lines of tendepness 
always mark the course of nerves, and 
show us what structufes are involved. 

Whenever rheumatic pain causes ten- 
derness, it is usually a tenderness or 
soreness of a whole muscle and it is not 
apt to be so sensitive to the touch. In 
concluding I wish to state that rapid 
respiration, dilated pupils, perspiring 
skin, a hard, full pulse, a feeling of faint- 
ness, and the passage of a large quan- 
tity of clear urine, are reliable symp- 
toms of severe pain, symptoms which 
may help the nurse as well as the 
phvsician in differentiating between 
genuine suffering and that which is 
sometimes magnified by hysterical or 
nervous people. 



b 




Bepartmmt of ^rm^ iaur0ing 



DITA H. KINNEY 
Superintendent Army Nurse Corps 



'nr^HE superintendent of the Army 
-■- Nurse Corps takes the opportu- 
nity offered by the army notes to ex- 
tend to the ex-army nurses, as well as 
members of the nurse corps, heartiest 
good wishes for the New Year. She 
also wishes to avail herself of this means 
of expressing her thanks and acknowl- 
edgments to the many nurses who have 
sent her cards of greeting and good 
wishes, the number of which makes it 
impossible for her to answer them indi- 
vidually. She also wishes at this time to 
bespeak the interest and co-operation of 
all g-raduate nurses for the Army Nurse 
Corps and for its betterment and ad- 
vancement in every direction. 

Since the last notes — two months 
since — the discharges recorded in the 
surgeon-general's office have been : 
Nurses Sarah A. Brock, after long and 
most satisfactory service ; Emma Woods, 
suddenly called to her home by the seri- 
ous illness of her mother (she will be 
reappointed January 15) ; Ida E. Van- 
Derhoef, discharged at the expiration of 
her term. 

The appointments have been: Ger- 
trude H. Lustig, graduate of Morris- 
town Memorial Hospital, New Jersey, 
1902, post-graduate Sloan Maternity 
Hospital and for four years superintend- 
ent Morristown Memorial Hospital and 
of Training School. Miss Lustig was 
holding the above position at the time 
of her appointment; Amalie Ida Haent- 
sche, graduate of the German Hospital 
Training School, New York City, 1898. 



Winnie Farish, graduate of the New 
Orleans Training School, Charity Hos- 
pital, was reappointed, having had pre- 
vious service during the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War. Miss Farish also had duty in 
one of the hospitals in the Canal Zone 
for one and one-half years. Hannah 
Pauline Morris, graduate Boston City 
Hospital Training School, 1900. Miss 
Morris is also a member of the Super- 
intendents' Society. • Katherine A. Mc- 
Carthy, graduate of Mercy Hospital, 
Dubuque, la., 1902, post-graduate Pres- 
byterian Hospital, Chicago. Sigrid Con- 
stance Johnson, graduate of the Beth- 
esda Hospital Training School, St. Paul, 
Minn., 1902, also post-graduate, Pres- 
byterian Hospital, Chicago. Mary C. 
Jorgensen, graduate of Troy City 
Training School, Troy, N. Y., 1905, has 
been nurse in charge of the Indian 
School Hospital, Chilocco, Okla. Julia 
E. Woods, who was discharged from 
the corps May 31, 1904, after a long and 
meritorious service, was reappointed to 
the corps January i, and was assigned 
to duty at the General Hospital, Pre- 
sidio, San Francisco. She was chief 
nurse at the division hospital, Manila. 
After leaving the corps. Miss Woods 
took a post-graduate course in surgery 
at the General Memorial Hospital, New 
York City, where she remained, after 
her graduation, as staff nurse, and on 
two or three occasions was acting super- 
intendent of nurses during the absence 
of Miss Richmond, the regular incum- 
bent. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



103 



Nurses Grace E. Leonard and Alice 
Cecil White sailed for the Philippines 
December 5 for a tour of duty in that 
division. 

January 5, Nurses Sarah M. Hepburn, 
Emma Rothfuss and Clara L. Postle- 
wait left San Francisco on the transport 
Sherman for similiar assignment. 

Nurses Bernice Eliza Hanson and 
Anne Williamson returned to the United 
States on the transport Kilpatrick via 
Suez Canal, having been discharged. 
No commendation can be too high for 
the service renedered the nurse corps by 
these two nurses. 

Nurse Lyda M. Keener has been 
transferred from San Francisco to Fort 
Bayard. 

The following nurses reported at the 
General Hospital, San Francisco, from 
the transport Sherman: Louise Rohlfs, 
from the Division Hospital, Manila; 
Annie M. Hammett, from Ft. Wm. 
McKinley, and Edith L. Richmond, from 
the Division Hospital, Manila, P. I. 
Nurses Rohlfs and Hammett have been 
assigned to duty at the General Hos- 
pital, Presidio, and Nurse Richmond to 
Fort Bayard. 

Nurse Anna L. Davis has been re- 
lieved from temporary duty at Fort 
McKinley and assigned to regular duty 
at the Division Hospital; and Bertha 
Purcell, from the Division Hospital to 
Zamboanga for duty. 

Notwithstanding the continued criti- 
cism of conditions in the Army Nurse 
Corps, one who had long service, sends a 
letter from Texas, in which she says: 
"I wish to tell you how much pleasure 
I derive from your army notes in The 
Trained Nurse. It's like getting news 
from home. I assure you it requires the 
greatest possible effort for me to re- 
main longer out of the service. But for 
one reason — the opposition of my 



mother — ^I should like to send in my 
application to-morrow. Miss Alice Kem- 
mer (another ex-army nurse) sent me 
a picture postal that made me long for 
old Manila again. She writes me that 
she expects to give up private nursing 
in the Philippines and take it up in 
Washington, D. C, sometime during the 
spring." 

"Katherine Martin Taulbee writes me 
of her trip to China. The poor girl had 
the misfortune to lose everything she 
had with her, including her purchases 
of pretty things in Canton. While en 
route from that city to Hongkong the 
steamer upon which she was traveling 
took fire in the night. The passengers 
only were saved and were in imminent 
danger of their lives. Misses Killiam 
and Lasswell write from Santa Rosa 
that they are awaiting orders for 
Panama. 

"Miss Willesie Perkin is doing private 
duty in St. Louis, and Miss Emily Friton 
is happy in her home life at Sleepy Eye, 
Minn. She keeps her 'hand in' by tak- 
ing an occasional case. 

"May Heaven's choicest blessings . rest 
on you and the dear old Army Nurse 
Corps." 

Another ex-army nurse of about eight 
years' residence in the corps writes from 
Minneapolis: "Yesterday when I went 
to my room for clean uniforms I chanced 
on my appointment with its last entry of 
'honorable discharge.' You have no 
idea how much that paper, with its nu- 
merous indorsements, means to me, and 
there is not a day that I do not feel 
very thankful that I have had the op- 
portunity of serving my eight years with 
the army. I look back with pleasantest 
recollections and am agreeably disap- 
pointed that I do not feel myself at all 
rusty in taking up civil work — rather the 
reverse, as there are some of the later 



104 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



methods which we have tried and found 
successful in the army and which seem 
to be slower of adoption in private prac- 
tice." Miss goes on to state: "I 

hear from Miss Chamberlin that she has 
entirely recovered her health" (which is 
certainly good news for all of her 
friends) . 

"I trust that I may hear from you 
sometimes, even if I have left the corps. 
Its interests are very dear to me." 

News has reached the surgeon-gen- 
eral's office that Caroline Patterson, ex- 
army nurse, has, with her friend. Miss 
Elizabeth Barrie, opened a private sani- 
tarium in Los Angeles. The enterprise 
is still in its infancy, but it is the inten- 
tion of these nurses, in connection with 
receiving private patients from the pub- 
lic, to build up a home where weary 
nurses may rest for a few weeks or 
months at a small expense. Miss Pat- 
terson says: "My heart goes out to the 
poor overworked nurse who has given 
her life for others. There is no such 
place as I hope to establish in Califor- 
nia." 

The chief nurse from the Presidio 
writes of some new rugs which she has 
recently bought: "One for each room 
in the Nurses Quarters. These are 
much appreciated and make the rooms 
so much more attractive and homelike. 
I chose different colors, so that the taste 
of each nurse might be suited. The rugs 
come in red, green, terra cotta and two 
patterns in tan. The nurses' mess is 
feeling the great increase in prices of 
all commodities in San Francisco. 
Everything has reached the top notch 
in price." 

The bulletins from the Philippines 
seem to indicate that the life of the 
nurses, in Manila at least, is not all 
work. The chief nurse writes : "Last 
Friday night Misses Allewin, Brackett 



and Nagle entertained friends at a pro- 
gressive whist party given in honor of 
Misses McHugh and Solbeck, of Fort 
Wm. McKinley, who had just returned 
from Hongkong, China, and were en 
route to their post after leave. Misses 
Selover, Edwards and Margaret Moore 
will give an informal dance to-morrow 
night to discharge some of their social 
obligations. 

"The big affair of the season comes 
off on the 27th inst., which will be quite 
an event." Later the chief nurse writes : 
"The foyer of quarters was tastefully 
decorated with American flags, potted 
palms, ferns, Chinese and Japanese lan- 
terns hung five feet apart around the 
entire foyer and the dining-room and 
'sala.' In the centre of the foyer we 
arranged a round marble-top table, from 
which punch was served from a beautiful 
cut-glass punch-bowl and glasses. We 
had about fifty guests, and Miss Agnes 
Young, chief nurse. Fort Wm. McKin- 
ley, on leave, presided over the punch- 
bowl. She was beautifully gowned in 
jusi. A second punch-bowl, in another 
location, was looked after by our dear 
housekeeper, Miss Langstaff. The chief 
surgeon of the division, the command- 
ing officer of the hospital, and numerous 
officers of line and staff were guests on 
the occasion. I think you would have 
felt proud of your corps if you could 
have seen them that night. They cer- 
tainly were a body of women to be 
proud of. 

"You will be pleased to know, I am 
sure, that we are having a little private 
dancing class for those nurses who do 
not know how to dance. All are doing 
exceedingly well. We hire an instructor, 
an American, who comes to quarters 
and is engaged for eight lessons, for 
which each pupil pays $5 in gold." 

The chief nurse goes on to say that 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



105 



the "Powers-that-be" have appropriated 
$4,000 to make necessary improvements 
and alterations in the Division Hospital. 
I am dispossessed this morning. My 
office is getting a good scrubbing pre- 
vious to being painted. In the large, 
open wards the windows have been made 
larger, which will be a great relief, as 
it will afford better ventilation. The 
small diet kitchens and pantries off each 
ward are also being renovated and im- 
proved. In the officers' ward, there is 
an entirely new kitchen, and the ward 
itself is being dressed in a new coat of 
paint. The operating-room is to be 
treated to a new gown in the shape of a 
new white, tiled floor. It will take 1,100 
squares of tiling to cover it. There is a 
general atmosphere of rejuvenation all 
over the hospital, and, in making my 
rounds, I climb over lumber, bricks and 
plaster. Inconvenient as it is for the 
moment, the thought of what it is go- 
ing to be rejoices my heart. 

"Our daily lives are much the same 
old story — plenty of work, plenty of 
sick patients (some of them cranks), but 



we are happy and we have no reason to 
complain, as things run as smoothly as 
is in their nature to do. 

"I enclose to you a little cutting from 
the 'Cable News' in a Manila paper, 
contributed by one of our soldiers. Such 
things are one of the compensations 
which army nurses frankly admit are 
many." 

THE ARMY NURSE 

"With soothing hand she cools our fe- 
vered brow. 
With tender care relieves the racking 

pain, 
With cheerful word dispels the dreary 

hour 
And starts the languid pulse to beat 

again. 
When torture is the stone that marks 

each mile 
Upon life's road that seems o'cast with 

gloom. 
She's there with hopeful word and 

cheery smile 
And brings to us again the thoughts of 

home. 



Formula Wanted 



Dear Editor : — Enclosed please find money 
order for renewal of your valuable paper as 
I have always found it $2.00 well invested. 
Some years back I used a formula for chap- 
ped hands that was given in the magazine. I 
have lost the formula and would feel greatly 
indebted to you if it could be publisheti again. 
It was a lotion of benzoin, glycerine, rose 
water, and what else I do not remember, but 



in all probability some one of the subscribers 
will remember it. Thanking you in advance, 
Very sincerely yours, 

M. B. P. 
If our correspondent will give, us the year 
in which this formula appeared we will be 
happy to look it up, in the meantime if any 
of our subscribers have a knowledge of this 
recipe, we shall hope to hear from them. 



Cattoriallp g^peafeing 



The Fitness of Things 

At the recent graduation exercises of 
one of the large training schools of this 
city, three addresses were made to the 
graduating class by men prominent in 
the affairs of the community. 

The first speaker laid special stress 
on the value of character, "There never 
was a time in the history of the world 
when character was valued as highly as 
it is to-day. As Emerson says, 'Men of 
character are the conscience of the so- 
ciety to which they belong, and to ap- 
preciate the word in its full meaning a 
very sharp dividing line must be drawn 
between character and reputation. Char- 
acter is being; reputation is seeming. 
Character is what you are, and reputa- 
tion is what people think you are.' " 

The final exhortation of the second 
speaker was: "Hold fast upon high 
ideals ; renew continually your profes- 
sional knowledge, and keep your hearts 
open and your sympathy ready." 

The third and last speaker hurled 
aside all the professional shibboleths, 
with which we sometimes obscure the 
real point at issue, as his words rang 
through that hall : "Dare not forget the 
sanctity of life! Reverence even the 
faintest spark of that divine gift! Ever 
respect the human body, the earthly 
dwelHng place of the soul!" 

No words could have been more ap- 
propriate; no counsel more helpful; no 
sentiments more inspiring. Each speaker 
had evidently specially considered to 
whom his address was directed; namely, 
a graduating class of nurses, as well as 
the fact that the occasion of it marked 



an epoch in the lives of those to whom 
he spoke. Each had evidently taken 
thought of what he would say, so that 
his words might illuminate the path 
which lay before those graduates, and 
which would inspire them to success in 
its noblest and best sense. The words 
of each speaker had a special significance 
for the nurse, a special bearing on her 
work, and, if taken by her in the spirit 
in which they were spoken, each con- 
tained a special helpfulness for her. 

Those graduates, as they leave the 
training school behind them, will fall in 
line with the rest of their profession, and 
probably the jiext time they assemble 
together it will be as members of their 
school alumnae. They will be entered 
on the roster of the county societies ; they 
will accordingly have a part in the State 
and united alumnae association meet- 
ings. How will the words spoken from 
the platforms of these associations and 
the addresses prepared by the nurses 
themselves compare with those the grad- 
uate listened to on her graduation day? 
Will they be composed and delivered 
with the same regard for "the fitness of 
things ?" 

In an article on the future of our 
association, which appeared in one of 
our nursing journals, the diflferent 
branches of activity which have, so far, 
been taken up are classified as follows: 

(i) Mutual duty of assistance to 
members. 

(2) Simple or individual professional 
duties: those which affect directly the 
small local groups. Under this head 
may be classed all mutual eflforts at self- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



107 



improvement, such as post-graduate lec- 
tures, etc. 

(3) General social interest, such as 
sharing the work of philanthropic or 
charitable or civic or reforming bodies 
of people. 

(4) Professional work, such as State 
legislation. 

This is followed by the statement that : 
"It is evident that the first three divi- 
sions of work can all be perfectly well 
done by the alumnae associations or the 
general club or society. 

The patient who glances over this 
list might well ask if she had not 
been altogether overlooked, for the 
patient's interest, and the nurse's in- 
terests are not always synonymous, as 
has been proven over and over again ; 
while the by-stander will marvel that the 
nurse can find time and energy to de- 
vote to such a wide range of activity." 

In the November number of The 
Trained Nurse^ Mrs. Lx)ckwood says : 
"The object of nursing is to relieve suf- 
fering." Does the training school su- 
perintendent remember this when she 
subordinates the actual nursing of the 
patient to her theories as to what a nurse 
should do, and the classes she should 
attend during her hospital training? 
Do the graduates remember this when 
they organize along labor union lines, 
which make the price of skiHed nurs-, 
ing prohibitive for people of limited 
means or the self-respecting middle 
class? What does the alumnae associa- 
tion have in mind when it recites in its 
constitution, "This association is organ- 
ized for * * * raising the standard of 
nursing generally?" What does the in- 
dividual nurse mean when she speaks of 
the standard of nursing? 

The education of the nurse and the 
organization of nurses are necessary and 
of advantage to both patient and nurse. 



but, in calling attention to the many 
times that the total lack of observation 
of "the fitness of things" is shown in the 
selection of subjects for discussion and 
consideration in nurses' meetings, what 
is chiefly to be deplored is the reckless 
waste of time and energy that they in- 
volve. We have only a given amount 
of energy to expend. We have only an 
allotted time to live. The moments are 
swiftly hurrying by, and, once gone, they 
can never be recalled. Until we have 
attained to the unattainable, the perfect 
nurse, we might better concentrate, for 
this is an age of concentration, our 
energy and time on producing the nurse 
that the patient wants and cannot get 
along without. Why not ask the pa- 
tients themselves once in a while to te)'. 
us how they would like to be nursed, 
to tell us why they liked their nurse, or 
why they did not like her. We would 
then be better informed as to the fitness 
of the things that she is trained to do 
and not to do. 

After all, are not many of the difficul- 
ties, the problems and perplexities, 
which agitate our little world, of our 
own creating, the outcome of our own 
vain imaginings? One of our greatest 
thinkers and philosophers makes life a 
very simple proposition for all when he 
says: "The situation which has not its 
duty, its ideal, was never yet occupied 
by man * * * The ideal is in thyself. 
* * * Do the duty that lies nearest thee, 
which thou knowest to be a duty. Thy 
second duty will already have become 
clearer. Whatsoever thy hand findeth to 
do, do it with thy whole might. Work 
while it is called to-day, for the night 
Cometh when no man can work." 
+ 

Our Profession 

The nursing profession is young yet. 
It has not learned to co-ordinate its 



108 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



component parts. It is only just get- 
ting accustomed to thinking of itself as 
an entity, as one body actuated by 
the same motive, governed by the same 
principles. It is exactly like Kipling's 
"Ship that found Herself." In the 
newly-launched vessel every part felt and 
thought that itself was of prime im- 
portance, that without it there would be 
no great vessel. Each part holding this 
egotistical view does its work inde- 
pendently of the others, minimizing the 
importance of all but itself; conse- 
quently there is grating and straining 
and irregularity of action. But, after a 
time, the parts begin to lose their ego- 
tistical feeling and each does its own 
work in proper relation to, and in har- 
mony with, each other part, and, while 
no individual part is doing either less 
or more, the result is smoothness of ac- 
tion, and the ship has found herself. 

Each school has stood by itself. Its 
methods, its customs the only ones for 
the correct training of its pupils. Each 
nurse bristled with "We were taught 
thus and so where / was trained." 
Superintendents were jealous of each 
other's work, of the success of the 
pupils trained. Nurses from one school 
would not work on a case with nurses 
from a rival school. But we believe this 
spirit is passing and that we are coming 
to see that our value is not as indi- 
viduals, -either as nurse or school, but as 
integral parts of the component whole. 
Work done is not for individual achieve- 
ment or for a particular school's credit, 
but for the harmonious achievement, of 
our profession. 

The profession is finding itself. It is 
going to work harmoniously in its' edu- 
cative endeavor. A uniform curriculum- 
and length of course, a reciprocity sys- 



tem between and among schools of un- 
equal facilities, opportunity of special- 
izing, are but a few of the betterments 
we shall see in the ensuing decade. 



A Retrograde Movement 

It has been said by a celebrated writer 
that it is not good to make innovations 
or try experiments "except the necessity 
be urgent or the utility evident." The 
change from a two to three years' course 
of training was a distinct innovation; it 
was also an experiment, the result of 
which is still a matter of uncertainty. 

A paragraph in a paper of recent date 
stated that, "owing to the scarcity of 
nurses in Brooklyn, the course of study 
in the training school attached to the 
Kings County Hospital has been cut 
from three to two years. The demand 
for nurses was far greater than the sup- 
ply, and, with a view to improve the 
conditions, the officials of the school 
decided on a shorter term. Some of 
the aspiring nurses oppose the new 
plan." 

Accordingly, we note with special in- 
terest the report of Mrs. F. L. Cranford 
on the conditions at the Kings County 
Hospital, read at the annual meeting of 
the New York City Visiting Committee 
of the State Charities Aid Association. 
Mrs. Cranford announced that great 
progress had been made during the past 
year. Many important improvements, 
both structural and managerial, had been 
effected, but she wished to call attention 
to the insufficient supply of nurses. At 
present, she said there were only two 
nurses to every forty-eight patients. 

On the surface this seems to be an 
instance in which the interests of the 
nurse conflict with those of the patient. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



109 



"The aspiring nurses" evidently over- 
look the fact that, primarily, both nurse 
and hospital exist for the benefit of the 
patient. The final decision as to the de- 
sirability of a twa or three years' course 
will ultimately rest with the hospital and 
training school authorities. They have 
to supply a sufficient number of nurses 



to properly care for the patients in the 
various institutions. They are in a po- 
sition to compare and judge as to the 
number and calibre of the applicants for 
admission to the training schools, and 
their decision will be the outcome of 
these facts. 




First Prize in our Picture Contest, Nuuanu Pali, a mountain peak at the head of the 
beautiful Nuuanu Valley about fourteen miles from Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. Historic 
as the scene of the great battle, as a result of which Oahu Island lost its independence, 
and King Kamehameha, the Napoleon of the Hawaiian Islands, became master of the whole 
group. Fought in 1790. 

Picture taken by Miss Annie Alden Folger, of Medford, Mass. See prize contest an- 
nouncement in Nursing World. 



In tJje Jturstng Wotlti 



Graduate Nurses of Pennsylvania 

Owing to an error in my notes, I should 
like to make a correction in my report of the 
October meeting of the Graduate Nurses' As- 
sociation of the State of Pennsylvania. The 
association voted twenty-five dollars and re- 
ceived thirty-four dollars in individual sub- 
scriptions, making a total of fifty-nine dol- 
lars for the chair of hospital economics. 

Maude W. Miller, 

Assistant Secretary. 



The Kentucky State Association 

In response to a call issued by the Alumnae 
of Norton Memorial Infirmary and the Louis- 
ville Graduate Nurses' Club, over sixty nurses 
gathered in convention at Norton Infirmary 
on November 28, 1906, at 10 A. M., to or- 
ganize a State association. 

The meeting was called to order by Miss 
Annie E. Rece, president of Norton Me- 
morial Infirmary Alumnse. 

The exercises consisted of the invocation 
by Bishop Woodcock, address of welcome by 
Dr. Allen, acting for Mayor Paul C. Barth, 
and other addresses by Mrs. Charles Bonny- 
castle Robinson, Dr. J. M. Mathews, and 
Miss Sarah Sly. 

After the benediction by Bishop Woodcock, 
the assembly went into executive session, 
Miss Sly presiding, at the request of Miss 
Rece. 

The rest of the morning, as well as the af- 
ternoon session, was given to the adoption 
of the constitution and by-laws, and the elec- 
tion of officers. 

The officers elected were : President, Miss 
Nellie Gillette, Louisville ; first vice-president. 
Miss Mary R. Shaver, Lexington; second 
vice-president, Mrs. Ella Green Davis, 
Owensboro; recording secretary, Miss Susan 
B. Porter, Louisville; corresponding secre- 
tary. Miss Annie E. Rece, Louisville ; treas- 
urer, Mrs. Henry E. Tuley, Louisville. 

It was voted that the officers and the chair- 
men of the following committees should con- 



stitute the executive board: Ways and 
means, Miss Katherine Dear, Louisville; 
credentials, Miss Ida Beckman, Louisville; 
nominating, Miss McCann, Lexington; ar- 
rangements, Miss Amelia Milward, Louis- 
ville; publication and press, Miss Clara Leon, 
Louisville. 

On the second day, attention was first given 
to unfinished business, and then was concen- 
trated upon the bill to be presented to the 
next legislature. 

The organization of this association was re- 
markable for enthusiasm, singleness of pur- 
pose, and the smoothness with which business 
was conducted. 

The latter fact is due to the superb gen- 
eralship of Miss Sly, to whom the associa- 
tion owes an unpayable debt of gratitude. 

The convention closed with sixty-three 
charter members and all dues paid. 

Laura A. Wilson, 
Member of Publication and Press Com. 

Authorized by the president. 



New York: City 

The following is a list of the names of the 
officers and trustees of the alumnae associa- 
tion of the New York City Training School 
for Nurses, for 1907: President, Dr. Sarah 
C. Silver-White; first vice-president, Miss J. 
Amanda Silver, R.N.,; second vice-president, 
Miss Helen M. Sheehan, R.N. ; recording sec- 
retary. Miss Inie E. Aldrich, R.N. ; corre- 
sponding secretary. Miss H. Grace Franklin, 
R.N. ; financial secretary. Miss EHzabeth 
Gregg; treasurer, Mrs. T. Hines Nason, R.N. ; 
trustees. Miss D. M. Lamb, R.N. ; Mrs. Clin- 
ton Stevenson; Miss Jessie A. Stowers, R.N. ; 
Miss E. J. Hopkins, R.N. ; Miss Helen M. 
Sheehan, R.N. ; Miss Frances E. Meyer; Miss 
Martha E. Bollerman, R.N. ; Miss Mary E. 
Ryan; Miss E. Blanche Kline, R.N. ; Miss 
Helen M. Patterson. 

Inie E. Aldrich, R.N., 
Recording Secretary. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



111 



The students of the Laura Franklin Train- 
ing School had their Christmas party at the 
home hospital, 17 East 111th Street, the sec- 
ond floor having been cleared for the occa- 
sion. 

At the upper end loomed the Christmas 
tree, while from the lower the refreshment 
table smiled its happy welcome to the bright- 
faced young nurses. Santa Claus, of course, 
was there and mingled in the merry games, 
regardless of the avoirdupois collected during 
his many years of faithful service. 

The evening was a pleasant one and time 
flew as fast as the dancers' feet when "the 
nuisic began to play." 



New York County Nurses 

The New York County Nurses' Associa- 
tion held its January meeting on the even- 
ing of the second, at the University Women's 
Club, 17 East Twenty-sixth Street. 

Miss Davis, president of the State Asso- 
ciation, gave an interesting account of their 
November meeting in Brooklyn. Among the 
topics discussed were the advisability of the 
Central Club House and registry, the ad- 
vantages of the two- and three-years' course 
of training and the coming alumnae reception. 
The Post-Graduate Alumnse Association was 
admitted to membership. 

After adjournment, refreshments were 
served. 

The county is in a flourishing condition 
and the meeting was well attended. 



L 



For some time past plans have been in 
progress for a general reception to all gradu- 
ate nurses in the City of New York — the ob- 
ject being a better acquaintance. The dele- 
gates of the various alumnae associations held 
their final meeting January 9th at the Laura 
Franklin Hospital. The schools were well 
represented, all were interested and the re- 
ception promises to be a great success. It 
will be held at the Manhattan Hotel Wed- 
nesday, February 6th, from 3 to 7 P. M. 

Associations will receive their cards 
through their secretaries. Guests' tickets 
may be had from Miss Pindell, superintend- 
ent of the Metropolitan Hospital Training 
School, Blackwell's Island, and Chairman of 
Committee. 



Camp Roosevelt 

The monthly meeting of Camp Roosevelt 
was held on January 7 at 245 West Fourteenth 
Street, at the usual hour, 3.30 to 6 P. M. 
In the absence of both chairman and vice- 
chairman, the meeting was presided over by 
Mrs. Taylor. The minutes of December were 
read and approved of, and the apology ac- 
cepted for the unavoidable delay in the 
appearance of The Gossip for January. Two 
new members were proposed and accepted, 
namely: Miss Augusta Reed, of the Seney 
Hospital, and Miss Denning, also of Brook- 
lyn. At 4.30 an adjournment was made and 
refreshments and gossip indulged in till 6 
o'clock. The next meeting of Camp Roose- 
velt will be held on Monday, February 4, at 
245 West Fourteenth Street, 3.30 to 6 P. M. 
Florence M. Kelly, R.N., 
Sec'y of Camp. 



Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A meeting of the Brooklyn branch of the 
Guild of St. Barnabas was held in Grace 
Church Monday, December 17, the chaplain, 
Dr. Scudder, officiating. After the service a 
business meeting was held in the Guild room. 
The committee on work reported having vis- 
ited St. Giles' Home for Crippled Children 
and it was recommended that several other 
institutions be visited before deciding which 
offers the work best suited to the Guild at 
present. One new member (active) was 
elected. 



The monthly meeting of the Brooklyn Hos- 
pital T. S. Alumnae was held at the Training 
School January 1. The principal business at 
that meeting was appointment of a commit- 
tee of five to choose a site for a club house 
and open one as soon as possible, borrowing 
fifteen hundred dollars ($1,500) from the en- 
dowment fund, at present rate of interest, for 
that purpose. The business meeting over, the 
president introduced Mrs. Leonidas Hubbard, 
a graduate of our school, and well known to 
many of the members, who entertained us 
with a descriptive account of the trip to Lab- 
rador and her reception by the Nauscopee In- 
dians, their habits and costumes, and an in- 
teresting description of the beauty of their 
country. 

Alice de Zouche, 

Sec-etary pro tern. 



112 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



The alumnae of the New York State School 
for Training Nurses, Brooklyn, N. Y., held 
its annual meeting at the Prospect Heights 
Hospital on Tuesday evening, January 8. 
There was just a quorum present, and the 
president presided. After the unfinished busi- 
ness, came election of officers, and the presi- 
dent was re-elected. Four nurses applied for 
membership and were elected. They were : 
Miss Fling, Miss Tibbo, Miss Gosling, Miss 
Smith. 

There are now fifty-eight nurses enrolled 
as members of the alumnae association. 

A discussion of a sick benefit fund has been 
laid on the table at each business meeting 
for the past year. Some of our members are 
in favor of a fund, while others prefer en- 
dowing a room in the hospital. A great many 
members have failed to respond to the appeal, 
and nothing definite has been decided. Fairs, 
theatres, etc., were discussed as a means of 
raising money, but that also had to be laid 
aside on account of the few members present. 
A luncheon was given at the Hotel St. George 
on Thursday, December 27, and those present 
enjoyed a very pleasant afternoon. The deco- 
rations were carried out in the Christmas 
colors. 

The new officers for the year 1907 are as 
follows : Miss Eva H. Branch, president ; 
Miss Hannah C. Lee, first vice-president ; 
Miss Anna Nye, second vice-president ; Miss 
Catherine Eacott, recording secretary; Miss 
Ida M. Oliver, corresponding secretary ; Miss 
Gertrude Keefer, treasurer. 

H. C. Lee, 
Secretarv. 
+ 

Albany, N. Y. 

Santa Claus visited the nurses' home of the 
Albany Hospital during Christmas week, im- 
personated by Dr. Harris, Miss Conroy, Miss 
Mackey, Dr. Hacker ; and Dr. Harris furnished 
the musical program. Dancing was enjoyed 
imtil midnight. 

Mrs. Simpson, the superintendent of nurses; 
the lady board of managers and many of the 
Albany physicians were present. 

Great interest is being manifested in the 
preparation now under way for the annual 
charity ball of St.' Peter's Hospital, to be given 
at the Ten Eyck during the last week in 
January. 

The reports of the work of the Guild for 



the Care of the Sick for the month of Decem- 
ber show that the Guild has made its best rec- 
ord during that month and one the managers 
are justly proud of. 

One hundred and thirty-five new cases were 
reported in which nursing care was required. 

Six graduate nurses and five assistant nurses 
were on duty during the month and in all 1,597 
visits were made. 

That the work being accomplished by the 
Guild is being appreciated by the medical fra- 
ternity of Albany is best shown by the fact 
that forty-two physicians reported cases which 
required and received attention from the Guild 
nurses. 

According to the report of the superin- 
tendent of the Pine Tree Camp, the total 
contributions from all sources for the camp 
during its four months of existence amounted 
to $1,492.45, and the actual cost of mainte- 
nance was $2,951.21. Of the 46 patients 
treated, twelve have died, twenty-four have 
resumed their vocations, and six are at Ray- 
brook. 

The financial table shows receipts from va- 
rious sources, $1,554.98 ; bills payable, $1,- 
762.24, with balance of last year's debt esti- 
mated at $700, leaving now due $2,462.24. 

Miss Bella J. Frazer, R.N., who was ap- 
pointed by the State Board of Regents to 
succeed Miss Alline on the State board for 
the examination of trained nurses, lives at 
No. 2 Delaware Avenue, this city. 

Miss Frazer is a graduate of Kingston Gen- 
eral Hospital, Ontario, Canada, class 1904. 
+ 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

The regular meeting of the Buffalo Nurses' 
Association took place on the 7th inst, at the 
Woman's Union, No. 86 Delaware Avenue, 
Miss Mary Jayne Cole presiding. A short 
business meeting was followed by a delight- 
ful program, in charge of Mrs. Harriet D. 
Storck. Mr. David Ericson, instructor of 
painting at the Albright Art Gallery gave a 
very instructive talk upon the Anatomy of 
Expression in Art. Miss Evelyn Fell gave 
several piano selections and Miss Ritter and 
Miss Reid sang. It was announced by the 
chairman of the social committee, Mrs. 
Anderson, that the annual banquet will be 
held upon the 16th inst. 

Rachael Ten Evck, 

Corresponding Secretary. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



113 



The Buffalo Nurses' Association held its 
annual banquet on Wednesday evening, Janu- 
ary 16th. A full account will be given in 
next issue. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

The following sixteen students of the first 
section of the fall class of 1906 of the Penn- 
sylvania Orthopaedic Institute and School of 
Mechano-Therapy, Philadelphia, Pa., received 
their diplomas at the end of the term : 

In massage, gymnastics, electro- and hydro- 
therapy — Emma Phila Dyer, Kansas City, 



In massage, gymnastics and electro-ther- 
apy — James B. Vernon, Claymont, Del. ; Mary 
E. Humphreville, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Elizabeth 
C. Blair, Ipswich, Suffolk County, England 
(Grad. St. George's Hosp., London, Eng., 
1892) ; May Corliss Sibley, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Josephine Bailey, Salem, N. H. (Grad. nor- 
mal school course in gymnastics, Allen Gym- 
nasium, Boston, Mass., 1903 ; assistant teacher 
at the same) ; Wilhelmina K. Dresser, Haver- 
hill, Mass.; DeHa Agnes Gibbons, Springfield, 
Mass. (Grad. Farran Memorial, Montague 
City, Mass., 1906). 




LAST GRADU.^TING CLASS^ NORTHAMPTON HOSPITAL^ NORTHAMPTON, MASS. 



Mo. (St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, Mo., 
1903-1904) ; Irene N. Downs, Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; Mary M. Weaver, Belief onte. Pa. (Pres- 
byterian Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., 1905- 
1906) ; Minnie A. Swartz, CoraopoHs, Pa. ; 
Catherine M. Brown, Merchantville, N. Y. 
(Grad. Hosp. of Good Shepherd, Syracuse, 
N. Y., 1895 ; head nurse Cortland City Hosp., 
Cortland, N. Y., 1897; Grad. Phila. Poly- 
clinic, 1900) ; Anna E. Curtis, Olean, N. Y. 
(Grad. Olean Gen. Hosp., 1905) ; George 
Thomas Bennett, Camden, N. J. (superintend- 
ent of the Institute of Electro-Mechano- 
Therapy, Orlando, Fla.). 



In medical gymnastics and massage — Mattie 
D. Brooks, Vineland, N. J. ; Helen J. Deni- 
ham, Renfrew, Ont., Can. 
+ 
Chester, Pa. 

The graduate nurses of Chester Hospital, 
Chester, Pa., have organized an alumnae asso- 
ciation, November 9, 1906. Officers were 
elected as follows : President, Miss Mae 
Disert ; vice-president. Miss Clara Hoskins ; 
secretary, Miss Cora Jane Welker; treasurer. 
Miss Anna Brobson. 

The constitution was read and adopted 
Tuesday, January 15, 1907. 



114 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



The object of the association is for mutual 
help and protection, to advance the standing 
and best interest of the trained nurse, to pro- 
mote social intercourse and good fellowship 
among the graduates. 

Cora Jane Welker, 

Secretary. 
+ 

Scranton, Pa. 

The total number of cases for December 
of the typhoid epidemic was 840, and for 
November, forty. The deaths up to noon 
January 1st, totaled sixty-one. 

Seven nurses in the four hospitals are 
so far reported as having been stricken with 
the fever. In the State Hospital one nurse 
is reported as alone looking after twenty- 
eight cases. 

+ 

Orange, N. J. 

The Orange Branch of the Guild of St. 
Barnabas for Nurses, held its regular meeting 
on December 20 at St. Mark's Church, West 
Orange. The chaplain, Rev. Mr. White, 
conducted the service, the sermon being 
preached by the rector. Rev. F. B. Reazar. 
December 21 being the feast of Saint Thomas, 
Mr. Reazor dwelt on the apostle's life and 
character, proving that though he has gone 
down to posterity as Doubting Thomas, this is 
not a fair criticism. All the records we have 
show that the disciple was both physically and 
morally courageous, but being of a melan- 
cholic type looked not on the brightest aspect 
of events. The one incident of doubt recorded 
was a natural and honest one, and upon being 
convinced the apostle gave proof of a greater 
surrender than his brethren, falling down at 
our Lord's feet, crying: "My Lord and my 
God!" 

After the service, a business meeting was 
held in the Guild room. The secretary read 
report of last meeting. Mrs. d'Arcy Stephen, 
treasurer, reported a balance of over $80 on 
hand and no outstanding debts, for which re- 
sult she deserves great praise. Report from the 
Sick Relief Association was read, one benefit 
having been paid since last meeting. No re- 
port from the work committee except progress. 
A letter was read asking the Guild to pay the 
salary for one month of the tuberculosis 
nurse. This was voted on and decided in the 
affirmative, no special month being designated. 
Ten new active members were elected, the ma- 



jority being nurses from the Mountainside 
Hospital, Montclair. Several associates were 
also elected. Christmas greetings from the 
Brooklyn branch were delivered by a member 
who had attended the last meeting of that 
branch. 

Owing to the inclement weather, the at- 
tendance was very small, but perhaps that fact 
added to the sociability of the reception after 
the meeting. We certainly enjoyed a most 
pleasant hour, drinking tea and exchanging 
Christmas greetings. The next meeting will 
be held in Christ Church, Bloomfield, of which 
our chaplain is rector, and we are promised 
the great honor of a visit and sermon from 
Bishop Lines, of the Diocese of Newark. 

+ 

Englewood, N. J. 

The graduates of the Englewood Hospital 
met in July, for the purpose of forming an 
alumnae association. 

After appointing officers it was decided to 
hold the meeting the first Thursday in every 
month, beginning in November, at which 
meeting it was decided to frame a constitu- 
tion and by-laws, and the acting president was 
requested to ask a lawyer to help out. 

The secretary, Miss Chislohm, was re- 
quested to write Miss Flint, our president, 
expressing regret and sympathy for her in her 
trying illness. 

A discussion was started as to the advis- 
ability of a club house, the motion was laid 
on the table for the present. After coffee, 
cake and conversation was indulged in, the 
meeting adjourned till February 4. 

+ 

Boston, Mass. 

On New Year's evening the Nurses* Alum- 
nae of the Massachusetts General Hospital 
held a reception in the Thayer Library which 
was tastefully decorated. On the receiving 
committee were Miss Anderson, Mrs. H. L. 
Burrell, Miss Helen Finley, Miss Agnes E. 
Aikman, Miss Grace Beattie. 

The graduating class was invited, and dur- 
ing the evening Mrs. Johannesson, one of the 
first class to graduate, told reminiscences of 
the old times in the hospital. The members 
wished them success and hoped they would 
.soon be members, too. Excellent music was 
furnished and refreshments served by com- 
mittee in charge. A most enjoyable evening 
was spent. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



115 



Clinton, Mass. 

The fund being raised by the Alumnae As- 
sociation of the Clinton Hospital Training 
School for the establishment of a free bed 
for nurses, has been increased by the voting 
of the nurses to transfer to the fund a bal- 
ance in the association treasury, so that now 
the fund amounts to $956. 

+ 

Fall River, Mass. 

The annual meeting of the Nurses' Alum- 
nae Association of the Union Hospital of Fall 
River, was held on January 2, 1907, in the 



ing class in November, and a Christmas 
party given in December with the hospital 
nurses now in training. The new year is en- 
tered with larger hopes for mutual good for 
the nurses and the community. 

+ 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

The Hennepin County Graduate Nurses' 
Association held their regular monthly meet- 
ing at 3 o'clock Thursday afternoon, 
January 10th, at the residence of Dr. Marion 
A. Mead, on Third Avenue South. At 4 
o'clock Dr. Arthur T. Mann, surgeon, closed 




CHRISTMAS AT THE LAURA FRANKLIN HOSPITAL, NEW YORK CITY 



Nurses' Home. Officers were elected for the 
year. This meeting commenced the second 
year of the organization and great satisfac- 
tion was expressed in the success of the first 
year. There are fifty-eight members and the 
interest is general. The sum of $1,000 has 
been raised in pledges to be given to the 
fund for a new hospital building. Meetings 
have been held regularly and were well at- 
tended; a banquet was given to the graduat- 



his series of lectures on "Bandaging." For 
bandaging prizes were awarded to Miss Por- 
ter, superintendent of the Swedish Hospital, 
and Miss Agnes Peterson, of the North- 
western Hospital. 

+ 

Cleveland, Ohio 

The graduate nurses of the Cleveland City 

Hospital met on the evening of June 7, 1906, 

and organized an alumnae association; the fol- 



116 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



lowing officers were elected : Miss Pepper, 
president; Miss Swogger, vice-president; Miss 
Foote, secretary, and Mrs. Treadgold treas- 
urer. 

A business meeting was held December 11, 
at which it was decided that the next meeting 
should be held the evening following the 
graduating exercises of the Cleveland City 
Hospital. 



Each member gave a helpful talk on some 
subject of benefit to the nursing profession. 

At a suitable hour a tempting luncheon was 
served by the hostess. Members were de- 
lighted to meet and talk over "Hospital 
Days," and unique experiences. 

The next meeting of the society will be held 
in June, at the home of Miss Thompson, Mar- 
tin's Ferry, O. 



Milwaukee, Wis. 

The South Side Training* School for Nurses 
celebrated its second annual commencement 
exercises on Thursday evening, December 20, 
1906, at Kindergarten Hall, when the follow- 
ing nurses, dressed in immaculate white, re- 
ceived their diplomas from their much-es- 
teemed president, Dr. W. F. Malone, and their 
medals bearing the class motto, "Suaviter in 
modo, Fortiter in re," were presented by Dr. 
Reul, namely, Gertrude Ash, Mavis Bender, 
Abbie B. Cole, Theresa McConnell, Mary M. 
McNamara, Josephine N. Suwalska and 
Marion Ruth Withers, Miss Cole acting as 
valedictorian. 

Following the exercises, dancing and bounti- 
ful refreshments were indulged in. About 
400 attended and all reported a most joyous 
time and extended thanks and best wishes 
to all the members of the class and to Misi 
Rikkers, superintendent of the S. S. Training 
School. 



Wheeling, W. Va. 

The Alumnae Society of Haskins' Hospital 
Training School for Nurses, of Wheeling, W. 
Va., met and organized in the apartments of 
Miss Bertha G. Mansfield, superintendent of 
nurses of that hospital, on October 18, 1906. 

The rooms were tastefully decorated with 
white chrysanthemums, carnations and ferns. 

Miss Rae Dessell, Salem, W. Va., was 
chosen president, Miss Mansfield and Miss 
Bell, vice-presidents. Miss Vera Thompson, 
secretary. 

At the conclusion of the business meeting, 
an elaborate repast was served, graduates and 
pupil nurses participating in the festivities. 

The first regular meeting of the society was 
held at the home of Miss Margaret Bell, 
Wheeling, on December 6, 1906, a number of 
nurses being present. 



New Orleans, La. 

Twenty-one young ladies received diplomas 
from the Charity Hospital Training School. 
Palms and brightest flowers adorned the am- 
pitheatre of that time-honored institution, and 
and orchestra, under the direction of Mr. 
George L. O'Connell, discoursed the most de- 
lightful music in advance of and during the 
regular program. To the strains of the grand 
march from "Tannhauser," the fair graduates, 
in their trim uniforms, and dainty white caps 
and aprons', marched in and took their seats 
directly in front of those of the board of di- 
rectors. 

Dr. E. S. Lewis, vice-president of the 
board, opened the exercises with a few words 
of encouragement and commendation for the 
graduates. He referred to the need of an in- 
crease in the corps of nurses, but the difficulty 
of materially increasing the corps being very 
great, on account of the strenuousness of the 
course, and the rules and regulations, and 
those governing admission, being exacting to 
a degree. 

After the report of Sister Agnes, (principal 
directress) and the report of Dr. J. M. 
Batchelor (house surgeon and chairman of 
faculty), the closing address of the exercises 
was delivered by the Rt. Rev. Davis Sessums, 
with the eloquence which always characterizes 
this scholarly divine. In concluding his ad- 
dress, the Bishop called the attention to the 
duty of the strong toward the weak. Strength 
only manifesting itself as such in helping the 
weak, and States .and individuals show best 
their strength by the power of love and pity 
and help they can extend to the suffering. 

Speaking of the life work which the young 
graduates had chosen, the Bishop heartily 
commended them on their choice, as, he said, 
one might call it a profession, vocation or call- 
ing, but it was something that had a mission 
in it. It meant that they were listening to a 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



117 



voice that was deeper than their own self- 
consciousness. Though the pecuniary reward 
might not be as great as some other occupa- 
tions they might have chosen, the prayerful 
thanks arfd smiles of those whom they will 
lead from the dark prison-house of pain into 
the bright regions of health and joy will be 
no slight reward. 

At the conclusion of the Bishop's address, 
Dr. Lewis presented the diplomas, class pins 
and souvenir books to the following gradu- 
ates: 

Miss Pearl Allen, Miss Margaret Clement, 
Miss Earle Davis, Miss Juanita Field, Miss 



Savannah, Qa. 

The third annual meeting of the Graduate 
Nurses' Association of Savannah was held .on 
December 29 at the Savannah Hospital. The 
following officers for the ensuing year were 
elected: President, Miss M. B. Wilson; vice- 
president. Miss N. Johnston; treasurer. Miss 
J. Romeo; secretary, Miss M. Clark; execu- . 
tive committee. Miss M. A. Owens, Miss M. 
McCall, Miss M. Cunningham. After the 
meeting, the association was entertained by 
Miss Wilson, president of the association and 
superintendent of nurses at the Savannah 
Hospital. 




AFTERNOON TEA AT THE LAURA FRANKLIN HOSPITAL, NEW YORK CITY 



Nina Gatz, Miss Allie Henderson, Miss Bar- 
bara Ingund, Miss Katherine Ledlie, Miss 
Eleanor Nations, Miss Mary Ross, Miss Daisy 
Bankhead, Mrs. Laura G. Coleman, Miss Ida 
Druschke, Miss Sophie Fontana, Miss Laura 
Hasson, Miss Katherine Howard, Miss Eula 
Jones, Miss Rose McGill, Miss Alleene Prince, 
Miss Cora Wells, Miss Amelia Zundel. 

A large crowd of friends and relatives of 
the graduates were present. 



Marshall, Texas 

To meet the increasing demand for skilled 
nurses, a course of two years has been added 
to the curriculum of Wiley University. Dr. 
W. M. Drake is principal of this department. 

The Knowlton Hospital Alumnae Associa- 
tion celebrated their second anniversary by a 
dancing party, given Wednesday eve, Decem- 
ber 12, at St. James' Guild Hall. All present 
reported a very enjoyable evening. 



118 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Des Moines, Iowa 

December 15, at Des Moines, Iowa, occurred 
the graduation of ten young ladies from the 
Iowa Sanitarium Training School. The ex- 
ercises being held at the the Adventist Church, 
which was tastily decorated for the occasion. 
The address to the class was given by Prof. 
Magon, of Nashville, Tenn., the diplomas be- 
ing awarded by the superintendent of the in- 
stitution and the board of managers. 



enough to be awarded prizes, were yet so in- 
teresting, historically or otherwise, that we 
hope to be able to publish them for the edifi- 
cation of our readers. 

+ 
Births 

Margaret Weber Simmes, at home with her 
parents, Mr. and Mrs. Lyman L. Simms, 2950 
Race Street, Denver, Col., November 9,* 1906. 
Mrs. Simms was Miss Eva D. Weber, gradu- 
ate of the Episcopal Hospital, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 



Announcement of Prize Winners 

Our Prize Picture Contest, which ended on 
January 1, was a great success. We received 
a very large number of photographs from 
nurses, many of which were very artistic, and 
many more were extremely interesting, either 
historically, because of some association, or 
because they represented some of nature's 
most extraordinary wonders. 

After the most careful consideration, it was 
unanimously decided to award the first prize 
to Miss Annie Alden Folger, Medford, Mass. 

The picture is of the Nuuanu Pali, a moun- 
tain in the Hawaiian Islands, not far from 
Honolulu. The picture is noteworthy as 
showing the scene of a great battle in 1790, 
while the artistic lights in the sky in the 
original picture are very beautiful. Un- 
fortunately they are so extremely delicate 
that they are not shown in the reproduction 
of this photograph, as the paper -on which 
The Trained Nurse is printed is not suffi- 
ciently smooth to bring out these details. 

Second prize was awarded to a view on the 
Island of Marken, Holland, and represents 
some women pitching hay into flat boats on a 
canal. The scene is most characteristically 
Dutch, and the house with its old-fashioned 
tiled roof is quaint and picturesque, while the 
photograph itself is clear and artistic. This 
photograph was submitted by Miss Grace An- 
gell, Pittsfield, Mass. Both of these photo- 
graphs are reproduced in this number. 

In our next number we will reproduce the 
five third prizes. They were won by Miss 
Margaret Hughes, Mont. ; Miss C. C. Newing- 
ton. Pa.; Miss L. I. Buxton, 111.; Miss H. V. 
Leich, N. Y., and Mrs. Edward Schaaf, Mo. 

Among the pictures submitted there were 
a great many, which, although not good 



Marriages 

Married — At the home of the bride's pa- 
rents, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Wilson, in Sid- 
ney, la., December 24, by the Rev. C. S. Spen- 
cer, George W. Moore and Miss Vesta Wil- 
son. Mr. Moore is the county recorder of his 
home county, and a fine young business man. 
Mrs. Moore is a trained nurse of lovely per- 
sonality and a resident, of Sidney for a num- 
ber of years, where she practiced her pro- 
fession. 



Miss Jeannette Laura Todd and Mr. John 
Amos William Sagendorf announce their mar- 
riage, which took place the 28th day of No- 
vember, 1906, at New York City. Mrs. 
Sagendorf is a graduate of the New Haven 
Training School for Nurses, class of '95, and 
since her graduation has been located in 
Bridgeport, Conn. Mr. and Mrs. Sagendorf 
are at home at Bronxville. N. Y. 



Miss Mary Anderson, graduate of Trinity 
Training School, of class of 1903, was married 
to Dr. Mueller, of Mt. Hope, Monday, De- 
cember 24. 



Miss Bessie Palmer, graduate of Trinity 
Training School, class of 1900, married Dr. 
William Heitman, and the wedding is the con- 
summation of a pretty romance which dktes 
back to her school days when nurses were for- 
bidden to entertain any of the attending 
physicians. 



At St. Joseph's Church, Brookfield, Decem- 
ber 26, 1906, occurred the marriage of Miss 
Sara Elizabeth Halpine, daughter of Thomas 
Halpine, to Mr. John McCarthy, of Danbury, 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



119 



Conn. Mrs. McCarthy is a graduate of St. 
Vincent's Hospital Training School, New 
York City, class of 1900, and at one time a 
member of the Vina Z. Foote Graduate 
Nurses' Home, on West Twenty-first Street. 

Mr. McCarthy is one of Danbury's most 
prominent and successful business men. 

Mr. and Mrs. McCarthy left for an ex- 
tended southern trip. At home after Feb- 
ruary 1, at 19 McDermott Street, Danbury, 
Conn. 



At Austin, Tex., January 1, 1907, MisS 
Anna Jane Kloth to Mr. Don Fernando Payne. 
At home, Corpus Christi, Tex. For the past 
four years Mrs. Payne has been in charge of 



position as night superintendent in the Elk 
County General Hospital. 



Miss Anna Pederson, Miss A. E. Dartt, and 
Miss A. K. Vosburgh, formerly of Miss V. Z. 
Foote's Nurses Registry, have moved to the 
Sesrun Club on 116th Street, N. Y. 



Miss Nellie Davis has received the appoint- 
ment of superintendent of nurses, Erie County 
Hospital, Buffalo, N. Y. 



Owing to long continued ill-health, as the 
sequence to the loss of left hand and fore- 
arm, Miss S. B. Foster, who has conducted the 
nurses registry at Lynn, Mass., has been 




A \V,\RD AT CHRISTMAS TIME, LAURA FRANKLIN HOSPITAL, NEW YORK CITY 



the Austin Sanitarium, and has done very 
valuable work for the profession. When 
Mrs. Payne first went to Austin, it was very 
difficult to have the people regard a trained 
nurse above the colored servant; but, owing 
to the training school, the trained nurse is 
now held in the highest esteem. 
+ 

Personal 

Miss Bertha E. Sterling, a graduate of the 
North Pennsylvania General Hospital, of 
Austin, Pa., has accepted a position in the Elk 
County General Hospital at Ridgway, Pa. 



forced to give up the work, and having placed 
the work in competent hands has left Lynn 
and will take up a new branch of the work in 
new fields, her headquarters being with friends 
in Boston. 



Miss Genevieve Longfield has resigned her 
position, and is resting at her home in Madi- 
son, Wis. 



Miss Georgia L. Allen has accepted the po- 
sition of night nurse at the Union Hospital, 
Butte, Montana. 



Miss Sarah P. Short, of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Hospital, of Philadelphia, has taken the 



Miss Caroline Watson, of Canada, is filling 
the position of head nurse at Union Hospital, 
Butte, Montana. 



120 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Miss Sara Young, graduate of the John 
Sealy Hospital T. S., GalVeston, Tex., is in 
charge of the Austin Sanitarium, Austin, Tex. 
Miss Young is assisted by Miss Sadie Corn- 
wall, also of John Sealy Hospital, and Miss 
Elizabeth Kloth, of the Cincinnati, Ohio, Hos- 
pital T. S. 



away at the Rush Sanitarium, Malvern, Pa. 
Services were held in Reading, Pa., on Janu- 
ary 5, where interment was made. 



A department for massage and gymnastic 
treatments has been added to the Orthopaedic 
Clinic of the Hahnemann Hospital, of Phila- 
delphia. The same has been placed in charge 
of Miss Irene M. Downs, who recently gradu- 
ated in the Swedish system of massage, medi- 
cal and orthopaedic gymnastics and electro- 
and hydro-therapy from The Pennsylvania 
Orthopaedic Institute and School of Mechano- 
Therapy, Philadelphia, Pa. 



The Hotel Royal Poinciana, at Palm Beach, 
Fla., has installed a complete hydriatic depart- 
ment and has placed the same in charge of 
Mr. Stephen Sheehan, of Albany, N. Y., who 
graduated last year in the Swedish system of 
massage, gymnastics, electro- and hydro-the- 
rapy from the Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Insti- 
tute and School of Mechano-Therapy, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 



Miss Elizabeth Borham, a graduate of the 
Chicago Polyclinic Hospital Training School, 
has been appointed chief nurse at the State 
Insane Asylum for Incurables, at Peoria. 
Miss Borham obtained the place as the result 
of high standing in civil service examination. 



Stricken with typhoid fever while nursing 
sufferers with that disease at Scranton, Pa., 
Miss Eva Hawkins, a trained nurse, was re- 
moved to her home in Wilmington, Del., 
January 4th, and is now under the care of a 
physician. 

Miss Eva Hawkins and Miss Bertha 
Hayes went to Scrarrton, volunteered for 
duty, and were assigned to visitation work 
among the typhoid patients in a district. 
Miss Hayes accompanied her stricken com- 
panion to her home and immediately re- 
turned to Scranton to resume her duties. 



Obituary « 

On January 1, 1907, Minerva H., daughter 
of the late Charles and Clara Scheetz, passed 



Ere now you will have received news of 
the death of Miss Eva Allerton, superintend- 
ent R. H. H., Rochester, N. Y., for the sum- 
mons came Saturday, January 5, and no doubt 
others will write you; I only wish to add my 
tribute to the memory of one who has meant 
90 much to me; her life has counted so much 
for the sick and suffering. I was one of her 
earliest pupils and was always grateful for 
her training, though, because she was such a 
thorough disciplinarian, we did not until later 
years fully appreciate all we were receiving 
from her. 

During my last year in training. Miss Aller- 
ton contracted scarlet fever from a patient ; she 
was very ill, and part of the time I nursed 
her, and found her a most considerate patient. 

Always with interest the keenest, she 
watched our doings, noting with pride all 
successes which came to her pupils ; and for 
one long year we had to see her fading away 
and we powerless to help her, and great has 
been our gratitude to her former patient who 
had the means and used them'liberally to give 
Miss Allerton all possible care. 

Lying in state in the parlor of the hospital, 
surrounded by flowers. Miss Allerton seemed 
in death to have grown fifteen years younger, 
as care-free she rested at last after years of 
toil, care, worry and pain. 

On January 7, 2.30 P. M., after a prayer at 
the hospital, the remains were carried to 
Christ Church, of which she was a member. 
There the service of the Episcopal Church was 
read, while the coffin rested 'neath Christmas 
bell, Christmas star and Calvary's cross ; the 
holiday decorations had not been removed, 
and many flowers had been added. From the 
church, we followed her to Mt. Hope Ceme- 
tery, where, amid pouring rain. Miss Allerton 
was laid to rest; but her memory lives, and 
ere evening's shadows had fallen the first 
twenty-five of her pupils spoken to about the 
matter had contributed $63 toward the fur- 
nishings of a room in memory of our super- 
intendent, Miss Eva Allerton. 



January 10, 1907, 



Jean S. Edmunds, 
Phelps. N. Y. 



THE EDITOR IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE VIEWS OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Some Pertinent Questions 

Are nurses trying for too much in their 
registration movements ? 

In nursing journals, and rather more 
bluntly from the standpoint of the physicians 
and the family, there have appeared from 
time to time some qualifications and adverse 
comments upon some elements in the recent 
nursing movements. It seems a due time to 
attempt to clarify the fogginess induced by 
them, by stating them bluntly and meeting 
them squarely. We would here bring out 
some of these, under four questions. 

Question 1. Is it best that training schools 
be conducted without control by physicians? 
Schools began as aids to physicians in caring 
for the sick. Nurses were nominally to carry 
out the instructions of the physicians in car- 
ing for patients. Now, supposedly, this sub- 
ordination is to continue. If it is to con- 
tinue (nurses acting in a subordinate and 
helping position), should their school train- 
ing, and conduct and requirements be wholly 
independent? It is true, of course, that by 
practice, nurses acquire in detail skill above 
that of the physician. Massage is an example 
^possibly bandaging, etc., — but this hardly 
argues to make them independent. 

I need to guard by saying they have not 
nominally asked for independence, but the 
literature is full of claims trending in that 
way. They do not want physicians on ex- 
amining boards, nor seemingly to have a say 
as to their school requirements. Physicians are 
rarely mentioned as having any active part, 
in the recent literature. If, as some assume, 
physicians, as a whole, show a tendency to go 
slow and hold back — may there not be a rea- 
son? 

Question 2. Should graduate nurses estab- 
lish exclusively their own registration re- 
quirements, and their legal standing, with no 
help from medical men? This calls for about 
the same answer as the first. If to continue 
as helpers to physicians, physicians should 



have some part, at least, in control. It it be 
granted, for sake of argument, that physicians 
in schools have been irregular in attendance — 
have given unsystematic courses of instruc- 
tion, have left practical details to the super- 
intendents of the schools, still is it wise, or 
logical, or best to take all control from phys- 
icians? Is it not better to correct wrong 
methods ? 

Question 3. Should a registration law 
specify any amount of preliminary scholar- 
ship? Or, to put it more mildly, as "any strict 
amount of preliminary education." A little 
study seems to show that in many States, 
physicians are not by law required to have 
any certain amount of preliminary learning. 
Why, then, should nurses? Run over hastily 
several hundred physicians and it will ap- 
pear at once that many, now highly honored, 
have not had any liberal amount of prelimin- 
ary education. A list of a hundred nurses 
will hardly show their acceptability to vary 
with their early education. Nor need we 
decry education in saying this. In law, in 
medicine, and in ministry, the requirements of 
the school course itself call for a good amount 
of training in order to get through. In a 
general way it seems unwise to specify the 
exact amount by law. Each school may main- 
tain its standard. 

So prominent is this distinction as to suc- 
cess, that it has been openly stated that the 
"being liked" by the doctors and by the 
families is the main thing. A little' reflection 
shows that this is not the superficial view it 
first appears, but is a radical and permanent 
one. The disposition of the nurse as shown 
in "pleasantness" — "pleasing personality" — 
ability to "get along smoothly" — "willingness 
to help" in ways not noted "in the bond" — 
these are actually "the main thing." Of 
course this supposes that each graduate has 
a fair knowledge in the "common" duties of 
nursing. Given this, "being liked" is the 
main thing. 

Or, to state the view of another, — a 



122 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



physician, — we don't want a nurse highly 
"educated" in medical and surgical subjects. 
We want one highly "trained" in doing the 
common things for medical and surgical pa- 
tients. We also don't want the highly edu- 
cated, because they are the less willing to dig 
among the common and disagreeable duties. 
Is not most of the "holding back" by 
physicians, because of just these thoughts. 

Question 4. Should nurses fight that 
(Mass.) movement that teaches nursing more 
by private siervice? When one states that 
the exclusively taught hospital nurse has no 
experience in private nursing, yet is in ninety- 
five per cent of cases to plunge right into 
that special work, it seems clear that one 
should not be too bigoted along one line of 
thought. In medicine, in ministry, etc., one 
must allow differences of method, why not 
in nursing? 

Can we not, while avoiding dogmatism, 
still find reasons in the above lines of thought 
for being conservative in action? Can we 
not argue trying for the safer things first? 

(Signed) X. 



water are plentiful. If of value, what propor- 
tion to one defecation should be used. 

Country Nitrse. 

Inquiry among a number of nurses shows 
an application of olive or sweet oil to be a 
favorite method of treating matted hair. One 
nurse uses the following : 

"Rub the hair well at night, with a mixture 
of one part sweet oil, and one-half part bay 
rum, tying the head up in a towel to protect 
the bed linen. In the morning, when the 
actual work is begun on the head, use the 
fingers to disentangle as much as possible; 
then, if necessary, add a little more of the 
mixture and comb out with a coarse comb. 
Only a small portion of the hair should be 
done at a time as otherwise the strain is too 
much for the patient. 

"I have had some heads of hair which have 
really seemed hopeless to me, when I began, 
but which under this treatment have been 
disentangled most satisfactorily and with little 
loss of hair." 

Wood ashes could not be relied upon for 
disinfecting excreta. 



Badly Matted Hair 

Dear Editor: — Will you or some sister 
nurse kindly inform me what one can 
use on very badly matted hair, that will 
lighten the task of untangling it? A young 
wife was confined. She had fine super- 
abundant hair, reaching nearly to her knees. 
Kindly relatives cared for her hair, or 
told her to do so before confinement. After- 
ward, owing to a severe laceration and a 
very nervous condition, they thought it could 
not be combed. A month later her hus- 
band came for me. I stayed two and one- 
half days, and at least eighteen hours of the 
time was passed in untangling that mass. 
She had rubbed vaseline in the worst places, 
but it only seemed to add to the gumminess. 
We used alcohol with slightly perceptible ef- 
fect. Brush, comb and patience finally took 
out the last snarl and patient and nurse re- 
joiced, but I never encountered anything like 
it in the hospital. 

Also will some one tell us what value there 
is in common wood ashes as a disinfectant. 
In the country where trenches must be dug 
to receive infectious excreta, quick-lime will 
not remain quick very long and sometimes 
cannot be readily obtained, whiles ashes and 



Admission to Our Training Schools 

Dear Editor : — We are not in a pessimistic 
mood, and we are among the last to offer a 
protest to an injustice; neither are we in- 
clined to think that hospitals and training 
schools will soon cease to exist as such. 
Though we hear of the four hundred (the 
number actually quoted) so-called trained 
nurses of the City Hospital of Paris "walk- 
ing out" and demanding a respite from their 
"labor of love" on Sundays. 

We cannot help asking where now are the 
faithful nuns, those "angels of the battlefield" 
who taught the world how to nurse ; whose 
lives are as limpid water in a crystal vase? 
So much maligned, yes, even by some of our 
nursing journals who, not finding material at 
home, sent their agents abroad not to temper 
the breeze to the shorn lambs, but to add 
injury to insult. Those virgin lambs may be 
consigned to darkness and oblivion for a 
time, but a day will dawn when we will rise 
early to witness their beaming above the 
mountain peaks, whose sweet beneficence will 
be welcomed like the presence of a rose in 
the midst of a plantation of nettles. 

This is not the matter, however, for which 
I am now seeking redress, but for the lack of 



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Made m England and recommended by leading American and English physicians. 

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are prone to linger and either become 
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GRAFS 
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Invaluable, therefore, for arresting the 
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The Purdue Frederick Co. 

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When you write Advertisers, please mention The Tr.*ined Nurse. 



124 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



ethics governing the admission to our schools 
of ex-pupils of other schools. 

Why seek the protection of the legislature 
for our graduates before seeking to protect 
the schools in which they receive their train- 
ing? Why not formulate a code of ethics 
for the superintendents of our schools and 
hospitals and make it compulsory for them 
not to admit such pupils without a recom- 
mendation, nay, even prevent them from com- 
ing into our schools seeking to induce our 
pupils to leave before their time expires in 
order to secure their service? 

Eighteen years of experience have taught 
me that such pupils are the least desirable. I 
have been obliged to dismiss pupils for vari- 
ous reasons; these were accepted by the 
nearest school, and eventually dismissed for 
the same reasons only more aggravated. I 
admit there may be exceptions made when 
well recommended, and even time allowed for 
previous training, but full time never. 

There is no question as to the original 
motive for which hospitals were instituted; 
nor are we ignorant of the noble lives con- 
secrated to serve therein. Must we now ac- 
cept applicants without recommendation in 
order to maintain them? 

Are we not degenerating at the very 
foundation of our noble calling? 

Pupils, who will desert their post of duty 
upon being corrected, which correction dops 
not amount to more than an admonition, if 
taken in the right spirit, are not desirable 
subjects for nurses. Their insubordination 
comes from the fact that they know if they 
are not tolerated in one school, they will be 
admitted within twenty-four hours to another 
without a line of recommendation. 

I have been requested again and again by 
some of our most prominent physicians to 
give a six months' course to young women 
who have had some previous training and who 
were wiUing to give their time without any re- 
muneration, provided we would furnish them 
with the diploma of our school. But I posi- 
tively refuse, on the principle that it is un- 
just and unfair to the pupils who stand faith- 
fully at their post of duty to the last hour 
of their training course. 

We receive neither city nor State appropria- 
tion and are at present employing five of our 
graduates at the usual rates, besides having 
our usual number of pupils in training; and 
are struggling between debts and the neces- 



sary improvements, yet we feel it our duty 
to make sacrifices for the sake of principle, 
and to uphold the rights of our would-be 
training school. 

A Sister of St. Francis. 

+ 
Obstetrical Nursing 

Dear Editor:— May I ask "Obstetrical 
Nursing" in January issue, if she wraps the 
whole bandage of 3 x 2 feet around the 
baby, and what she thinks is the advantage in 
its size? 

I did district work two years and have been 
doing visiting nursing over three. I consider 
its advantages many over private or institu- 
tional work. I enclose a list of what I carry 
to my labor calls and operations. 

It's a pretty heavy bag, but it is worth while 
to have what you want right at hand. 

In my after-calls I select what I know I 
shall need only and carry in small bag. I have 
my bags and cases stitched into divisions, in 
which I have my articles ahd so at a glance, 
on a hurry call, can tell what is needed. 

G. M. Prue. 
Rubber apron, rubber sheet (1 yd. sq.), sur- 
gical gown, plain apron, gauze and abs. cot- 
ton, glass, two size catheters, douche nozzles, 
rectal nozzles, irrigating nozzles, tube to 
connect douche, bag and high rectal tube, 
small glass syringe for oil, adhesive plaster, 
douche bag, Davidson syringe, stomach tube 
(2), rubber catheters (2), for baby, rubber 
gloves, rubber bathing cap, for ether patients, 
butcher's straw cuffs for ether cone, cold 
cream, unguentine tube, "lubrasceptic" for 
instruments, resinol ung., glyc. supp., tooth- 
ache plasters, mustard plasters, mag. sulph., 
turpentine, glycerine, boric ac, pulv., tabs, 
normal saline, tabs, bichloride, malted milk, 
alcohol, collodion, sterile aq. for hypo., dress- 
mg forceps, scissors and probe, spatula, 
safety and plain pins, nail file, cleaners, 
scissors, bobbin and baby scales, thermom., 
bath-room and clinical, bandages (1 and 
3 in.), green soap and hand scrubs, elec- 
tric flashlight, matches and candle, case of 
two ounce bottles of aromatic amnion., sulpo. 
naphthol, whiskey, listerine, sweet spirits 
nitre, hypo, and usual tablets, charts and re- 
port blanks, iodoform tape, needle and thread, 
razor, tape measure, caniph. oil, cocoa butter 
and belladonna ung. for breasts, two small en- 
amel bowls, one hand basin, one instrument 
pan for boiling. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Boofe B^etiietos 



Midwifery for Nurses. By Henry Russell 
Andrews, M.t)., B. S. Lond., M.R.C.P. Lond. 
Assistant Obstetric Physician to, and Lecturer 
to Pupil Midwives at the London Hospital; 
Examiner to the Central Midwives Board. 
Price, $1.25. For sale by Lakeside Publish- 
ing Company. 

This book consists of a series of lectures 
that were given to the pupil midwives at the 
London Hospital, England, by Dr. Andrews. 
The work is very complete and while con- 
taining a fund of valuable information, de- 
votes space to nothing unnecessary for the 
midwife to know. Beginning with the anat- 
omy of the organs of generation, it takes up 
in the most concise and practical manner, 
pregnancy, obstetrical diagnosis, antiseptics in 
midwifery, labor, management of labor, the 
different presentations, multiple pregnancy, the 
puerperium, abortion, diseases of pregnancy, 
complications of the puerperium, puerperal 
sepsis, haemorrhage, albuminuria and eclamp- 
sia, the infant, diseases of the infant and in- 
fant feeding. The book also contains the 
rules of the Central Midwives' Board. The 
subjects embraced in the examination are di- 
rections to midwives concerning their person, 
instruments, etc. ; their duties to patient and 
child, and their obligations with regard to dis- 
infection, medical assistance, and notification. 
It is profusely illustrated with some eighty 
fine illustrations. 

+ 

A Manual of Bandaging. Adapted for Self- 
instruction. By C. Henri Leonard, A. M., M. 
D., Professor of the Medical and Surgical 
Diseases of Women in the Detroit College of 
Medicine, etc. With 139 engravings. Sixth 
Edition. Cloth, octavo, 159 pages ; price $1.50. 
For sale by the Lakeside Publishing Company. 

The fact that this book has run into the 
sixth edition is a tribute to its value. 

Its strong point is its simplicity of descrip- 
tion and the profusion of its illustrations. 

Nearly every bandage has a wood cut show- 
ing each course or "turn" in the bandage, 
each "turn" having its proper consecutive num- 



ber and also an arrowhead showing its proper 
direction. 

The three different kinds of bandages are 
described fully — the "Roller," the "Scarf" 
and the "Triangle" ; besides various special 
bandages, of mixed varieties. 

Every part of the body is thus fully "cov- 
ered" by the above three general classes of 
bandages. 

+ 

The Nurse's "Enquire Within." By C. O. 
M. From England comes this little book 
which the author tells us is compiled from 
notes and jottings taken down during the 
course of twenty-seven years of nursing. The 
work is not intended as a text-book, but is for 
ready reference in time of difficulty and doubt. 
The subjects are arranged in alphabetical or- 
der so that no time shall be lost in securing 
the desired information. 
+ 

Surgical Suggestions. Practical Brevities in 
Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment. By Walter 
M. Brickner, M.D., Chief of Surgical Depart- 
ment, Mount Sinai Hospital Dispensary, New 
York; editor, American Journal of Surgery, 
and Eli Moschcowitz, M.D., Assistant Physi- 
cian, Mount Sinai Hospital Dispensary, New 
York; Editorial Associate, American Journal 
of Surgery. Duodecimo ; 60 pages. Cloth, 50 
cents. For sale by the Lakeside Publishing 
Company. 

This little book is most novel, not only on 
account of the many original terse and epi- 
grammatic practical suggestiorts given, but in its 
general appearance and attractive form. It 
contains 250 suggestions grouped under proper 
headings and its contents is carefully indexed. 
While some of its iterris are familiar to the 
practical surgeon, they are presented in a 
manner that will impress them on the reader's 
memory. The book is bound in heavy cloth, 
stamped in gold, and the text is printed upon 
India tint paper with marginal headings in red. 
This book will be much appreciated by the 
general practitioner, not alone on account of 
the value of its contents, but as an artistic bit 
of book making. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



€^^\jilA\jl|p\)moii^ 



is the oldest, most widely prescribed and most thoroughly 
dependable restorative fluid nutrient at the physician's dis- 
posal. Is as standard, in its special field, as quinine in 
malaria or a splint in a fracture. 

During the serious crises of systemic infections — 
Typhoid, Pneumonia, etc. — when prompt appropriation of 
food is imperative. Liquid Peptonoids should be given 
with confidence and as often and as liberally as the indi- 
cations require. 

ADULT DOSE -. }4 Xo \ tablespoonful at intervals at directed by the 
physician. Children in proportion. 

THE ARLINGTON CHEMICAL CO. 
Yonkers. N Y. 



Kw\iKaY^w\a 



GUARANTELHD ! 

THE new Pure Food and Drugs Act requires all manufacturers to sell 
their products under a guaranty, and a general guaranty should be 
filed in the office of the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington. 

The following is a copy of a letter issued from the Department of 
Agriculture to us : 



DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE 

Office of the Secretary 

WASHINGTON 

November 1, 1906. 
Tht Antikamnia Chemical Company, 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Gentlemen . — 

Your guarantee as to the character of the materials manufactured 
and sold by you, given in accordance with Circular 21 of this office, lias 
been received, found to be in proper form and is regularly filed. The 
serial number attached thereto is No. 10. 

Respectfully. 

IV. Af. HA YS, Act. Sec'y. 



All Antiicamnia Preparations are sold under this guaranty and onr 
Serial No. 1 appears on every package sold under the new law, thus 
assuring the medical profession of the absolute reliability of these 

pharmaceutical,. ^^ ANT|Kflf,N|A CHEMICAL CO, '"' 'ii"'^^"''- 



When you write Advertisers, please mention Tbk Traimko Nuksb. 



128 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



The Hair, its Growth, Care, Diseases and 
Treatment. By C. Henri Leonard, A.M., M.D., 
Professor of Medical and Surgical Diseases of 
Women, and Clinical Gynecology, in the De- 
troit College of Medicine, etc. Flexible paper 
cover, 116 illusitrations, over 300 pages. Price, 
$1.00. For sale by the Lakeside Publishing 
Company. 

This is not a new book, nor is it even a 
new edition, — the last edition, and it has had 
several, having appeared a couple of years 
ago. 

Our reason for mentioning it in this depart- 
ment primarily intended to review new works 
and promptly announce new editions of old 
ones, is because we have lately had some in- 
quiries with regard to falling hair, etc., and it 
occurred to us that this book, which is a per- 
fect mine of varied and assorted information, 
might be unknown to our readers and might 
prove of service to many if brought to their 
notice. 

The book is popular in style and was not 
written for any particular class of readers — 
except, of course, that large class of all ages 
and of both sexes who have something wrong 
with their hair and wish to remedy it. In 
addition to treatment, the book is a history of 
hair and hair dressing, from the earliest times 
to date. 



Blakiston's Quiz-Compend of Genito-Urin- 
ary Diseases and Syphilis, including their Sur- 
gery and Treatment. By Charles S. Hirsch, 
M.D., Assistant in the Genito-Urinary Surgi- 
cal Department, Jefferson Medical College 
Hospital. Illustrated. Price, $1.00. For sale 
by the Lakeside Publishing Company. 

This book is probably the most pretentious 
and imposing of the Quiz-Compend series, as 
it is very well and plentifully illustrated and 
contains over 300 pages. 

The author has sought to epitomize the mass 
of matter in the standard text-books, and we 
believe he has accomplished his object, and we 
know of no better means to facilitate the 
medical student in mastering the important 
points in this branch of medicine and surgery.. 



We beg to acknowledge the receipt of A 
Text-Book of Anatomy for Nurses, by Eliza- 
beth R. Bundy, M.D., member of the medical 
staff of the Woman's Hospital of Philadel- 



phia; gynecologist New Jersey Training 
School, Vineland; late adjunct professor of 
anatomy, and demonstrator of anatomy in the 
Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania; 
formerly superintendent of Connecticut Train- 
ing School for Nurses, New Haven, etc., with 
a glossary and 191 illustrations, thirty-four of 
which are printed in colors, which we regret 
reached us too late to be reviewed in this 
issue of The Trained Nurse. Price, $1.50; 
for sale by Lakeside Publishing Company. 

Before going to press, we have only time 
to say that at first sight the book impresses 
us most favorably. A full and complete re- 
view will be given in the March number. 



Leonard's Flexible Note Book for Students 
and Physicians, designed for taking notes of 
lectures. For sale by Lakeside Publishing 
Company, price fifteen cents. 

While this note book is primarily intended 
for the medical student, it is quite useful to 
the nurse in training. It contains about forty 
pages of ruled paper for note taking, both 
sides of the paper being available, and in addi- 
tion contains eight sheets printed on both 
sides with the following interesting and use- 
ful tables: 

The Metric System in a Nut-Shell. 

Comparative Scales of Centigrade and Fahr- 
enheit Thermometers. 

Apothecaries' and Metric Weights and Meas- 
ures. 

Table of Elementary Bodies. 

Table of Monads, Dyads, Triads, Etc. 

Classification of Skin Diseases. 

Sizes and Weights of the Different Organs 
of the Body. 

Resume of Osteology. 

Correct Pronunciation of Medical Terms. 

Rules for Pronunciation of Medical and Phar- 
maceutical Terms. 

Rules for Prescription Writing. 

List of Abbreviations. 

Newly Discovered Elements. 

Analytical Detection of Acidulous Radicals. 

Detection of the Salts of Metals in Aqueous 
Solutions. 
It is handy to have tables of this kind so 

convenient to one's note book. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




When you wrile Advertisers, please mention The Trained Nlkse 




ospital 3S.et)ieto 



A correspondent sends us the following ac- 
count of Christmas in Des Moines hospitals : 

The Methodist Hospital's corps of officers, 
nurses and other employees with the patients 
who were able to take part in the festivities 
observed Christmas in old-fashioned style. 
The dining-room and parlors, decorated with 
holly and evergreens, were a bower of beauty. 
Christmas eve the whole household gathered 
about a beautifully-trimmed tree and ex- 
changed gifts and greetings. A bountiful din- 
ner was served to all on Christmas day. One 
of the city church choirs sang sweet anthems 
in the corridors during the afternoon, which 
was much enjoyed by all. 

At Mercy Hospital Christmas was ushered 
in on Christmas eve by the soft chanting of 
the midnight mass along the long dim corridor, 
the choir of gentle Sisters marching, singing 
anthems as they went. Everything was done 
that was possible to bring Christmas cheer 
and happiness to the patients and employees. 
On Christmas day a fine turkey dinner was 
served to all able to partake, with special 
dainties for the unfortunate ones. 

At Walston Sanitarium the reception and 
dining-room were prettily decorated with holly 
and wreaths, and a fine Christmas dinner was 
served to the corps of assistants and patients, 
a number of whom had visiting relations with 
them. 

At the City Detention Hospital the inmates 
were served with Christmas delicacies and 
were recipients of flowers and greetings from 
friends outside, brightening their days of 
quarantine and giving holiday cheer. 

At Dr. Gershom Hill's Retreat (a private 
hospital for mildly insane) the spacious home 
was appropriately decorated with Christmas 
greens and on Christmas eve a tree, very 
beautifully decorated, was set up m the par- 
lor from which a fat and jolly Santa Claus 
distributed the gifts. The hospital force of 
doctors, nurses and other employees, with 
their patients, were remembered by Dr. Hill 
and wife, and all exchanged gifts with each 
other. Christmas carols were sung and hap- 
piness reigned. Christmas day an elatorate 
turkey dinner was served to all. 



The State Board of Control, of Iowa, have, 
after considerable investigation, purchased 280 
acres of land near Iowa City, on which to 
locate the State Tuberculosis Hospital, pos- 
session to be given the State immediately ; and 
plans will be made at once by the State archi- 
tect for buildings for the hospital, with a view 
of opening the same for occupancy by July 
1, 1.007 ; and these will consist of a main build- 
ing, to be used for administration and other 
purposes, and a large number of "shacks" 
for the open-air living of the patients under 
treatment. The site selected is situated five 
miles north of Iowa City and is on the Cedar 
Rapids and Iowa City Interurban Railroad, 
and was chosen because of its superior loca- 
tion on high, dry ground, having on it farm 
buildings, deep wells and a natural oak grove, 
in which the sheltering shacks of the pa- 
tients can be built, ^n additional feature be- 
ing its close proximity to the State Univer- 
sity. With its medical school, hospital and 
scientific equipment of its bacteriological labo- 
ratory, the hospital's scientific experi- 
ments can be done free of charge to the 
State, thus doing away with another special 
laboratory being maintained by the State. 
+ 

The cornerstone of the new Presbyterian 
Hospital at Montgomery and Sherman avenues, 
Pittsburg, Pa., was laid November 24. The Rev. 
Dr. J. T. Gibson acted as master of ceremonies. 
The Rev. C. W. Blodgett of the North Ave- 
nue Methodist Episcopal Church, delivered the 
invocation. The Rev. Dr. Wallace Thorp, 
pastor of the First Christian Church of Alle- 
gheny, where services were held, read portions 
of the Scripture appropriate to the occasion. 
Dr. Franklin B. Miller, secretary of the board 
of trustees of the hospital, read a brief his- 
torical sketch of the hospital. The movement 
to erect a new building was started in April, 
1901, and the property at Sherman and Mont- 
gomery Avenues was purchased last year. 

The building will be completed next spring. 
Addresses were made by the Rev. Dr. J. Kin- 
sey Smith, pastor of Shadyside Presbyterian 
Church; the Rev. Frank Sneed, pastor of the 
East Liberty Presbyterian Church. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 





RECORD 

BOOKS 

and BLANKS? 

VAN RIPERS 
are the best published 

Endorsed by all the 
leading Nurses in the U. S. 

Also Clinical Charts, Receipt Blanks, History 
Sheets, Operation Blanks, Bedside Notes, 
Temperature Charts, etc. 

Samples and Price Lists furnished free 
upon application. Estimates promptly 
furnished on Special Blanks of any kind 

CHARLES A. LAWES CO. 

(Successors to Belden & Company) 
302 Dearborn Street, Chicago, III. 



A diminution in the number of red blood cells and a retrogade 
alteration in their structural integrity. Such are the morpho- 
logical changes in the blood made manifest by the microscope 
in cases of ANEMIA from whatever cause. 

During its administration the microscope evidences a progressive increase in the number, 
and a constant improvement in the structural character of the corpuscular elements. This 
palatable and quickly assimilable combination of Organic Iron and Manganese is a 
true "blood feeder" and corpuscle contributor in cases of 

Ansmia, Chlorosis, Amenorrhea, Bright's Disease, Chorea, Dysmenorrhcea, etc. 

Prescribe Pepto-Mangan "Gude" in original I xi bottles. It's Never Sold in Bulk. 
M. J. BREITENBACH COMPANY, 



Laboratory. 

lopzig. gcrmanv 



New York. 



When you write Advertisers, please mention The Trained Nurse. 



132 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



The new building will be a six-story steel 
and brick structure, 100 feet wide and 110 
feet deep, and constructed in the shape of the 
letter U, with the lightshaft in the center. The 
outside of the entire building will be faced 
with white brick. It will contain all the latest 
improvements and modern hospital appliances. 
It will have accommodations for 119 patients, 
thirty-one employes, such as nurses, clerical 
force and physicians, besides quarters for 
twenty-five servants. It will contain sixty 
private rooms, surgical and medical wards for 
both men and women and a children's ward. 

The children's ward will be furnished by the 
Bellefield Presbyterian Hospital Aid Society 
of the Bellefield Church. When completed the 
building will cost close to $325,000. 



Incorporation papers have been filed by tiie 
Colorado Physicians' and Surgeons' Hospital 
Association, a corporation that is being -formed 
by several of the best known medical men in 
Denver, which proposes to erect a new hos- 
pital in Denver to be directly under the con- 
trol of the physicians and surgeons themselves. 

It is proposed to have the capital stock of 
$100,000 divided into shares of $100 each, to 
be sold among surgeons. In this way the sur- 
geons will have an institution of their own, 
which will be governed according to the 
wishes of the members of the profession. The 
founders of the institution also propose to ul- 
timately establish a medical school in con- 
nection with the hospital, as well as a training 
school for nurses, and included in their in- 
corporation papers is a clause giving them the 
right to award diplomas to medical and surgi- 
cal students and to nurses. 

The association has taken as its model in 
many things the California hospital at Los 
Angeles. This institution is considered as an 
ideal establishment by men of the medical pro- 
fession and is one of the largest and best 
equipped on the coast. In connection with this 
hospital is a training school for nurses. 



use for it. It was found impossible to return 
it to the persons who gave it. Therefore the 
Chicago committee has now voted to turn it 
over to the San Francisco relief and Red 
Cross funds. It is a part of nearly $4,000,000 
for which the fund has no pressing need. 



Very substantial progress is being made 
with the new building for the Homeopathic 
Hospital on North Pearl Street, Albany, N. Y. 

The building is to be a solid concrete 
structure and work on the fifth story is now 
going on, and with favorable weather it is 
anticipated that within ten days the walls 
will all be erected and the roof, which is also 
of re-enforced concrete, will be in position 
and the complete external structure prac- 
tically completed. 

The building proper will be the first of 
its size and kind in this section. It will 
afford ample space for the needs of the hos- 
pital, and will be under one roof and thus 
can be economically maintained. Some $60,- 
000 will have been expended when the build- 
ing has been roofed in, and for its comple- 
tion and furnishing with all the necessary 
equipment will require about $50,000 more. 
This sum the managers of the hospital are 
confident can be easily raised since they find 
that with the attempt to improve their con- 
dition and build their new building their 
friends and the friends of the hospital have 
come nobly to the front with subscriptions for 
the maintenance of the old hospitals and the 
continuance of the work on the new. Re- 
cently the treasurer sent out an appeal for 
funds for maintenance on one day and by 
the second mail of the succeeding day had 
received over $600, which shows that the 
friends and supporters of the hospital arc 
prompt in their response to all appeals for 
this worthy institution. 

Generous individual gifts of money from 
benevolent Allianians for the support of the 
Albany Hospital have been made this fall. 



Over $99,000, subscribed by Chicago for 
the relief of San Francisco after the earth- 
quake, and for which no use could be found, 
may be expended in building a great hospital 
in the Golden Gate City. The money has 
been held by the Chicago relief committee 
because the San Francisco committee had no 



The Flails administration buildings of tin 
Methodist-Episcopal Hospital in Seventh Ave- 
nue and Sixth Street, Brooklyn, was dedicated 
December 4 with public exercises at which 
the Rev. Dr. James M. Buckley, president of 
the board of managers, presided. The hospi- 
tal, familiarly known as the Seney Hospital, 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




RCOUCED 



HE use of plastic, antiseptic, hy- 
droscopic dressings in the treat- 
ment of inflammatory conditions 
is well established. Believing that their 
valuable properties are enhanced by the use 
of a superior base, we have always made 
Antithermolinefrom the 
finest quality of import- 
ed Kaolin, and clinical 
evidence has justified us 
in so doing. 





ANTITHERMOUN^i 



vTgicai 




Believing that the high quality of Anti- 
thermoline justifies the best possible con- 
tainer, we now supply this well-known 
product in special glass jars, which, it will 
be apparent approach closer to surgical 
ideals, permit of perfect resealing after 
ihey have once been opened and eliminate 
those dangers of oxidation which attend 
the use of metal containers. 



FORMULA 

Each pound of Anti- 
thermoline contains 
4.0OO grs. of imported 
kaolin washed and pur- 
ified, 14 grs. Boracic 
acid, 14 grs. oil of Eu- 
calyptus Menthol and 
Thymol, combined ; 4 
9-10 fluid oz. glycerine. 



INDICATIONS 

Burns 

Bee Stinfs 

Bites of Poisonous 
Insects 



Antithermoline 



(G. W. CARNRICK) 



is a most effective appli- 
cation in all conditions 
of irritation, congestion 
and inflammation; it con- 
tains no poisonous in- 
gredients (hence may be 
applied to raw sufaces 
without discomfort), is 
not greasy, is miscible in 
water, is antiseptic and 
mildly astringent. It 
forms an elastic covering, 
preventing access of air and bacteria, and 
is therefore an ideal dressing for wounds, 
burns, ulcers, etc. 



G. W. CARNRICK CO. 

42 Sullivan Street 

NEW YORK 



Infected Wounds 

Eczema 

Pruritus 

Intertrigo 

Congestions of 
Organs and Tissues 
of the Pelvis 

Pneumonia and all 
Inflammatory Con- 
ditions of Respira- 
tory Tract. 



ANTITHERMOLINE 

is for sale by the Drug 
Trade only in 10 oz. 
Soc. size. i}i lb. $1.00 
size. Also in 5, 10 and 
35 lbs. for hospital use. 
A package sent to any 
nurse on request. 



When you write Advertisers, please mention The Tbainko Nursk. 



134 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



was founded twenty-five years ago by the late 
George I Seney, whose gifts to the Institu- 
tion amounted to over $400,000. 

Four years ago Mr. and Mrs. William J. 
Halls, Jr., offered to complete the hospital at 
an expense not to exceed $125,000 on con- 
dition that $500,000 be raised to pay off the 
floating debt and bring the endowment of the 
institution up to $850,000. More than $450,000 
having been raised, it was decided to open the 
central, or administration building, which has 
been named after Mr. Halls. The third build- 
ing will probably be completed and ready for 
dedication within a year. 



The Jewish Hospital at Classen and St. 
Mark's Avenue, Brooklyn, was dedicated De- 
cember 9th. More than two thousand persons 
were present, and addresses were made by 
Controller Herman A. Metz, Borough Presi- 
dent Bird S. Coler, Oscar S. Straus and sev- 
eral others. 

A gold key to the building, donated by Mrs. 
St. Clair McKelway, was formally presented 
by Henry Roth, chairman of the building 
committee, and Abraham Abraham, president 
of the hospital society, made the formal 
speech of acceptance. 

Mr. Abraham said in part : 



The Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn has been 
completed. To-day, now and for all time it 
is dedicated to the service of suffering hu- 
manity. It is a glorious achievement — far, 
far greater in its completion than we ever 
dreamed of in its making; far greater in its 
future than we" can imagine here to-day. In 
ten years the Jewish population of Brooklyn 
has grown from 25,000 to 250,000, and the 
greater part of this enormous increase took 
place in the last two or three years. Such 
sudden and tremendous increase in our popu- 
lation entailed and entails far greater respon- 
sibilities and obligations upon us all, and in- 
spired the hospital movement brought to such 
a magnificent culmination to-day. 

Borough President Coler then followed with 
a brief address, commending the work of the 
Jewish Hospital Society. He was followed 
by Oscar S. Straus, who came from Wash- 
ington to be present at the dedication. 

In concluding his address , Mr. Straus 
said : "In politics there may be differences of 
opinions but in the work for humanity all 
must unite." 

Brief addresses were made by St. Clair Mc- 
Kelway, Dr. Jacob Fuhs and Adolph Lewi- 
sohn. The Rev. Dr. Alexander Lyons de- 
livered the invocation. The band of forty 
boys from the Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan 
Asylum furnished the music. 




A W.ARU, I, AURA KRANKLIN HOSPITAL, NEW YORK CITY. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



'BlXenburgs Foods. 



The 



Provide nourishment suited to the needs and digestive powers of the child from birth 
onward, according to the development of the digestive organs. 

THe "Alleiiburys" MilK Food ''No. 1" 

Designed for use from birth to three months of age, is identical in chemical composition with 
maternal milk, and is as easy of assimilation. It can therefore be given alternately with the 
breast, if required, without fear of upsetting the infant. 

THe "Allenburys" MilK Food "No. 2" 

Designed for use from three to six months of age, is similar to "No. 1," but contains in 
addition a small proportion of maltose, dextrine and the soluble phosphates and albuminoids. 

THe ••Allenburys" Malted Food ''No. 3" 

Designed for use after the fifth or sixth month, is a partially predigested farinaceous food need- 
ing the addition of cows' milk to prepare it for use. 

Physicians familiar with the "AUenburys" Series of Infant Foods pronounce this to be the 
most rational system of artificial feeding yet devised. Their use saves the troublesome and fre- 
quently inaccurate modification of milk and is less expensive. Experience proves that children 
thrive on these Foods better than on any other artificial nourishment. 

SAMPLE AND CLINICAL REPORTS SENT ON APPLICATION 



THE ALLEN (Si HANBURYS CO., Limited 

TORONTO. CAN. LONDON. ENG. NIAGARA FALLS. N. Y. 



More than likely eunong your patients you have some cases 
of anemic children needing just such a lood tonic as 

Mfelch's Grape Juice 

Or perhaps you have noticed in the home of one of your 
patients a child, who, w^hile not exactly sick, is not develop- 
ing properly. ^ Welch's Grape Juice will supply the need- 
ed nourishment, in an especially palatable form for children. 
It is a tonic from which there is no reaction. ^ We know 
you will not be disappointed in prescribing Welch's Grape 
Juice. Our General Guaranty Serial Niunber 1 40 appears 
on every label. 

Sold by leading druggists everywhere. 3-oz. bottle, by 
mail, 6c. Pint bottle, express prepaid east of Omaha, 
25c. You will be interested in our booklet, "The 
Food Value of the Grape," Sent free to physicians. 

The Welch Grape Juice Company 

Westfield. N. Y. 




When yon write Advertisers, please mention Thb Tkainbd Nubix. 



^eto B^emettesi ant, appliances 



Best on the Market 

I find Resinol Ointment the best preparation 

on the market for pruritus, and use it with 

very satisfactory results for itching piles. — H. 

C. Card, M.D., Hartford, Ct. 

+ 

Malarial Cachexia 

The cachexia resulting from malaria is often 
persistent, even after the active cause has been 
controlled. In such cases, Gray's Glycerine 
Tonic Compound proves of great service in 
stimulating the reconstructive powers of the 
blood. The toxins resulting from the malarial 
hemolysis are rapidly eliminated, and increased 
impetus is given to the restoration of normal 
red blood cells. 

+ 

Evans' Antiseptic Throat Pastilles 

Lambeth Palace, April 23, 1901. 
Gentlemen — Some years ago you were good 
enough to send a box of Evans' Antiseptic 
Throat Pastilles to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury while he was staying with the Bishop of 
Liverpool for a few days, the Archbishop 
used the lozenges constantly, and has found 
great and speedy relief from doing so. 
Yours faithfully, 

Beatrice R. Temple. 
+ 
Borax in the Nursery 
Use 20-Mule Team Borax for bathing the 
baby, for a mouth wash, for an eye wash, and 
for washing napkins. Borax cleanses and 
purifies. 

TO CLEANSE FEEDING BOTTLES. 

After rinsing the bottle in cold water, fill 
with hot water, containing a big pinch of 
borax. Let stand until wanted. Also leave 
rubber nipple in borax water until meal-time. 
Just before using, rinse the bottle in fresh 
water. 

Babies suffer a great deal from their little 
mouths being neglected. It is an excellent 
plan to wipe the gums and tongue every morn- 
ing with absorbent cotton dipped in weak bo- 
rax water. It keeps the mouth hygienically 
clean, and prevents sores from developing. 



In India 

Vepcry, Madras. 
Messrs. Benger's Food, Ltd. 

Dear Sirs — I send under separate cover a 
photograph of my little son, aged 13 months. 

He has been brought up on Benger's Food, 
and I must say we have never had a day's 
anxiety about him, and even his teething gave 
us no trouble. I am sure you will admit he 
is a good specimen of a child for India. 

You are at liberty to make what use you 
like of this letter. Yours truly, 

Geo. D. Macfarlane. 
+ 
A Hint to Up- to- Date Women 

Do you know that sanitary napkins are now 
being packed in air-tight foil tablets, so 
small that one may easily be carried in a 
purse, yet when this tiny package is opened 
out you have a full-sized sanitary napkin 
that will absorb about half a pint of fluid? 
These are known as the Lister's Napkins, 
Compressed. They are hygienic, comfortable 
and economic ; they save time, space and an- 
noyance ; are not to be washed. 

See Lister's Napkin ad. on opposite page of 
this magazine. 

+ 
Between Danger and Safety 

Representative writers have conclusively 
demonstrated that various extracts intended 
for internal as well as external use have 
been largely and poisonously adulterated by 
methyl alcohol or formaldehyde, or both. 
None have been more generally and peril- 
ously sophisticated by the toxic adulterants 
specified than common, commercial and un- 
identified "witch-hazels." The pure food and 
drug law will not avail locally to control their 
purity, or to provide against local perpetua 
tion of the adulteration hitherto generally 
prevalent. 

It behooves members of the profession, 
therefore, still to be on their guard against the 
poison perils of methyl alcohol and formal- 
dehyde by eschewing common, commercial and 
unidentified "witch-hazels" having no tangible 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



Davidson 
Water Bottles 




^one 'Better 
Made" 

Made from the 
Highest Grade 
of Rubber in the 

most thorough 
manner, of white 
or tan stock, 
either all rubber 
or cloth inserted. 
fl Especially ad- 
apted for hos- 
pital use on ac- 
count of their 
unexcelled wear- 
ingqualities,and 
fully guaranteed. 



l.r your dealers do not keet the DAl'I DSON 
Bottles in stock ivrite to us /or trices 

Davidson Rubber Co. 

Box 48-1 BOSTON. MASS. 



(pAPSHEAF 

1^**^ THE MODERN 

\ SAFETY PIN 

'/liflhiy EndOY&ed 
by Trained 
Nurses ..^^^^ //y^jH 

not 
Pull 

OLit 

'STRONG 

C0ILLE5S 

THE ONLY SAFETY PIN 
MADE THAT CANNOT WTCM 
IN THE FABRIC, 

^JUDSON PIN CO.MFGRS 

ROCHESTER.N.Y. t 
Send Poshjl fo lol FTa«kli>iSf;H.Y.Oty 

For fRCE&AMPUE*. 



Made 
moll 
Sizes 




^URSES were amasxg the first to recognize the benefits of 
■'■^ rubber heels. The first rubber heeb that they recognized 
were the pioneers, O'Sullivan's. These heels rendered them the 
benefits that they expected. In the course of time the popular- 
ity of the O'Sullivan heel caused substitutes to be put onthe 
market, and then to be attached to nurses' Oxfords and Juliets. 
These substitutes proved to be a disappointment to the nurses 
who wanted a noiseless, resilient and durable heel of new rubber, 
such as the O'Sullivan Rubber Co. make, and such as you can 
buy from reputable dealers attached to nurses' Oxfords and Jul- 
iets already ready made. You can avoid disappointment by 
insisting when you buy the heels separate, or shoes with heels 
attached, that the heels be O'Sullivan's, and obtain the noise- 
less tread. the resiliency, the economy and the comfort that you 
expect will be yours. From the makers unattached they are 35 
cents by mail. 

O'SULLIVAN RUBBER CO.. '■°Zl'^ 

LISTER'S NAPKINS 

Compressed 



Sanitary 



Necessity 




FOREWOMEN 



Lister's Compressed Napkins in tablet 
packag^e are so small that one can be 
carried in a purse, several in a hand-bag ; 
and yet they have the capacity of ab- 
sorbing- half a pint of fluid. They do 
not become soggy ; do not chafe ; are 
to be burned after use. They save time, 
space and energy; therefore are the best 
sanitary napkin on the market. Just 
the thing when travelling. 

Pilce, 5 Cents each; 60 Cents a dozen. 

Sold by tfie dozen only 

The Lister Surgical Co. 

100 William St. New York City 



When you write Advertisers, please mention The Trained Nijksb. 



138 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



guarantee of purity, quality and strength, and 
to prescribe only a thoroughly proven article. 
The latter is to be found, for instance, in 
Pond's Extract of Hamamelis Virginica. For 
over half a century this sterling product has 
been the standard of purity, quality and 
strength for Aqua Hamamclidis (now official 
in the United States Pharmacopeia), and 
compiles with all the requirements of the 
food and drugs act of June 30, 1906. 
+ 
Lysol for Sterilizing Instruments 
The advantages of Lysol for cleaning and 
sterilizing instruments is obvious, owing to 
its soapy character. Blood and pus, even 
when dried on them, is readily removed. They 
should be washed in a 2 per cent, solution, 
using a wad of gauze for the smooth part, 
and a nail-brush for the irregular surfaces. 
Then, if they are boiled in a 1 per cent, solu- 
tion for five minutes, positive sterilization is 
eflfected without injury to the instruments 
or plating. Instruments may be left for hours 
in Lysol without rusting. 
+ 
Relating to the New Pure Food Law 
Our readers will note from the new Anti- 
kamnia advertisement, which appears in this 
issue, that The Antikamnia Chemical Com- 
pany was prompt to file its guaranty under 
the new pure food and drugs act, their guar- 
anty number being 10; which means that of 
all the food and drug manufacturers in the 
United States, only nine filed their guaranty 
in Washington before that of The Antikamnia 
Chemical Company. 

This shows the usual Antikamnia disposition 
to protect the dealer and prescriber of Anti- 
kamnia under the law and gives assurance of 
the absolute reliability of the Antikamnia 
preparations." 

+ 
Pepto-Mangan 
After using Pepto-Mangan (Gude) in a 
number of cases, Dr. W. C. Willits, of Kansas 
City, Mo., states : 

Pepto-Mangan is palatable, it is easily ab- 
sorbed, in no case was there any injury to 
the teeth, it did not produce nausea ; and con- 
stipation was not produced in a single case. 
While these few cases might not in themselves 
be sufficient upon which to base an opinion as 
to the value of Pepto-Mangan in secondary 
anaemia, yet much valuable information can 



be gained by physicians reporting their suc- 
cesses and failures. However, after having 
used it quite exensively, I am convinced that 
it is a reliable blood remedy to use in general 
practice. 

+ 
First Among Its Class 
Glyco-Heroin (Smith.) has recently come 
under our notice, and all who have used it, 1 
think, will easily place it first among this class 
of preparations. A combination, as it is, of 
Heroin with valuable expectorants and bal- 
sams, places it practically in a class by itself. 
Its formula is simple. Each drachm contains : 

Heroin gr. 1/16 

Ammonia Hypophos gr. 3 

Hyoscyamus gr. 1 

White Pine Bark gr. y/z 

Balsam Tolu gr. J4 

Glycerine q. s. 

The astringent properties of White Pine 
Bark are of peculiar service in inflammations 
of the respiratory tract. It exerts a control- 
ling influence upon the night sweats of 
phthisis. Balsam Tolu, being an aromatic 
stimulant, is helpful in ' chronic bronchitis. 
The combination is almost perfect. — Charles 
L. Ashley, M.D. 

+ 
A True Calmative 

For many years physicians have desired a 
calmative that would give satisfactory results 
in quieting and toning the nervous system, 
without the weakening after-effects that char- 
acterize the opiates and the ordinary sedatives 
on the market. In Daniel's Conct. Tr. Passi- 
fiora Incarnata, this quahty has been discov- 
ered, and for this reason alone it should ap- 
peal strongly to the practitioner, because a 
prompt and valuable calmative is indispen- 
sable to every practice. Daniel's Passiflora is 
prepared from the green May-pop, and em- 
braces, in concentrated form, the medicinal 
properties of this plant. It, therefore, is in- 
dicated in every form of nerve debility, from 
nervous headache to incipient insanity. 

For nervous women, during the menstrual 
period, pregnancy and the menopause, for 
teething babies in hysteria, insomnia and neu- 
ralgia, Daniel's Passiflora exerts a soothing 
and curative influence that overcomes irrita- 
tion, reduces tension and restores the nervous 
system to a normal and healthful condition. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




In substitute feeding of infants food value is a most 
important consideration. The 'Vital element" is produced 
by the elaboration of food having the proper and uniform 
consistency. Children who do not show vitality are poorly 
nourished. Dairy milk is seldom uniform in composition 
and it is difficult to secure an approximately uniform aver- 
age up to the minimum requirements. 

Highland 
Evaporated Milk 

offers the following uniform analysis: 

Water Fat Milk Sugar Protein Ash 
68.75 8.75 11.85 9 1.65 

It is simply full-cream cow's milk obtained from many, 
herds and is of uniform and excellent composition. It is 
reduced in volume nearly two and one-half times through 
a peculiar sterilizing process. This is based on scientific 
principles and is safe, exact and beneficial to the diges- 
tibility of the protein. 

Sufficient quantity for clinical tests sent on request. 

HELVETIA MILK CONDENSING CO., 
Highland. 111. 



When ]ron write Advertisers, please mention The Trainko Nuisc 



140 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



A Book for Mothers 

"How to Bring Up a Baby" is the title of 
a forty-page booklet published by and issued 
in the interest of The Procter & Gamble Co., 
Cincinnati. 

It is one of the daintiest publications 
we have ^ver seen. The illustrations are 
by Mrs. Katharine R. Wireman, one of 
the most talented woman artists of the 
day, and the text is the product of Miss 
Elisabeth R. Scovil, graduate of the Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital Training School for 
Nurses, and the author of several well-known 
books on the care of children. 

The book is full of valuable suggestions and 
sensible advice, and we are glad to recommend 
it to our readers. The fact that it is primarily 
an advertisement for Ivory Soap does not in 
any way detract from its value. 

The publishers inform us that they will be 
glad to mail a copy to any one who will ask 
for it. 

+ 

Exodin 

Exodin is closely related to the active prin- 
ciple of cascara, senna, rhubarb and frangula, 
but differs from the older purgatives in a num- 
ber of important respects. It is readily taken 
and well borne, even by children and puerpera, 
and is free from all untoward effects, never 
causing gastric oppression, colic or after-con- 
stipation. The evacuations are almost always 
soft and never watery. The non-appearance 
of mucus in the faeces proves that it does not 
occasion intestinal irritation. 

This total absence of the by-effects is ex- 
plained by the slowness of its action; defeca- 
tion in some cases follows only after twelve 
hours or more. Exodin does not set up a sud- 
den and temporary peristalsis, but has a mild 
tonic effect which persists for several days and 
only gradually subsides. While the other 
remedies merely stimulate the mucosa and 
aggravated sluggishness soon follows, Exodin 
restores a natural and healthy intestinal 
activity. 

+ 

European Investigations 

Our head nurse. Miss Louise Morstatt, has 
returned from a four months' trip of investi- 
gation at the leading medical centres of 
Europe and the knowledge gained abroad will 
be hereafter embodied in our courses of in- 
struction. She has taken instruction in 



pneumo-therapy (inhalation methods) under 
Prof. Dr. Dupont, in Paris, in medical and 
orthopaedic gymnastics under Prof. Dr. 
Schuetz, chief physician of the medico-me- 
chanical institution of the Royal University 
of Berlin, in hydro-therapy under Professors 
Drs. Winternitz and Buchsbaum at the Poly- 
clinic Hospital in Vienna, in the treatment of 
joint affections under Prof. Dr. Aug. Bier 
(Bonn) and in a new method for the treat- 
ment of spinal curvature under Prof. Dr. 
Klapp in Bonn. A number of hospitals and 
medico-mechanical institutions in other cities 
such as Munich, Heidelberg, Nauheim, Ger- 
many, and in Italy, have been visited and the 
progress in mechano-therapy studied. This 
information obtained will be at the service 
of our students taking our regular courses in 
massage, gymnastics, electro- and hydro- 
therapy without extra charge. The second 
section of our winter class opens on February 
14. Particulars may be obtained by address- 
ing The Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Institute 
and School of Mechano-Therapy (Inc.), nil 
Green Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Reckless Waste of Child Life 

No question more vitally affects the wel- 
fare of the nation than the health of its chil- 
dren, and it is, therefore, a startling fact that, 
though the general death rate in this country 
has been considerably lowered, by the great 
improvement in the social and physical con- 
dition of the people, the proportionate death 
rate of infants remains as high as ever. This 
is all the more deplorable, since this great 
waste of infant life is known to be, in large 
measure, due to improper feeding. 

The most rational system of artificial in- 
fant feeding yet devised is that now employed 
by successful medical men in all lands and 
known as the "Allenburys" Series of Infant 
Foods. 

The "Allenburys" Milk Food "No. 1," both 
chemically and physiologically, very closely re- 
sembles human milk. The constituents are in 
exact relative proportions, and, in the process 
of manufacturing this food, it is claimed the 
casein is so altered that when brought in con- 
tact with the gastric secretions it is not pre- 
cipitated in dense curds, as is the case in 
cow's milk, either when fresh or when modi- 
fied by ordinary methods. This is one reas- 
son why in so many instances the "Allen- 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



PROPERTIES Of BURNHAM'S CLAM BOUIllON 




Booklet for Physicians 
sent on request. 



BURNHAM'S 

CLAM 
BOUILLON. 



The remedial action of Burn- 
ham's Clam Bouillon is mani- 
fested in controlling: the most 
aggravated forms of reflex 
vomiting of acute gastritis. 
This result can be accounted 
for in one way only, viz.: 
through the operation of inorganic compounds. 
The change is eflfected through subtle but power- 
ful chemical influences on the hypersensitive 
peripheral nerves of the stomach. The most 
stubborn conditions yield as if by magic upon 
the administration of Bumham's Clam Bouillon. 



BOTTLED IN GLASS AND SOLD IN PINTS AND HALF PINTS. 
ALL THE LEADING APOTHECARIES AND GROCERS SELL IT. 



EC Rl IDMH A liJ f^f\ Manufacturers and Packers 
• 3. DUI\lin/\IYI V\}. 53 TO 61 GANSEVOORT STREET, NEW YORK 



All Nestle's Food 



sold in Europe for the 
past three years and in 
America since January 1st, 1906, has been prepared on a 
modification of the original formula. The changes are 
improvements suggested by advanced research of modern 
pediatrists. The result is less starch and a higher percentage 
of fats, greater nutritive value and a lessened tendency to 
constipate. Nestle' s Food is now, more than ever, the most 
safe and satisfactory food for infants, easily prepared and 
readily modified to suit individual cases. 



Recent Work in In/ant Feeding, " our new pamphlet, 
contains valuable and authentic matter. We are mailing 
you a copy. Extra copies sent on request. 

HENRI NESTLE, 72 Warren Street, NEW YORK 



When you write Advertisers, please mention Thx Trained Nurse. 



142 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



burys'' Milk Foods can be digested and as- 
similated when ordinary modified cow's milk 
and other nourishment cannot.. 

The "AUenburys" Milk Food, "No. 2," in- 
tended for use from the third to the end of 
the fifth or sixth month, is similar to "No. 
1," but contains in addition certain quantities 
of maltose, dextrin, and soluble phosphates 
necessary to the growth and development of 
the child during this period. 

The "AUenburys" Malted Food, "No. :{" of 
the series, intended for use after the fifth 
or sixth month, is a malted and partially pre- 
digested farinaceous food, and, when pre- 
pared for use by the addition of fresh cow's 
milk, contains all the nourishment nteded at 
this period, but is so arranged as not to over- 
task the digestive organs of a normally de- 
veloped child of this age. 

Physicians familiar with these foods and 
employing them in their practice report ex- 
cellent results and look upon this as the most 
rational system of artificial infant feeding yet 



devised and feel that when the "AUenburys" 
Foods are better known and more generally 
used in this country, many of the serious 
difficulties, now so common, in the rearing 
of children will be overcome. 

The manufacturers arc always pleased to 
send samples, free of charge, to physicians, 
nurses, mothers or an one interested in the 
great problem of infant feeding. 

Requests for samples and literature should 

be addressed to The Allen and Hanburys Co., 

Ltd., Niagara l""alls, N. Y., and Toronto, Can. 

+ 

Wanted 

Your address on postal for free sample of 
Mystic Cream. A revelation to nurses who 
suffer with rough, chapped hand.s. Cures like 
magic, contains no grease and is not sticky. 
Bi-Chloride and other chemicals make the 
hands rough and .sore. Mystic Cream will 
make and keep them soft and smooth. Neither 
greasy nor sticky. Ogdcn & Shinier, Chemists, 
Middletovvn. N. Y. 



a §)ufferer 



Oh ! doctors great and learned 

Who benefit mankind 
I'm wretched since you've robbed me 

Of all my peace of mind. 

I cannot smoke in idle hours, 

But conscious if I start 
To light a mild Havana, 

I may have tobacco heart. 

No wayside stream my thirst may quench. 

Ere I aflfrighted stop ; 
I may drink typhoid fever 

In each infected drop. 

I cannot even wear my hat. 

But certainly I know 
That hair, like grass, must feci the sun 

Or it will cease to grow. 

Pates and entrees and the wealth 

Of everything that's good, — 
All is discarded ; perfect health 

Is sought in "breakfast food." 

Oleomargarine once I feared, 

But now 'twould really seem, 
That butter quite declines to come 

In wholly germless cream. 



'Jouch oatmeal that is underdone, 

You do it at your peril ; 
And even baby's rubber doll 

Must be severely sterile. 

Gone are the old plum puddings, 

Fled every well-loved pie. 
While wholesome health-food custards 

Religiously we try. 

No curtains soft may drape my walls. 

No carpets on the floor. 
Detain the deadly germ that crawls 

'Round window-sill and door. 

I may not early go to bed. 

Nor happy late may rise, 
But I must swing my arms and legs 

In healthy exercise. 

And even when I fall asleep, 

I'm wretched half the night. 
For fear some new disease will come 

From each mosquito bite. 

So pray kind doctors' do make haste 

This germicide to check, 
Or invent some new prescription 

For health improvement wreck. 

K. Tavi.or. 



Cable of Contents; 



Is THE Present System of Training Fair to the Pupil Nurse? 

A. T. Bristow, M.D. 145 
The Advantages of Co-Operation in the Work of the Visiting Nurse 

Hattie M. Greaves 152 

Isolation Emma L. Herrmann 155 

Nursing Morale Charlotte Mandeville Perry 156 

The Economic ^ide of the Vocation of Private Nursing 

Mary Ard. Mackenzie 157 

The Connecticut Training School for Nurses A Graduate 159 

Dietetics for Nurses A. L. Benedict, A.M., M.D. 163 

La Grippe S. Virginia Levis, M.S.N. 167 

Weights and Measures Emma Davis 170 

Notes on the Nursing of Aural and Ophthalmic Diseases 

Mary H. Tufts 172 

Editorially Speaking 175 

In the Nursing World 180 

The Editor's Letter-Box 192 

Book Reviews 198 

The Hospital Review 202 

New Remedies and Appliances : 208 

The Publisher's Desk 216 

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Clje CratneD ^urse anlr 



VOL. XXXVUI. 



NEW YORK. MARCH. 1907 



NO 3. 



3q tfje present Epstein of Ctaintng ;f atr to t$e 

^upil 0m6tT 

A. T. BRISTOW, M.D. 

Clinical Professor of Surgery in. and Surgeon to, the Long Island College Hospital, Surgeon to the King's 
County Hospital, St. John's Hospital, Brooklyn; Vice-President. New York Academy of Medicine. 



MY address is not intended as an 
unfriendly criticism of the pres- 
ent system of training nurses. It is far 
from my wish to invite more or less 
angry retort nor do I desire to provoke 
intemperate rejoinder or the retort with 
which our childhood days were familiar : 
"You're another." It is rather the pur- 
pose of this paper to invite discussion to 
a subject which needs discussion, not 
with heat, but calmly and dispassion-: 
ately with the desire to get at nothing 
save the truth. Nothing is ever gained 
on either side, if there are sides to this 
question of the trained nurse, by recrim- 
ination, nor will heated editorials with 
much calling of hard names serve to 
elucidate matters. To use a somewhat 
overworked phrase, what we need is 
light, not heat. Moreover, co-operation 
is necessary between nurses and doctors. 
We cannot do our best work or even 
very good work, certainly in public in- 
stitutions, without your aid and I do 



not suppose that you will question the 
assertion that you need the support of 
the doctors. 

The present system of training has 
been the slow growth of years. For the 
most part it works well and furnishes 
society and the medical profession with 
a body of highly trained women whose 
work both in public and private has been 
beyond serious criticism. It was there- 
fore with some surprise that the writer 
read in the pages of one of your special 
journals that the system was a failure 
and the doctors were the cause thereof, 
since the medical profession had been 
running the training schools all these 
years. This was an entirely novel propo- 
sition, for the writer is connected with 
six hospitals either as attending or con- 
sulting surgeon and was entirely un- 
aware that his colleagues were engaged 
in any such occupation. Training school 
committees to be sure there are, but 
their function has been largely oma- 



* Delivered at the first informal meeting of the N. Y. State Nurses Association, November jo, 1906. 



146 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



mental or at most advisory, the advice 
given being accepted or not at the will 
of the superintendent of nurses. With 
this fact I have no complaint. The func- 
tion of the superintendent of nurses is 
to govern her school and in my experi- 
ence she has rarely been interfered with. 
Indeed I know of no instance of inter- 
ference. The results have been admir- 
able. Yet as a result partly of economic 
conditions peculiar to hospitals, partly 
from what I belive to be mistaken ideas 
of instruction, much injustice is at pres- 
ent meted out to the pupil nurse and if 
certain so-called reforms are carried out 
as set forth in a recently proposed scheme 
of education by your State board a much 
greater injustice will be worked upon 
both the pupil nurse and the public. 
Let us take up for discussion first, then, 
certain practices of hospitals towards the 
probationer and young pupil nurse. In 
the training school prospectus of many 
hospitals there is a clause which permits 
the discharge of the probationer at any 
time during the time of her probation 
without the assigning of any reason 
therefor. This probationary period is 
often six months, never less than three. 
A number of nurses, two of them in offi- 
cial positions, have stated recently to the 
writer that it is the practice of some 
large hospitals during the spring and 
fall cleaning to enroll a much larger 
number of probationers than they can 
possibly require for the severest select- 
ive purposes, put them at work and then 
get rid of the supernumeraries under 
this very convenient clause. I ask you 
to kindly remember that this charge is 
not made by the medical profession but 
by some of your own association who 
are or have been in positions, presum- 
ably, to know the facts. I prefer, how- 
ever, to think that this is an extreme 
statement. Nevertheless, I have person- 



ally known of instances of great injus- 
tice due to the application of this rule. 
It has dangerous possibilities and is al- 
together unfair to the probationer. It 
is unAmerican. Why should she be de- 
nied the reason for her discharge, unless 
the person discharging her is afraid to 
give the true reason? If you do not 
intend to apply the rule, why put it in 
the prospectus? It is certainly liable to 
dangerous abuse. You take the girl's 
time, you sometimes take her money and 
then, without compensation or explana- 
tion, cause her to lose both, since if she 
enters another hospital she must still 
serve a probationary term. Moreover, 
the hypocritical statement is made that 
the declination of a candidate is no re- 
flection on her character, although every 
training school superintendent within 
reach of my voice knows perfectly well 
that she would exercise extreme reserve 
in admitting as a probationer a young 
woman who has been rejected after pro- 
bation in another hospital. If she was 
short of nurses, she might try her. I 
contend that the probationer is en- 
titled to the reasons for her rejection. 
A very fair method is that of one super- 
intendent known to me who at the end of 
two months warns unsatisfactory pupils 
but permits them then to exercise their 
own discretion as to continuing their 
probation. I also contend that a hospital 
has no right to rob a girl of several 
weeks or months of her time during 
which she has been worked hard at me- 
nial tasks than it has to take her money. 
I admit the discretionary right of choice 
but the present arbitrary and secret 
methods are outrageously unjust and 
ought to be modified or restricted. One 
prospectus treating on this subject says 
rather significantly that candidates are 
expected to bring with them the means 
of returning to their homes if unsuccess- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



147 



I 



ful. After three or four months in a 
large city, I wonder how much of this 
return money would be available. I once 
knew of a case where a girl was literally 
turned in the street with just five dollars 
in her pocket, her home being Canada. 
And this was supposed to be an institu- 
tion of mercy ! 

Much of the work required of the pro- 
bationer is distinctly not nursing. She 
enters a hospital to be taught the intelli- 
gent care of the sick but instead of this 
she is, in many hospitals, set to do the 
work of a chamber or kitchen maid. She 
dusts, she scrubs, she washes dishes. In 
short is set to do all sorts of menial tasks 
for which the hospital lacking the proba- 
tioners would be compelled to hire the 
proper class of labor. That is exactly 
what they ought to do in the first place. 
But you say this is a period of trial and 
is meant as a test. I doubt whether you 
would consider it necessary to put 
a medical student at work digging 
trenches or cleaning the streets so as to 
find out whether he would make a good 
doctor. The lesson of neatness can be 
taught in the care of the sick and not 
by the use of the scrubbing brush or the 
dishcloth. Why waste the time of the 
nurse on such tasks unless it is to save 
the wages of a domestic? You wrong, 
your young pupil doubly since you dis- 
tinctly incapacitate her to receive the in- 
struction which is her due, for a tired 
body means a tired brain and an inabil- 
ity to receive or retain knowledge. 

Your present registration law requires 
a nurse to pass but two years in a hos- 
pital whereupon she becomes eligible for 
examination for the title of R.N. I 
conclude, therefore, that it is the opinion 
of your board that a woman can be made 
a competent nurse in that length of time. 
If that is your opinion then every addi- 
tional year that you compel the pupil 



nurse to serve the hospital is in the na- 
ture, of tribute, a sort of hospital graft 
extorted by the power of combination. 
Most hospitals compel the pupil to serve 
a term of three years and some require 
four years of servitude. I say servitude 
advisedly. During that three years of 
hospital work were you not by day and 
by night, Sundays and holidays, the act- 
ual property of the hospital? Do you 
know of any other apprenticeship, be it 
in trade or art, which can compare in 
severity and bondage with that of your 
apprenticeship ? 

Much of this severe discipline is no 
doubt essential to the proper regulation 
of the work, yet some of you are propos- 
ing to make it more arduous and longer, 
although your own law tacitly admits 
that a two-years' course is sufficient. I 
am quite willing to confess that I was 
formerly in favor of the three-years' 
course, though I deny that I have ever 
been of the opinion that it took four 
years to make a good nurse out of an 
intelligent woman. After a good deal of 
experience with nurses and as a result 
of much observation I am sure that I 
was in error when I favored the exten- 
sion of the course to three years. I am 
now of the opinion of your board that 
two years is enough. So here is one 
doctor who is willing to confess to the 
errors of his ways and what is more to 
the point do what he can to further a re- 
turn to the shorter term so wisely advo- 
cated by your board, as voiced by your 
law. If a young woman is not a com- 
petent nurse at the end of the two-years' 
course, she will not be competent after 
three years, nor four years,- nor 
twenty years, and hospitals which 
are extending the term of this in- 
dustrial slavery are simply getting 
for nothing services worth at least sixty 
dollars a month. That is not charity nor 



148 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



religion. It is high finance. Moreover 
the hospital takes good care to exact 
payment of tribute to the uttermost far- 
thing. It will have its pound of flesh 
to the last grain. Should one of you fall 
ill of typhoid fever contracted while 
nursing in the wards, you are allowed to 
graduate with your class provided your 
illness is not too long, but afterward you 
must serve the hospital until you have 
paid up to the last moment for your ab- 
sence from service. If this is not in- 
dustrial slavery, I do not know what is. 
Present conditions are hard enough. 
I beg of you to consider before you make 
them harder. 

It has been said that the doctors are 
to blame for some of the existing evils, 
especially the overtraining. I have read 
over carefully the proposed curriculum 
of training schools and was forcibly re- 
minded of the reply of one of the kings 
of Israel to a certain petition : "My little 
finger shall be thicker than my father's 
loins. For whereas my father put a 
heavy yoke upon you I will put more to 
your yoke." I doubt whether the king's 
petitioners got much comfort from his 
answer. If as a nurses' association you 
are really interested in the future of^ 
the trained nurse I ask you to read care- 
fully the proposed curriculum as pub- 
lished in the May numbe^ of the Jour- 
nal of Nursing and then say frankly 
whether my quotation is not apt. This 
appears to be the nurses' solution of the 
problem, but I venture to hope that it is 
not the solution which your association 
will finally accept. 

Do noL, however, mistake the spirit in 
which I address you. I have nothing 
but admiration for the motive which 
prompts your State board in publishing 
this curriculum and in the effort which 
you are all making for the betterment of 
present conditions. It is possible, how- 



ever to raise your standard too high. It 
is possible to be unjust to your pupil 
nurse when you require her to study a 
lot of things which have as much rela- 
tion to nursing as surveying and naviga- 
tion have to medicine. The course is 
hard enough as it is, both mentally and 
physically, and it ought not to be over- 
burdened with non-essentials. Permit 
me, therefore, to discuss this proposed 
curriculum in a fraternal spirit. May I 
remind you of the notice posted in a 
church in Texas, "The audience is re- 
quested not to shoot at the organist. He 
is doing his best." 

There is an economic side to this ques- 
tion. There ought to be a reasonable 
proportion between the time taken to ac- 
quire marketable knowledge and the 
market value of that knowledge. Thus 
a man or woman could fairly be ex- 
pected to spend seven or eight years in 
preparation for a life work, if the aver- 
age income afterward is to be $1,500 or 
$2,000. 

I think I hear some of you say to 
yourselves, "Why, that is ridiculously in- 
adequate for so long a course !" So it is, 
but is the income of the average trained 
nurse anything like that? There are 
careers in life, however, in which the 
actual income bears a very small pro- 
portion either to the value of the services 
or the time taken in preparation there- 
for. Thus the highest income which a 
man can expect in the army or navy is 
$5,500, and this only after years of ser- 
vice on a salary which will not average 
over $3,000, and several examinations 
for promotion when in the medical 
service. After retirement, however, the 
officer draws a pension of two-thirds his 
pay at the time of retirement. This is 
equivalent to an unassailable capital of 
$50,000. Is there any such prospect open 
to the trained nurse? If she loses her 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



149 



health in the Une of her duty, is there 
any one who stands ready to pension her 
for the rest of her days ? You see, there- 
fore, from the economic standpoint that 
the time taken in your education ought 
to bear a reasonable proportion to your 
expectation of income and the perma- 
nency of your employment. It will be 
useful here to inquire as to these matters. 
First, as to income: I have taken some 
pains to get at the actual average income 
of the average nurse by inquiry of the 
nurses themselves and I find to my utter 
astonishment that it is a little more than 
half of what I supposed. If any one 
had asked me to state a figure I should 
have said between $900 and $1,000, but 
the nurses say that it will not average 
over $650, taking the good years with 
the bad and the enforced absences due 
to personal illness or over-fatigue. Now 
as to the permanency of employment. 
The estimate of the average duration of 
nursing life has been given me as low as 
seven years and in no instance has the 
estimate been higher than ten years. I 
do not mean to say that there are not 
now in active service nurses who have 
been nursing for a longer period, but 
they are certainly the exception. The 
duties of the position are so severe that 
only a relatively young woman is equal 
to their fulfilment. In view of these 
facts, I respectfully ask you whether a 
woman ought to be required to surren- 
der from five to eight years of her life 
in preparation for so brief and illy paid 
a career? But you ask me how I get 
these figures ? Look at the requirements 
of many of your training schools. There 
are not a few which insist that the ap- 
plicant must be a high-school graduate. 
That is . a four-years' course which, 
added to a three-years' or four-years' 
course in the hospital, is seven or 
eight years respectively. Your pro- 



posed course since January, iqo^ 
compels a stay of one year in a sec- 
ondary school. So if you add this 
to the three years which most hos- 
pitals require, the shortest time of actual 
preparation is four years. Do your think 
the returns warrant the outlay? I am 
perfectly willing to admit the truth of 
all the fine things that are said about a 
nursing career, nevertheless it is just 
that a young woman should weigh all 
these things before she enters the school. 
It has been my experience that very 
many nurses, perhaps the majority, have 
others depending upon them for sup- 
port. You may say all the fine things 
you like about the nobility of your career 
and its self-sacrifice, but that won't help 
you to take care of your old mother or 
give you the means to assist a young 
brother to get his education. In other 
words, if you are going to so increase 
the educational requirements that there 
is an absolute want of balance be- 
tween them and the pecuniary results 
after graduation, two things will hap- 
pen: Young women will seek other 
ways of earning a living and the so- 
called ten-weeks' schools will flourish, 
the correspondence schools will increase 
in number and audacity, and we doctors 
will get a great many more cards from 
agencies for "experienced nurses" than 
we now do, and the public will avail 
themselves of these under-trained and 
incompetent women, to your gjeat det- 
riment. There is no escape from this 
conclusion. 

I regjet that a due regard for your 
patience and the length of time I have 
already detained you forbids a full dis- 
cussion of your proposed curriculm. It 
does not not seem to me to be a course 
that can be covered in less than four 
years. Perhaps I underestimate the ca- 
pacity of the pupil nurse but let 



150 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



one example serve to illustrate what 
I mean. Take for instance the 
sixtecn-days' course for probationers. 
In this the probationer is to be 
taught besides all the practical work 
of the hospital eighteen lessons in the 
theory and practice of nursing, eight 
lessons in elementary anatomy and eight 
lessons in bandaging. The practical 
work includes the care of rubber goods, 
care of helpless or stretcher cases, tak- 
ing temperatures, pulse, charting same 
beside notes, preparation for mustard 
pastes, stupes, poultices, care of toilets, 
bedpans, catheters, douche nozzles and 
instruments, enemata, purgative and 
nutrient, stimulative. Space and time 
forbid me to name all that these proba- 
tioners are to be taught in sixteen days. 
Of the eighteen lessons on the theory 
and practice of nursing I mention only 
one or two — the metric system, signs and 
abbreviations. Weights and measures. 
Administration, value of the different 
methods, classification of drugs. A gen- 
eral knowledge of the preparation, 
strength, dose, physiologic action, poi- 
sonous symptoms and treatment of aco- 
nite, alcohol, arsenic — to cut the list 
short, of no less than fifteen poisons. 
The eighteen lessons in anatomy out- 
lined for this sixteen-days' probationary 
term would take a diligent medical stu- 
dent at least two months to get even the 
most superficial acquaintance with the 
topics given. Under the head of ban- 
dages, not less than a dozen are men- 
tioned which the pupil is to be taught 
in the same preliminary period of six- 
teen days. 

One is tempted to inquire whether if pu- 
pils can be taught all these topics in six- 
teen days there is any use in a seven or 
even in a two-years' course ? As one reads 
the remainder of the proposed curriculum 
it appears as if a great deal of time and 



energy has been devoted to the acquire- 
ment of knowledge which has little real 
bearing on nursing the sick. If I was 
asked to state what the function of the 
trained nurse is I should answer, first, 
the care of the bodily needs of her pa- 
tient; second, to carry out the orders of 
the physician; third, to record the vital 
phenomena of the patient. Everything 
that the nurse does must come under one 
of these heads. Yet in the proposed 
schedule of instructions we find such 
matters as the following: Lesson 2, 
mineral food, mineral waters. Salts: 
amount found in the body; necessity in 
food, food value in heat, energy, tissue 
building. Kinds : calcium, sodium,' phos- 
phorus, magnesium, iron, sulphur, po- 
tassium, uses in body, etc. Under the 
head of practical work the pupil is given 
a little excursion into blow-pipe analy- 
sis and is required to apply the flame test 
for sodium, potassium, calcium, stron- 
tium by borax bead and Bunsen burner. 
In another lesson the pupil is given in- 
struction in sugar; comparison of su- 
cose, glucose, levulose, lactose, with 
source, preparation, composition, prop- 
erties, digestion. From these lofty 
heights the pupil descends in the prac- 
tical work to make cranberry jelly, she 
bakes an apple and makes peanut brit- 
tle. Evidently the nurse who survives 
this course will be a chemist, a physi- 
ologist, a cook and a confectioner. Any 
one who cares to pursue the pages of 
this remarkable course will find para- 
graph after paragraph of instruction 
concerning abstruse chemical, and physi- 
ological subjects which have absolutely 
nothing whateyer to do with nursing 
the sick. I do not believe that four 
years would be too long to really com- 
plete this course and at the end 
of that time we should have a 
nurse with a lot of knowledge of 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



151 



not the slightest use to her patient, at 
least two years of whose time would 
have been wasted in the acquirement of 
a lot of theory without bearing on her 
work. Why should the nurse be taught 
urinalysis or the use of the microscope 
as set forth in one prospectus or the 
manufacture of the various culture me- 
dia used in a bacteriological laboratory? 
A nurse has responsibility enough with- 
out burdening her with responsibilities 
which are distinctly those of the doctor. 
All these things simply increase the labor 
of the pupil in the hospital, take her time 
and her energy and are perfectly worth- 
less in the end. If there is in life any 
harder task than that of the pupil nurse 
I should like to know what it is. She 
is on her feet ten to twelve hours a day, 
or eleven and a half months in a year. 
She has few holidays, little relaxation, 
and an enormous lot of hard and often 
repulsive work. She rises by rule. She 
eats her meals, mostly bad, by rule. She 
is a hospital machine. How any body 
of fairly merciful women can have it in 
their hearts to increase her labor by 
loading her down with all sorts of use- 
less theory which she will promptly for- 
get is beyond the ken of mere man. I 
trust that as an association you will con- 
sider this matter carefully. I do not 
believe that this scheme will ever be put 
into effect since it is so obviously unfair 



and out of proportion. The hospital is 
far more indebted to the pupil nurse than 
the nurse is to the hospital. Superin- 
tendents are too apt to speak in a some- 
what grandiloquent manner of the enor- 
mous expense the training of the nurse 
is to the hospital. One thing is certain, 
the expense isn't in the food. I should 
like to know what the hospital should 
do to-day without the pupil nurse? We 
are absolutely dependent on them for 
the proper care of the sick in our wards. 
A more hardworked, uncomplaining and 
useful band of women I defy you to find 
anywhere. Do not say to them as you 
are to take these matters into your own 
hands, "For whereas my father chas- 
tised you with whips, I will chastise you 
with scorpions." I have faith to believe 
that when you finally put into effect a 
new course of study for pupil nurses, it 
will be on the lines of the recent exami- 
nation paper of your State Board of Ex- 
aminers. It was with great pleasure that 
I read over the list of questions. Any- 
thing fairer, more judicious, or better 
qualified to test the real knowledge of a 
nurse and her capacity to do honor to 
her guild and faithful work to the public 
it has never been my lot to see. As long 
as your course is conducted on the lines 
of those examination papers, the pupil 
nurse will have cause to thank you, as 
will the public and the doctors. 




Cf)e 9ilit3antages of Co:^(2^peration in tfje Wot1x of 

ti)e "gTtsiting Jlurse 



HATTIE M. GREAVES. 



VISITING nursing, or the care of the 
sick poor in their own homes, is 
as old as the nursing profession, but the 
increase of the visiting nurses well il- 
lustrates the new spirit of the times. 
In the past we were content to build 
our hospitals and open our doors, but 
to-day we go out and carry our help to 
those who need it, instead of waiting 
for them to come to us. And it seems 
to be in striking harmony with the ideal 
of the Master when He said, "I was sick 
and ye visited me." 

The primary object of the work of the 
visiting nurse is to give to the very 
poor and to those of moderate means 
skilled care in time of illness. It does 
more than this by endeavoring to teach 
the simple rules of clean living and home 
nursing. 

There is one motive, and only one, 
strong enough to give us victory, and 
that is love — love for our fellow-men 
and love for our country. The health 
of the nation should be its first care, and 
the duty of the nation to prevent and 
cure sickness, preventable and remedi- 
able, is just as binding as the prevention 
and removal of ignorance. 

The world's work has made its de- 
mand upon the nursing profession. It 
has responded to the call with enthusi- 
asm and, as long as the world endures, 
nurses will answer to the cry of the 
oppressed and the suflfering ones of 
humanity. 

A nurse to be successful in the work, 
must have a fellow-feeling for those 
among whom she is working, and who 
are dependent on her for good results. 



She must have an unlimited amount of 
tact, for she will meet all kinds of 
people. 

Who so well as the nurse can demon- 
strate the practical results of bathing, 
ventilation and sanitation? In her daily 
visit this instruction comes easily and 
naturally. The family is not made to 
feel that it is being forced into accept- 
ing these new ideas; it is part of the 
treatment of the patient and, in a ma- 
jority of cases, an eflfort is made to 
carry out the orders left by the nurse. 
The effect of such work is not confined 
to one particular house, for among the 
poor one usually finds a good proportion 
of the neighborhood in attendance where 
there is sickness. If not already on 
hand, the advent of the nurse is sure to 
bring several neighbors who are often 
helpful, although we could dispense with 
their services readily at times. Very 
often in visiting a family for the first 
time we are surprised to find the bed 
made neatly, the patient bathed and 
preparation made for the nurse's visit. 

A nurse following the general routine 
prescribed for her in hospital Hfe, has 
little idea of the emergencies to be met 
with in working in a home, and especi- 
ally* in those of the poor. 

In our well equipped hospitals of the 
present day everything is on hand that 
either doctor or nurse may need. We 
find well-stocked linen-rooms; clothes 
for those who may be up and around, 
and have none for themselves; outfits 
for the wee baby who comes to join us 
in the race of life, all of this at the right 
time and in the right place. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



153 



But a different tale one tells visiting 
among the homes of the poor, there are 
emergencies to be met, the patient must 
be made comfortable, and many of 
them are very destitute. They need a 
helping hand. To live among the people 
is the best way of knowing and influenc- 
ing their home life. 

To no class of workers in the cause 
of philanthropy does the door open so 
willing to as to the nurse who, at a time 
when sickness has laid low some member 
of the family, enters with a definite pur- 
pose; the result of her ministrations is 
manifested^t each visit. When once the 
people understand the nature of the 
service given, they seldom fail to appre- 
ciate its value. 

Hearts are opened to her that no other 
influence can reach; her work in the 
family does not always cease with the 
convalescence of the patient. Many a 
mother learns to depend upon the nurse 
for counsel and friendly aid and, in 
many cases, where there are other mem- 
bers of the family in poor health, the 
'nurse calls frequently to see that all goes 
well, and she must be prepared to cope 
with the difficulties met with in each. 
Whatever the requirement, the nurse 
must know the proper source from 
which to obtain the special aid applicable 
to the emergency. 

We know that the trained eye is 
readier to see beauty and the trained ear 
quicker to detect harmony, but it is true 
that we see in the dwarfed, stunted lives 
around us the possibilities of the fulfil- 
ment of a perfect manhood and woman- 
hood, and has our soul such a love for 
its fellow-man that we strive to make 
this beauty possible? Lost possibilities 
haunt us. It is easy to kill, but it re- 
quires a great deal to arouse dormant 
energies, to vitalize them, and to make 
them creative forces for good. 



"Visiting nurse — what have those two 
words meant, where have they been 
spoken but they have meant skilled lov- 
ing care, a mental, moral, or physical 
betterment of the poor." 

Many times the nurse is called to 
a patient who is in poverty in the 
extreme, a wash basin borrowed from 
a neighbor, a fire started, some water 
put on to heat in an old soup can, 
and despite the protestations of the 
mother she is given a warm bath and 
an alcohol rub, which has been or- 
dered by the physician, clean sheets 
brought by the nurse, cover the mattress, 
and beneath it lies quietly this same pa- 
tient, only minus a good amount of dirt. 

The results we obtain from our work 
are not always the true estimate of its 
value. Our best efforts often pass un- 
noticed, while our shortcomings or mis- 
takes are likely to be remembered. 

It has been suggested that all acute 
cases be turned over to the hospital. 
This rule, of course, is not expected to 
be an absolute one, the human touch, 
too, comes in the longer we ally our- 
selves with the outside world, and we 
learn to think more appreciatively of the 
shock to a patient in leaving home — a 
shock which may easily react on the en- 
tire system — and to realize that love 
and sympathy, the constant presence 
and the kindliness of those who care 
are often worth more than the doctor's 
daily calls, and the skill and patience of 
the nurses. 

If the sick-room is kitchen, laundry 
and general gathering place, that cannot 
be properly ventilated, if there is no one 
to assume the care of the patient, there- 
is no alternative. 

We claim for our work a certain edu- 
cational value, and here is a field enough 
to test its worth. Here is order to be 
brought out of chaos, quiet and cleanli- 



154 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



ness to be proved valuable, something 
to be taught about foods, about the func- 
tions of the body, and the importance of 
fresh air and sunshine. 

In the past few years organized dis- 
trict nursing has developed rapidly and 
along several lines. There are in differ- 
.ent parts of the country independent or- 
ganizations, district nurses working in 
connection with city health departments, 
in the public schools under the Board 
of Education, and as special departments 
of charity organization societies. 

To discuss the visiting nurse in co- 
operative work is to approach a subject 
offering so many possibilities that it is 
difficult to determine just where to set 
one's limitations. Her position in the 
field of charitable endeavor is peculiarly 
her own, for the nature of the work has 
in it a double relationship-^that is purely 
professional in its relation to acute dis- 
ease, and which is social through its con- 
structive and preventive work. 

I find persons working among the 
needy, who do not understand clearly 
what a thorough investigation . of the 
conditions and relations of families 
mean. They imagine that when they 
have discovered whether or not a family 
needs material relief, of one sort or an- 
other, the investigation is complete. 
Poverty appeals to their ^pity and ma- 
terial relief seems to them to be the 
remedy. The present need blots out the 
view of future consequences, and they 
do not even know as a rule, the extent 
and nature of the material need of the 
family. 

Many persons lack appreciation of the 
importance of looking at the family as 
a whole, of inquiring into all its needs 
and the needs of each of its individuals, 
whether physical, mental, moral, or 
spiritual, of finding out how those- needs 
can be supplied, if possible, without ap- 



pealing to organizations and individuals 
who are strangers to the family, and of 
making every kind of' aid a means of in- 
creasing independence and self-respect 
and of strengthening natural ties of re- 
sponsibility as far as possible. 

There is also a failure to see the social 
point of view, to consider the relation of 
a family to the compiunity and the effect 
of example on other families in the 
neighborhood. It is not realized that 
the well members of a family may need 
education and care more than the sick, 
or that moral prevention and cure is 
more difficult than physical. 

The gauge of a nurse's work in the 
eyes of the medical profession is usually 
in the technical application of her call- 
ing. From the standpoint of organized 
charity, however, we will come to believe 
that the influence of the work on the 
social side, plus professional skill, is the 
important factor. 

. A visiting nurse enters the home when 
there is illness not as an intruder, but 
with the right to enter because she 
brings help; she carries with her not 
only the knowledge and skill to care for 
the child and help the mother, but inci- 
dentally teaches the need of cleanliness, 
helps in choosing food — and how to pre- 
pare it ; and, best of all, carries the spirit 
of friendliness and helpfulness into the 
homes. In many homes there is no 
actual disease, only a pitiful degree of 
moral and physical apathy, due largely 
to unsanitary housing, insufficient food, 
and a discouraging struggle for liveli- 
hood. 

It is the preventive element in visiting 
nursing which offers a chance for gen- 
eral helpfulness. The acutely sick will 
always require immediate attention of 
the nurses upon the work. To extend 
the benefits of their care to an entire 
family with the view to building up 



155 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



liealthy bodies, to know just when and 
where to apply the ounce of prevention 
which will save the future pound of cure, 
is to give to the visiting nursing the 
dig^iity of broad aims and to greatly hr- 
crease its utility. 

Like the heavy cable which is thrown 
out from the deck of a great ocean liner, 
to connect it with a city pulsating with 
life, the visiting nurse forms the unit- 



ing power between her profession and 
all tjie manifold forces at work for the 
social and physical betterment of society. 
Co-operation is, after all, a matter of 
understanding. There is an abundance 
of good-will and earnestness. If we can 
add to these essential qualities a compre- 
hensive knowledge of one another's 
methods, there will grow up among us 
that unity of action which is the strength 
of all work. 



35olation 



We were crowded in a cottage 
Where Clebs Leffler reigned supreme; 

All who've been in isolation 
Know such life is not a dream. 

Days, those days of isolation. 
Days, perhaps of which you've read, 

Like perpetual cloudy weather, 
Just as though your friends were dead. 

Many things you will be wanting. 

You may want them, day and night ; 
All your friends are out of calling 

And to them, you dare not write. 

We have learned this little lesson — 
Want for naught you can't obtain; 

Wanting things in isolation 
Is but wanting things in vain. 



Then about that pink and blue slip, 
None can tell what we endured; 

How we pegged at those bacteria 
Thinking child was surely cured. 

Then would come another pink slip 
Stating germs were present there ; 

f hen our hearts which had grown hopeful 
Sank again into despair. 

Culture five produced a blue slip. 
Which was sent us through the mail ; 

We might then have been rejoicing 
But alas, the sad, sad tale. 

For the youngster got the measles 

E'en before she left her bed. 
When we called upon the doctor 

This is what the Medic said : 



Better stay a little longer 
Just to every chance erase 

That indeed there ba no measles 
Floating 'round about the place. 



Emma L. Herrmann. 



jEurstng iHorale 



CHARLOTTE MANDEVILLE PERRY, 
Superintendent of Nurses, Faxton Hospital, Utica, N. Y. 



THE last few years have seen great 
development in the profession — 
in organization — in scientific research — 
and in practical work. What of the 
ethical side, is it keeping pace? In the 
good old days, with what high ideals 
did we enter the school, prompted by 
noble motives, by courage, self-sacrifice 
and conscientious view of duty. Our en- 
thusiasm was not blind sentimentality, 
for it outlived our course of training, 
which was more difficult in those days 
(the nineties) because we had not some 
of the faculties which make work easy. 
It seems, too, that we approached our 
work with a more thoughtful and 
thorough intention of performing it well, 
until by repeated efifort we should attain 
skill. How different this from the spirit 
of carelessness which seeks to get 
through with as little exertion as possi- 
ble — that irresponsible spirit of making 
things easy at the expense of both pa- 
tient and hospital — wanton waste usurp- 
ing the place of economy, and untidiness 
that of neatness, which is a fundamental 
principle of all work, both surgical and 
medical. In the old days, hardship was 
expected and embraced; danger was 
met, not avoided. This, surely, is dia- 
metrically opposed to the limiting one's 
self to certain cases, when there are few 
nurses on call ; of refusing contagious 
cases, when life must be lost without 
the care of those specially trained. The 
ethics on th's point, as we were taught, 
was as 'ows: During epidemic, 
whether oi smallpox, yellow fever, chol- 
era, diphtheria, scarlet fever, or typhus. 



or in times of disaster, we were to hold 
ourselves in readiness to go when sum- 
moned. If nurses were needed and there 
were few to be had, that was a call to 
duty, from which ordinary claims should 
not withhold us. Nurses should remem- 
ber that to refuse a call, often means the 
death of the patient, for which they are 
in consequence responsible. How nu- 
merous are the evils which spring up in 
the ground in which has been sown no 
seed of sterling principles. In the world 
of nature, each seed brings forth after 
its kind. Nothing is so true as this of 
nursing. Whence hath it tares? Be- 
cause the seed sown was the mercenary, 
selfish, extravagant, careless kind, not 
realized, perhaps, until the deep-rooted 
growth — hard to eradicate — has sprung 
up in the virgin soil. 

But let us not fail to weed out from 
our experience that which blights the 
profession. Let us return to the old 
ways: rather, let us be conservative 
enough to cleave to that which is good — 
cleave to the high ideals of fulfilment of 
duty, even if we die for it; and that in 
a generous, kind and gentle, conscienti- 
ous, thrifty manner, and with the possi- 
bility of not being appreciated ; on the 
other hand, fighting against luxury, 
selfishness and carelessness, temptations 
which threaten the present hour. "Re- 
form," "Advance" have become watch- 
words. Now that the ensign of educa- 
tion is bein^ lifted in our nursing army, 
let us run forward with the banner of 
professional ethics, and see that the two 
standard bearers join hands. 



Clje economic ^iDe of tfje location of ^ritjate 

JBturising 

MARY ARD MACKENZIE. 

B. A. (Toronto). R. N. (New York) 

Graduate of Massachusetts General Hospital Training School. 



FOR a great many years, thousands 
of women have been preparing 
themselves for their chosen vocation — 
nursing — and thousands have been earn- 
ing their living by practising private 
nursing, but, as yet, no body of trained 
nurses has considered carefully the eco- 
nomic side of their calling. 

I use the term in its broadest sense, 
and shall consider, in this article, on the 
one hand, the whole output of the aver- 
age private duty nurse — the output of 
time, ability and skill, of nervous force, 
mental force, physical and spiritual 
force; and, on the other hand, her in- 
take — the intake of money, of inspira- 
tion, if any, of gratitude, sweetness and 
light. The subject is a large one. A 
nurse is called to a serious case, to be 
on duty, twenty-four hours, out of the 
twenty-four. She may have two hours 
off duty, if there be any one to relieve 
her, but, from twenty-two to twenty- 
four hours, that nurse is on duty. She 
gives herself up, body and soul, to that 
case, she has no thought beyond it, she 
is often so exhausted she can hardly 
think, and, so it goes on. When, finally, 
she leaves it, she is, to all intents and 
purposes, a wreck, mentally and physi- 
cally, and, spiritually, a corpse. Her 
ideals are dead, her emotions, numb, 
her enthusiasm, with her ambitions, is 
closely huddled around zero point. She 
has given, to that family, all of her time, 
her skill, her ability, her nervous force, 
her mental, physical and spiritual force, 
and so she drags on, a useless mass, un- 
til she has regained a part of what she 



had lost; the other parts have gone for- 



ever. 



In return, she has received a paltry 
•twenty-five dollars per week, and food, 
when she could leave her patient to take 
it. Inspiration she may have had at first, 
the inspiration of the true nurse, to fight 
off disease and death from her patient, 
but, soon, that fades away and death and 
disease threaten her more closely than 
the patient. Gratitude, she does receive, 
occasionally and sweetness and light in 
the discharge of her duty, in the propor- 
tion in which she herself gives them out. 

Now, in that transaction, who is the 
gainer? Who, the loser? Is it charity? 
Well and good, let her go ahead and give 
her life's blood, if necessary, for her fel- 
lowman. But, this is not charity; these 
people are able and willing to pay for 
the services of healthy, happy, full- 
souled, fully-trained women, who will 
leave them, after the need for their ser- 
vices is past, healthy, happy, full-souled 
women still, but more experienced and 
inspired anew to help their fellowmen. 

Nurses have the solution of this prob- 
lem in their own hands, absolutely. In 
no trade, in no vocation, excepting, only, 
trained nursing, do the members give 
themselves out, for a twenty-4 j or 
twenty-four hour service. It ^MfiS^^ 
honest. No woman, and, most empqil- 
cally, no man, can work, day in and 
day out, at a twenty-two to twenty-four 
hour stretch, without somebody's being 
injured; it is against Nature's laws, and 
Nature will be avenged. 

An amusing incident, apropos of this 



158 



THE TRAINE!D nurse AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



question, occurs to me: When I was in 
charge of a" training school for nurses, 
one of my stormiest interviews was with 
some well-known, well-established phy- 
sicians on the subject of twenty-four 
hour duty for nurses — nurses in train- 
ing and graduates, who were specializ- 
ing in the hospital, and the rebuke, that 
was supposed to be the most deadly, was 
that I was unfitting the women for pri- 
vate duty, by not training them to re- 
main on duty twenty-four hours at a 
stretch, as they would be expected to do, 
when nursing in private families. In 
that part of their education, I must con- 
fess, I was lax, for I would not give my 
nurses that extra experience. 

Now, for the remedy: Nurses should 
take cases for not longer than twelve- 
hour duty. If the case require the ser- 
vices of a trained nurse, constantly, two 
or more nurses should be engaged — as 
is often done even now. If such be not 
the case, or if it cannot be afforded, 
some member of the family should take 
the duty for the other twelve hours, 
and let the nurse go off duty, away from 
the patient, for rest, growth and renew- 
ing of spirit, after which she will return, 
fresh, bright and ready for hard service. 

The public have been charity cases of 
nurses for years, the millionaires have 



been receiving the best part of the 
women for a mere pittance, and nurses 
have only themselves to blame. 

Another point, to come to the money 
question ag^ain. Nurses have shown them- 
selves most unprogressive in keeping 
their prices, where they were some six 
or seven years ago, when the cost of liv- 
ing has increased at least one-third. The 
average private nurse of to-day is mak- 
ing relatively less than the average pri- 
vate nurse of seven years ago. Every- 
thing has gone up in price, excepting 
only trained nursing. 

Now, though I do not advocate a 
union, among the nurses, I think it is 
time for us to stand together. No one 
should regulate a nurse's charges, but 
herself, and any one who attempts to do 
so is trespassing, but there should be an 
agreement among nurses concerning the 
prices of their services, as that would 
make it less confusing for the public 
who employ nurses ; but the nurse, and 
only the nurse, should be the one to state 
her price. 

For this, as for so many nursing 
questions which already are knocking to 
be heard, and which must and will soon 
be settled, one way or another, the motto 
for us all is: "United we stand," else, 
ignominious, indeed, must be our fall ! 



Baby Cries Before It Is Born 



Not long ago, while attending an obstetrical 
case where I was obliged to be alone, having 
telephoned for a doctor, but he was out, the 
woman 21 years of age, primipara. The babe's 
head was l>orn fully ten minutes before the 
body followed. There was no pain for that 
length of time, but as soon as the nose jarred 
the edge of the perineum it drew in air 
and when the head came it began to cry 



lustily. There was no need to feel if the 
umbillical cord was around the neck, and 
there was but little cyanoses of face. Baby 
weighed eight and one-half pounds with a 
napkin tied about it. He was apparently in 
a hurry to announce to his anxious father pac- 
ing the outer room that he was on the scene. 
It was the first time I met with such an ex- 
perience in 100 births. 



C|)e Connecticut Craintng ^cfjool for Surges 



BV A GRADUATE 



THE Connecticut Training School 
for Nurses was a pioneer in a 
field of educative endeavor, the scope 
and value of which is to-day univeKsally 
recognized. It owes its origin to the 
interest in efficient nursing created by 
the needs of the Civil War; and more 
particularly to those women, who, hav- 
ing organized and carried on the nurs- 
ing work during the war, turned their 
energies toward furthering the teaching 
of women in efficient care of the sick. 

A group of thirty or forty of New 
Haven's most prominent citizens inter- 
ested themselves in this cause, and, it 
being made financially possible by the 
philanthropy of Mr. Charles H. Thomp- 
son, a plan was presented to The Gen- 
eral Hospital Society of New Haven 
at its annual meeting in 1873 for the 
organizing of a Training School for 
Nurses. A committee had previously 
been appointed by the Hospital Society 
to consider the feasibility of such a 
school under the Hospital's manage- 
ment. This committee reported it in- 
expedient, but gladly offered "such 
facilities for the instruction of nurses as 
the Hospital affords" should the plan 
submitted to them be carried out. A 
committee of administration was at once 
appointed; a set of resolutions submitted 
to and accepted by the Hospital direct- 
ors, and in the spring of 1873 the active 
organization of the school was begun. 
The written agreement between the Hos- 
pital and the officers of the Training 
School was signed May 16, 1873, and is 
still in effect. Its provisions include 
that the committee of the school provide 
a superintendent of nursing; she to have 



charge of the care of the patients; be 
responsible to the attending physicians; 
they provide also pupil nurses to the 
number of six, this number to be in- 
creased as deemed necessary by the Hos- 
pital Society. The nature and scope of 
the training of these pupils is left en- 
tirely with the board of managers, 
stipulating only for non-interference 
with the nurses' direct responsibility to 
the physician. The Hospital provides 
that the "rough work of the wards be 
done" for the nurses; that the "quarters 
and a comfortable table be supplied"; 
that the Hospital physicians be asked to 
aid in instructing the nurses and to co- 
operate with the Training School man- 
gers. 

Formidable indeed the task these 
women assumed! The Hospital was 
willing to give board, lodging and an 
opportunity to care for its patients — 
provided it was well done — to the pupils 
of the school, but was not willing to take 
responsibility of such a school under its 
own management. That the agreement 
has held for thirty-three years is proof 
that the confidence in the Training 
School management was not misplaced. 

The work of disseminating the news 
of the school, of so setting forth its 
purpose and advantages as to secure 
the interest and co-operation of the 
medical fraternity and the public, and 
to enlist as pupils desirable women can 
scarcely be conceived by the committee 
which organizes a school to-day. The 
status of the nurse in that time made 
the triple requirement of mental, moral 
and physical strength too seldom found 
among women willing to take up such 



160 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



work, but by June 12, 1873, the date of 
the granting of the charter — the first 
we beHeve granted to a nurses' school in 
this country — the work was well under 
way. 

Various means of advertising were 
employed. Articles were written for the 
leading periodicals and were extensively 
copied by the rural press. The Ladies 
Missionary Society in various towns 
aided in the curriculum of advertising 
literature. Posters in railroad stations 
and other public places were freely used. 
A pamphlet was issued setting forth the 
need of the educated nurse, stating gen- 
erally what she should, and more spe- 
cifically what she should not he; giving a 
resume of .what had been done for her 
education in other countries and quot- 
ing Florence Nightingale's requisite 
qualifications for the woman who would 
be a nurse. The circular closes with an 
earnest appeal for financial aid. It con- 
tains the names of the committee of ad- 
ministration and is signed by a long list 
of doctors and private citizens. Among, 
the names are many so illustrious as to 
give the school just cause to be proud 
of its parentage and a high standard to 
be worthy thereof. 

The first superintendent of nurses, or 
"head nurse," as she was then called, 
was from the Women's Hospital of Phil- 
adelphia, where a limited number of 
women had been trained to teach the 
profession of nursing, the only school of 
the kind in the country. The applica- 
tions for enrollment as pupils were nu- 
merous, ninety to one hundred, and of 
these twenty-one were suitable for con- 
sideration. Many of these, on learning 
the arduous nature of the work, with- 
drew their applications and of the six 
finally enrolled two failed at the date 
of the opening of the school, which was 
formally done on October 16, 1873, with 



four pupil nurses. We cannot realize 
what were the trials of these four 
women, their superintendent and the 
ladies of the committee in whose charge 
they were. The pupils knew nothing 
of nursing, the superintendent from her 
necessarily limited training but little 
more and the board of managers to learn 
from experience how to direct it all ! 
The Hospital itself scarcely knew how 
to be nursed. The male employees, 
thinking their province overstepped, 
withdrew, leaving their work for the 
nurses to do. The superintendent of 
nurses ate her meals with convalescent 
male patients, and troublesome condi- 
tions without limit existed. It is due to 
the indomitable courage and steadfast 
purpose of the board of managers that 
the project did not fall to the ground 
under such difficulties as they had to 
meet. 

Six months after the opening of the 
school, the Hospital Society commended 
the work and spoke highly of the im- 
provement in the care of the patients. 
One year after the opening, the number 
of nurses was increased to eight and in 
the spring of 1875 nine were allowed 
and with the growing scope of the work 
the number has grown to an enrollment 
of seventy-five pupil nurses. 

At the end of the second year, nurses 
were sent to private families and the 
reports of their work justified the exist- 
ence of the school. Charity work was 
begun at this time. At the close of the 
fourth year, graduates were supplied to 
organize and take charge of other train- 
ing schools, and ever since have its 
graduates figured extensively in this 
work. -Lack of space forbids mention 
of more than one instance, that of the 
Pittsfield House of Mercy, which since 
1880 has been in charge of graduates of 
this school. The list of graduates now 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



161 



numbers 545. In the sixth year of the 
school, "The Handbook of Nursi-ng" 
was published by Mrs. Frances Bacon 
and for many years remained the stand- 
ard text-book on the subject. It has 
lately been revised and modernized by 
the same author. 

In 1880 there were seventeen pupils 
in the school and one of the graduates 
was elected to fill the office of assistant 
superintendent of nurses, created by the 
growing work. The dormitory quarters 
in the third story over the wards were 
inadequate and at the annual meeting 
of 188 1 plans for a dormitory were put 
in operation, and on October 26, 1882, 
The Nurses Home was opened; one of 
the first buildings of the kind in the 
country. It has twice been enlarged, 
once in 1885 when sleeping rooms and 
an infirmary for sick pupil nurses were 
added, again in 1903 when single sleep- 
ing rooms, large commodious parlors 
and a suite for the superintendent were 
added. 

An Alumnae Association was organ- 
ized and held its first meeting January 
6, 1891. It is in a prosperous condition. 
A sick benefit fund is provided for mem- 
bers in active nursing work. The As- 
sociation made the initiatory movement 
toward State registration of nurses in 
Connecticut at a mass meeting of gradu- 
ate nurses called by it in February, 1904. 
At this meeting the State Association 
was formed and the idea of State regis- 
tration made the object thereof. The 
Alumnae is at present engaged in rais- 
ing funds for a club house and infir- 
mary for graduate nurses of all schools. 

The length of the course of instruc- 
tion, at first one year, has been gradu- 
ally increased until now three years are 
required. For several months of the 
course the pupils are sent out to private 
cases, not only as an aid to the support 



of the school but for the advantage of 
the experience to the pupil before be- 
ginning independent private work. 

The curriculum has advanced, not 
only in scope but in the nature of the 
instruction. Besides daily classes by the 
superintendent and her assistants are the 
bi- or tri-weekly lectures by the physi- 
cians, many of whom are instructors in 
the Yale Medical School. The nurses 
have also the advantage of being present 
at the medical and surgical ward; clinics 
held by the different medical school pro- 
fessors. 

A monthly allowance, in no sense 
wages, has always been given the pupils 
thus making the course possible to 
women of limited means. As the ad- 
vantages of the school increased, the 
allowance has been decreased, until in 
the three-years' course it barely covers 
the expense of text-books. The require- 
ments for admission have steadily been 
raised and now a high-school education 
is essential for entrance. The small al- 
lowance, the high educational standard 
and the three months of probation, 
unite to keep from the school undesir- 
able members. 

The long duty hours and the infre- 
quent and irregular "off duty" of the 
earlier days have been changed, more 
nurses to the number of patients sup- 
plied, and a more perfectly systematized 
routine provided; but with the increase 
in the studies and lectures of the cur- 
riculum, and the elaborateness of mod- 
ern surgical procedure, the pupil of to- 
day can scarcely be said to have less 
required of her than in the earlier times. 

Twelve graduates of the school were 
engaged in ajmy nursing during the 
Cuban War and some held positions as 
chief nurse of the hospital ship and in 
field and fever hospitals. The tribute 
given ia the following letter reflects 



162 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



great credit, not only on the efficient 
work done by these women but on the 
school wherein they received their train- 



-"It gives me pleas- 



ing: 

Dear Miss 

lire to speak of the graduates of the Con- 
necticut Training School for Nurses 
who served in our army during the 
Spanish War. A number of them en- 
tered the army when the need was 
urgent and though their service was 
short, yet I am sure it was worthy of the 
school from which they graduated, as it 
was a living evidence of their patriotism. 

Of those among the number who re- 
mained in the army for several years I 
have the highest esteem. Their skill 
was equalled by their faithfulness and 
they must certainly be numbered among 
the splendid nurses whose records re- 
sulted in making the Nurse Corps, of 



women trained nurses, a permanent part 
of the United States Army. Prior to 
the Spanish War, women nurses were 
unknown in our army hospitals in peace 
times, and no amount of mere outside 
influence could have produced the 
change in this custom. The credit for 
the present condition of our large army 
hospitals, which has undoubtedly re- 
sulted in saving many lives, must be 
given entirely to the army nurses of '98, 
'99 and 1900. For it was they who act- 
ually proved to both line and staff of 
the army the value of the trained nurse. 
Very sincerely yours, 
Anita Newcomb McGee, M.D., 
President Spanish - American 
War Nurses, formerly Act- 
ing Assistant Surgeon, U. 
S. A., in Charge Army 
Nurse Corps. 




3iietetic0 for ^m^t^ 



A. L. BENEDICT, A.M., M.D., 

Consultant in Digestive Diseases, City Hospital for Women and Riverside Hospital. Attendant in same. 

Mercy Hospital. Buffalo. Nx Y. 

V. THE DAILY RATION, ARRANGEMENT OF MEALS, ETC. 



THE problem of translating the 
daily requirements of proteid, 
carbohydrate and fat into terms of ordi- 
nary food stuflFs, is an exceedingly diffi- 
cult one, indeed, usually impossible, if 
we adhere to algebraic methods, fairly 
easy if we follow the "cut and try" 
method based on a few simple foods in 
common use. The requirements for a 
person in health are to administer not 
less than 50 and not more than 100 
grams of proteid; not over, say 100 
grams of fat; and enough carbohydrate, 
about 300 to 400 grams, to furnish the 
number of calories needed to make up 
a total of from 2,000 to 3,500, rarely 
more, according to the expenditure in 
energy. It is not possible to make ac- 
curate statements as to the kinds of ex- 
penditure but, approximately, the first 
2,000 calories are needed simply for the 
physiologic processes of the standard 
normal body,' so far as possible at rest 
and protected from cold. A professional 
or business man requires about 500 ca- 
lories additional and a total requirement 
of more than 3,000 calories is explained 
only by unusual amounts of physical ex- 
ertion or exposure to cold. During 
fevers, the body usually requires fully 
2,000 calories but, in various chronic 
diseases and in old age, the vital pro- 
cesses are slowed to such a degree that 
considerably less than 2,000 calories are 
needed and, in cataleptic trances, a ver>' 
small number of calories is 'required. It 
is also a comfortable fact that the aver- 
age human body, by redusing its vital 



processes and drawing upon its store of 
fat and, also, to some extent, consuming 
its own muscular and other tissues, may 
subsist for a period approaching 40 
days as a maximum, without ingesting 
any organic nutriment whatever. This 
fact explains why some very inadequate 
dietaries are apparently, justified by the 
successful issue of the case. 

It is obvious that the size of the body 
has an influence on the number of calo- 
ries required. Other things being equal, 
the ratio is a direct one, but a very fat 
person requires no more physiologic 
activity than a very lean one of 
the same skeleton, muscles and 
viscera and, indeed, can much bet- 
ter subsist on an insufficient ration. 
Then, too, in the case of a pa- 
tient confined to bed, the size of the 
trunk is of greater importance than the 
length of the legs, so that we cannot 
go entirely by height. Moreover, a large 
boned person requires proportionately 
less nutriment than one with small bones, 
so that, even allowing for differences of 
fat, weight cannot be taken as an exact 
criterion. Still, taking average build 
for granted, we may say that about 
30 calories a day. are required for 
each kilogram (2.2 pounds) of body 
weight for physiologic functions, and 
about 35 calories to include light ex- 
ercise. , 

A good general principle for dieteti- 
cians, subject to some exceptions, is to 
feed the patient on what may inelegantly 
but tersely be described as grub. In 



164 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



other words, ordinary food stuffs should 
be carefully selectee^ and carefully pre- 
pared for the patient's diet. Enterpris- 
ing agents may convince the physician 
that any case can be adequately nour- 
ished on so many tablespoonfuls daily of 
some patent food. In many short cases, 
it makes no difference whether the pa- 
tient receives a full ration or none at all, 
or it may even be better that the patient 
should fast for a while. In some cases, 
the food is really adequate in theory but 
it is not appetizing and, after a short 
time, the patient simply cannot swallow 
enough of it. More often, the food is 
intentionally * or ignorantly misrepre- 
sented as to its constituents and, occa- 
sionally, even granting that the food it- 
self is adequate, a ridiculously small 
amount is given. 

The diet kitchen is also responsible for 
many vagaries. Flavored flour paste, 
well enough in its way for scrap books, 
gelatin desserts, broths almost lacking in 
nutriment, curdled milk, solutions of 
starch and dextrin from bread crusts, 
etc., are palmed off on the patient as 
dainty, appetizing and nutritious foods. 
All of them contain some nourishment, 
and all are available for occasional use 
but they are deficient in nutriment and 
not appetizing as a routine diet. 

Another very important principle in 
dietetics, is to avoid the fallacy of con- 
centrated nutriment. For its physiologic 
needs, aside from the energy necessary 
for exercise and resistance to cold, the 
body requires approximately 50 grams 
of proteid, 50 of fat and 300 of carbo- 
hydrate. These yield a trifle over 2,000 
calories. Or we can substitute 50 addi- 
tional^ grams of fat for about 100 of 
carbohydrate, so that the ration is re- 
duced to 50 of proteid, 100 of fat and 
200 of carbohydrates. But we cannot 
fall much below a daily ingestion of 350 



grams of chemically pure organic nutri- 
ments. Even if the body could well use 
these in the chemically pure form, we 
cannot reduce the adequate minimum 
ration below three-fourths of a pound Ipy 
weight nor can they possibly be con- 
densed by compression so as to occupy 
a space of less than three-fourths of a 
pint. As has been shown by the table 
of the constituents of food stuffs, the lat- 
ter vary greatly in their total content of 
nutriment. Lean meats, for example, 
contain about 23% of nutrients, milk 
about 12%, bread about 60%, crackers 
about 90%, eggs about 24%, sugar 98%, 
butter 90%. On the average, aside from 
water and other beverages, the solid die- 
tary will contain about 50% of organic 
nutrients, and will amount to 700 grams 
or about a pound and a half or a pint 
and a half. Thus, the search for a truly 
concentrated nourishment is as chimeric 
as that for the fountain of youth or for 
the square of the circle or for the phil- 
osopher's stone that is supposed to trans- 
mute the baser metals into gold. 

Another important point in dietetics 
is to divide the day's ration into an ap- 
propriate number of meals. The gen- 
eral principle may be stated that no one 
meal should be so large as unduly to dis- 
tend and fatigue the stomach and, on the 
other hand, that the meals should not be 
given at such short intervals as to fa- 
tigue the patient and interrupt his sleep 
too often, nor to confuse the stomach by 
introducing fresh nutriment before the 
previous meal has been passed onward 
into the intestine. 

By giving water, etc., between meals, 
it is possible to introduce the entire 
twenty-four hours' nourishment in one 
meal. That is to say, the stomach is 
large enough to hold the amount of food 
required. But the physiologic provis- 
ions for the storage of nourishment in 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



165 



the body, especially of carbohydrates as 
glycogen, are such that this method is 
not advantageous, since it is very diffi- 
cult to provide for an approximately even 
supply of sugar to the blood, not to 
mention the fact that the primary digest- 
ive strain is considerable. Some persons 
do very well on two meals daily but, for 
the young or old, the active and those 
whose practical experience is to the con- 
trary, two meals still represent an un- 
due alternation of oversupply of food in ^ 
the digestive canal and an undersupply 
of available nutriment in the blood. On 
the whole, the customary arrangement 
of three meals a day is best for persons 
in health. 

Persons engaged in active, manual 
labor, rising early and going to bed soon 
after the evening meal, require hearty, 
rather slowly digesting food for the first 
two meals, as an empty stomach causes 
a feeling of goneness and weakness, even 
though the intestine is still digesting and 
the body has an ample supply of nutri- 
ment. As digestion proceeds slowly 
during sleep and the rest is liable to be 
disturbed by the products of digestion or 
the reflexes from, the digestive process, 
and as, in particular, tea or coffee is 
liable to act directly to postpone sleep 
and the stimulation of the kidneys to 
eliminate water and waste products is 
also liable to interrupt sleep, the even- 
ing meal should be light. Thus there is 
ample justification for the country cus- 
tom of a liberal breakfast at five or six, 
a hearty dinner at or a little before noon 
and a light supper at about six. 

The city laborer, beginning work later 
and working shorter time, but usually 
compelled to take a cold though hearty 
lunch at noon, requires a moderately 
hearty warm meal at the close of his 
working day. 

The business or professional man, re- 



quiring comparatively few calorics for 
direct expenditure in exercise and in 
combating cold, rising and retiring 
rather late, cannot afford, during the 
day, much withdrawal of blood from 
brain to digestive organs. Thus, his 
breakfast and luncheon should be light 
and the hearty meal should take place at 
six or seven in the evening. The rela- 
tive and actual amounts taken at the 
three meals may well be regulated by in- 
dividual appetites, subject to ordinary 
hygienic laws. 

Invalids under the care of attendants, 
presenting no particular dietetic prob- 
lems usually do best on four approxi- 
mately equal meals at intervals of four 
to five hours and a long interval of 
about ten hours at night. This plan 
serves to pass the time pleasantly, and 
avoids over-distention of the stomach 
and excessive digestive strain. The 
viands can be chosen in conformity with 
custom, so as to suggest breakfast, 
luncheon, dinner and supper, and yet so 
as to furnish approximately the same 
amount of nourishment at each meal. 

In cases presenting special problems 
as to digestion, such as gastric dilata- 
tion, ulcer, etc., it is difficult to lay down 
fixed principles for the nurse in advance. 

In serious cases of considerable dura- 
tion, presenting no particular digestive 
problem aside from general functional 
weakness and the imperative need of 
adequate nutrition, the indication is to 
give as much as possible, as often as is 
expedient. In such cases, it is rarely 
possible to over-nourish the patient. 
Typhoid fever is the most important rep- 
resentative of diseases requiring this 
policy. Here, night and day are much 
the same to the patient, his nutrition 
should be kept at about the same level 
at all hours, and it is unnecessary to pro- 
vide for a long period of undisturbed 



166 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



sleep, although the patient should not, of 
course, be constantly disturbed for feed- 
ing, medication or anything else. In 
such cases, the patient should be fed at 
intervals of about four or five hours, ag- 
gregating about five feedings in the 
twenty-four. 

It is a common procedure, in serious 
cases, such as typhoid, peritonitis and va- 
rious diseases marked by vomiting, to 
feed the patient a spoonful at a time, at 
quarter, half or hourly intervals. It is 
with considerable hesitation that the 
writer ventures to dissent from the very 
excellent authority for such a method, 
especially as the nurse's duty will fre- 
quently demand the carrying out of or- 
ders contrary to what is here taught. 
Yet common-sense and experience are 
so thoroughly opposed to this method, 
that it seems best to present the objec- 
tions to it. In the first place, a patient 
in the serious condition to suggest such 
treatment needs rest. In the second 
place, a perfectly healthy stomach can 
not be depended upon to discharge a 
light meal in less than an hour and a 
weak or diseased stomach thus -fre- 
quently prodded, not only has no time 
for rest, but not even for the work im- 
posed upon it for, within certain limits, 
it takes just as much time to digest or 
even to move through the pylorus, a 



very light meal as a reasonably full one. 
In the third place, it is absolutely im- 
possible to introduce an adequate supply 
of nourishment in this way, unless table- 
spoonfuls of milk are given every fifteen 
minutes for the entire twenty-four 
hours. Ninety-six feedings of 15 C.C. 
each amount to 14.40 C.C. for the day, 
or about 55 to 60 grams each of proteid, 
carbohydrate and fat. This represents 
a shortage of about 150 grams of carbo- 
hydrate but is still considerable. If the 
intervals are lengthened, or if dessert o^ 
teaspoons are used, the amount of nour- 
ishment is markedly deficient and may, 
literally, not be enough to put into tea. 
Fourthly, patients thus fed, almost inva- 
riably vomit when sufficient accumulates 
for the stomach to act upon. 

It may be taken as a safe rule that if 
the stomach cannot retain 200 C.C. at 
once, it is better to nourish by enema, 
however unsatisfactory this method is. 
In cases of extreme exhaustion, it may 
be necessary to coax the patient to take 
small swallows — 15 to 30 C.C. (one to 
two tablespoonfuls) — every few minutes 
until a meal of say 200 C.C. has been 
taken, but then the stomach should be 
given tilne to digest and propel its con- 
tents — two, three or four hours — before 
more is given. Nothing can be gained 
by attempting the impossible. 



iLa #rippe 

S, VIRGINIA LEVIS, M.S.N. , 

Author of "Nursing" 

II. 



LA GRIPPE may be suspected in a 
person complaining of a general 
aching, along with chilliness and a rise 
of temperature. The patient should be 
placed in bed in a room with plenty of 
ventilation, while awaiting the arrival of 
the doctor. Should he not come in time 
to prescribe his favorite laxative, it 
would be well to administer a simple 
enema to secure free evacuation of the 
bowels. Some physicians order a warm 
bath with cold applications to the head, 
in the beginning of the trouble; or, if 
that be impracticable, a hot foot or leg 
bath. Where temperature and delirium 
indicate much brain congestion, an ice- 
cap to the head and back of the neck is 
alleviating; or your patient may be too 
prostrated to sit up; in that instance, 
wrap legs and feet in a blanket wrung 
from water hot as can be borne, at the 
same time sponging the face with either 
hot or cold water — whichever seems to 
be more grateful. 

Grip patients, unlike those suffering 
from typhoid fever, are not apt to bear 
cold sponging well ; therefore, even 
when the fever is high, tepid, or even 
warm sponging is apt to be prescribed 
instead; or a full tepid bath may be 
given in some cases. As no two pa- 
tients present exactly the same symp- 
toms, the fever may mark over io6 de- 
grees, though about 103 degrees seems 
to be the average temperature. It may 
persist for about a week, and upon sub- 
siding leave the patient very weak and 
depressed in spirits as well as body. 



Remembering this, all influences which 
tend to augment an enfeebled condition 
must be avoided ; for instance, visitors 
should be excluded, and the patient kept 
in bed until the fever declines and even 
longer, 

For the first day or two, you may be 
advised to stop all food, after which 
fever-diet will be the rule. Milk, well- 
cooked cereals and fruit-juices are 
recommended, if the invalid can digest 
them well. Proper care during the 
fever stage means lessening the severity 
of an attack. While the patient should 
be well protected against the possibility 
of taking cold, he ou^ht by all means to 
be provided with an abundance of fresh 
air. So much stress is laid upon this 
part of the treatment by men prominent 
in the medical profession, that they or- 
der their hospital cases to the housetop, 
to be kept in the open air nights as well 
as in the daytime, just the same as tuber- 
culosis and pneumonia patients. In- 
deed, as the latter complaints are not 
infrequently excited by la grippe, it is 
possible to prevent such dread compli- 
cations by resorting to the fresh air 
treatment in the very beginning. It is 
not always easy by any means, as nurses 
are aware, to carry out heroic measures 
in private practice; yet, even on a cold 
winter day the doctor may order all 
doors and windows opened ; or he may 
even insist on the cot's being moved to 
the veranda that his patient may obtain 
air so fresh and in such quantities as 
cannot be procured in his room. His 



168 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



own system being so badly poisoned by 
disease, the exhalations from his body 
(from the nurse's body, too, for that 
matter) are constantly contaminating 
the indoor air; so, also are furnaces, 
lamps, gas-stoves, and last, but not least, 
the rapidly vitiating oil-heaters. 

Certainly, the out-of-door treatment 
will require to be administered with in- 
telligent care. Prepare the bed on the 
principle of a warm nest, with bedcloth- 
ing well tucked in to prevent currents 
of air from drifting in from underneath, 
and so chilling the occupant. A well 
warmed bed may be helped to retain its 
heat by placing the mattress between 
woolen blankets. Use cotton sheets, 
also well warmed, and place a hot bag 
to the patient's feet. Modify the appar- 
ent rigorousness of the treatment by 
preparing your patient for bed in his 
own warm room, and have bed and all 
carried outside if only for a few hours, 
choosing the middle of the day if he is 
to remain outside but a short while. 
Two or three times a day would-be bet- 
ter, and it would be still better if he were 
to remain out all night, some doctors 
advocate, though such strenuous pro- 
ceedings would be apt to be interfered 
with outside of an institution. 

While the outdoor treatment is in 
progress, the sick-room can be thor- 
oughly aired. Of course a nurse could 
do better with two beds than with one, 
for one could be getting its airing and 
re-warming while the other was in use. 
Such measures, while making work for 
the nurse, will pay in the end because of 
a speedier convalescence. If it be 
deemed impracticable to resort to the 
open-air treatment, then two rooms and 
two beds to be used alternately will be 
preferable to keeping in the same room 
all the time. But if the single room must 
be adhered to, at least try to secure a 



southern, or southeastern, or southwest- 
ern exposure, for the specific influence 
of the sun. 

Such patients are extremely nervous, 
particularly when the brain is the chief 
part involved; but strict attention to en- 
forcing quiet, keeping your patient's head 
cool and his feet warm, allowing only 
digestible diet, and maintaining regular- 
ity of the bowels will do much to allay 
irritability. Lavage and an enema with 
plenty of fresh air to breathe is the 
treatment ordered by some physicians to 
subdue delirium, and is said to be al- 
most instantly quieting even in a raving 
patient. 

During one pandemic, it was usual 
for the doctor to order a ten- or fifteen- 
grain dose of antipyrine, which aborted 
the disease. Such medication, while very 
successful in those of usually robust 
habit, was found too enfeebling in those 
of poor resisting power, and so had to 
be employed with caution. There is said 
to be no specific for la grippe, though 
quinine probably comes nearer to being 
one than anything else. Some physicians 
advise five grains of quinine sulphate 
with five grains of Dover's powder and 
a glass of hot lemonade to be taken all 
at once, and while the patient's feet are 
being soaked in hot water. This is 
claimed to be abortive treatment in the 
case of suspected grip; while if the 
malady be really a severe cold instead, 
results will be equally satisfactory. Other 
doctors place salicinum ahead of quinine 
in the matter of approaching nearer to 
a specific. An English authority says 
that from the first invasion of la grippe 
he has found quinine to be the best 
remedy. His usual prescription is one 
drachm of ammoniated quinine and two 
drachms of li<;^or ammoniac acetatis 
every hour for three hours, then 
every four hours. Should the pa- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



169 



tient become comatose, he gives large 
doses of the hydrobromate quinine 
hypodermatically, which he finds com- 
pletely relieves the unconsciousness. 

For cough and pains and catarrhal 
symptoms, pulvis ipecacuanhae et opii 
and potassii nitrat., in five-grain doses 
of each are sometimes prescribed ; or, 
phenacetin, pulv. camphorae and caffeina 
citrat., in three, one and one-grain doses 
respectively. 

As a relief for the naso-pharyngeal 
and bronchial catarrh, frequent inhala- 
tions of tincturae benzoin comp., 5ss-j, in 
aquae bul., Oj, are efficacious. 

Sulphate of strychnine will likely be 
prescribed during convalescence. And 
convalescence is the time when, with- 
out exercising proper restrictions, the 
patient is apt to undo all the good work 
of doctor and nurse. Even in mild 
cases, the patient experiences a degree of 
languor which should warn him against 
any imprudence with regard to diet, ex- 
posure to dampness, or a sudden chang- 
ing from a warm to a cold atmosphere 
without sufficient clothing. Business 
men, particularly, are apt to insist on a 
too early return to wearying work in 
illy ventilated offices or stores. This is 
frequently the time when a pneumonia 
develops to' end, perhaps, fatally. The 
nurse should remember that the system 
is su fife ring from the effects of the pro- 



found intoxication caused by the gerrns 
and toxins, and that the deranged organs 
require time to restore them to a normal 
condition. Wasted tissues and energies 
must be built up before the patient 
should expect to engage in his usual 
share of work, and to this end the tact- 
ful nurse should be able to advise him 
effectually. 

Perhaps one of the worst conditions 
to put up with is the insomnia which* is 
so apt to persist. It may end disas- 
trously unless the doctor be kept in at- 
tendance ; or a drug habit may be formed 
which will be difficult to break. To en- 
courage normal sleep, the patient should 
be advised to take advantage of any 
drowsy feeling, no matter at what time 
of day or night it manifests itself, and 
to lie down even if the doze may last 
but five or ten minutes. To further pro- 
mote a restful physical and mental condi- 
tion, digestion should be kept in good 
condition; all the time possible should 
be spent in the open air; and if the pa- 
tient cannot sleep out of doors, his room 
should be at least thoroughly ventilated 
before retiring, and ventilation should 
be maintained steadily besides. A tepid 
bath taken about half an hour before 
bedtime, with a gentle stroking of the 
head and spine are measures calculated 
to soothe the nerves and so promote 
drowsiness. 



Some time ago Mrs. Murrell Weight, 
founder of the Nursery Home Hospital, Ox- 
bow, Canada, entertained at 5 o'clock tea to 
nurses, three English graduates, Miss Mur- 
rell Wright, Miss Laura Murrell Wright and 
Mrs. Allan S. Jackson and Miss Irving Jones, 
Miss C. Gauld, and Mrs. W. J. Towkes of 
Meridian. All are Guelph graduates. 



Miss C. Gauld, of Meriden, has been ill of 
typhoid fever, but is now gaining strength, 
and will be on the warpath of duty. She is 
now making her home at Carnduff, where she 
contracted the disease. Miss C. Smith, who 
filled the Carnduff field, has gone away to 
take a post-graduate course and a position of 
superintendent of a small hospital. 



3^eigl)ts anti itteasures 



EMMA DAVIS 



WHAT is ordinarily called weight is 
a measure, of the force of 
gravity on bodies. Weight, therefore, 
is force .and not mass. 

When we use a balance, we compare 
forces, but the attraction of gravitation 
varies directly as the mass of a body; 
so that if on a balance a body (B) 
weighs twice as much as a body (A), 
we know that the mass or quantity of 
matter in B is twice that in A. Hence 
we can compare masses by the balance. 
To again illustrate the difference be- 
tween weight and mass: The attrac- 
tion on a two-pound iron weight is less 
on top of a high mountain than it is at 
the surface of the earth, but the mass 
or actual matter remains constant. 

To express weights we use some sys- 
tem of units. Ordinarily the avoirdu- 
pois system is used both in England and 
the United States. 

Three different systems of weights are 
at present employed by all English- 
speaking nations, namely: Avoirdupois 
weight, apothecaries' weight and the 
metric weights. 

Avoirdupois weight is of French 
origin (Avoir-du-pois, to have weight) 
and was no doubt introduced into Eng- 
land during the Norman reign. 

Avoirdupois weight is employed in, 
the sale of all goods except precious 
metals and precious stones ; hence, 
drugs are always bought by pharma- 
cists by this system. In Great Britain 
avoirdupois weight is employed in the 
formulas of the British Pharmacopoeia, 
and is now known there under the name 
of imperial weight. In 1824 the value 
of an avoirdupois pound was fixed by 
law in England as 7,000 grs. 



The divisions of avoirdupois weight 
are pound, ounce, drachm and grain, 
symbolized by the following characters : 
lb., ounces, dr.^ gr,, i lb.^i6 oz., i oz.= 
16 dr. or 437^ gr. 

The term drachm is rarely employed; 
instead, fraction of ounce or grain be- 
ing used. Avoirdupois pound, contain- 
ing 7,000 grs., is the only pound used 
in the United States and Great Britain 
except at the mints. The standard pound 
is the equivalent, in weight, of 27.70 
cubic inches of distilled water at 62° F. 
and normal barometric pressure. 

The apothecaries' weight was prob- 
ably derived from Troy weight, which 
latter was introduced into Great Britain 
toward the close of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. It is employed altogether in 
the writing and compounding of phy- 
sicians' prescriptions and is divided 
into grains, scruples, drachms and 
ounces, of which 20 grs. are equal 
to I scruple, 3 scruples to i drachm 
and 8 drachms to i ounce. The 
symbols are employed to designate the 
divisions of the apothecaries' weight and 
always precede the number indicating 
the quantity intended, which is expressed 
in Roman numerals: gr.j, 9ii, 3iii, ^iv. 

As far back as 1266 a law was enacted 
in England which provided that an Eng- 
lish silver penny, called a sterling, 
rounded and without clipping, should 
equal in weight 32 wheat grains, well 
dried and taken from the center of the 
ear, and that 20 pence should make i 
ounce and 12 ounces i pound. About 
1497, the weight of the silver penny, 
however, was changed to the equivalent 
of 24 wheat grains. These laws clearly 
indicate the origin of the pennyweight 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 171 

and Troy ^sterns, from which the The use of the metric weights and 

apothecaries' system was derived. measures was legaHzed in the United 

The adoption of the Troy weight by States and Great Britain in 1866, but 

physicians and pharmacists dates back neither country has as yet officially 

to 1618, when the first London Pharma- adopted them, although the prospects for 

copoeia was compiled. such desirable action are brightening. 

In 1826, imperial measures and stand- In 1878 the use of the metric system was 

ards were legalized in England. Exact made obligatory in the purchase of medi- 

copies were furnished the United States, cal supplies for the United States Marine 

namely: A bronze bar of 36 inches Hospital Service. 

length, a brass Troy pound of 5,760 gr., As a basis, the author of the metric 

and brass avoir, pound of 7,000 gr., and system took one-fourth of the earth's 

in 1836 by act of Congress copies were circumference, and, dividing this into 

supplied to the different States. ten million parts, he obtained a cer- 

The grain is the same in all systems, tain measure of length, which he 

The Troy or apothecary ounce=48o grs. named meter and adopted as a standard 

The avoirdupois ounce=437j^ grs. for all units of measurements. This 

The fluid measure used by pharmacists meter, which was made the unit of 

of the United States is derived from the Linear measure, is equal to 39.3704 

old wine measure of England (now ex- inches. 

tinct), which allowed 231 cubic inches One-tenth part of the meter, applied 

to the wine gallon. to cubic measurement, was made the 

The United States fluid measure has unit of measure of capacity, and called a 
the following units: Minim, the fluid liter. It is equal to 33.81 United States 
drachm, and fluid ounce, which are rep- fluid ozs. or 2. 11 wine pints. The one- 
resented by the following signs: M., thousandth part of the liter was chosen 
fo, f5, and in addition the pint and gal- to furnish the unit of weight. The 
lop are sometimes employed in commer- weight of such a volume of distilled 
cial transactions and being designated by water, at its greatest density, was called 
the abbreviations O., from Octarius pint, a gramme, and is equal to 15.432 grs. 
and Cong., from Congus, for gallon. The multiples of the units are denoted 

The metric or decimal system -of by prefixes of Greek numerals, deka, 

weights and measures, which is the only hecto, kilo, myria, while prefixes of 

official system of the present United Latin numerals denote the sub-division; 

States Pharmacopoeia, is supposed to thus: deci, centi, milli. 

have originated in the fertile mind of the i Myriameter. JMm=io,ooo M 

French statesman. Prince de Talleyrand, i Kilometer Km=i,ooo.o m 

and was enforced by law in December, i Hectometer Hm=ioo.om 

1799. It has already become the legal i Dekameter Dm=io.om. 

standard in all civilized countries except i dieter M=i .0 m 

the United States and Great Britain, and i Decimeter dm=o. i m 

is destined to become the universal i Centimeter cm=o.oi m 

standard. i Millimeter mn=o.ooi 



JBtotes on tije jautfitng of aural ant) (i^pfjti^almic 



MARY H. TUFTS 

(Continued from November) 

LEECHES 



T EECHES are quite frequently used, 
-■— ' and the spots to which they are 
usually applied are : In the front of the 
tragus, the mastoid process, and occa- 
sionally beneath the ear. 

The part to which the leech is to be 
applied should be washed in water, and 
the leech allowed to swim about in a 
basin of clear water for a few minutes, 
then allowed to crawl over a dry towel 
to remove the water from its body. It 
should be taken up in a clean test tube 
or leech tube, which is inverted over the 
spot selected. If it does not readily bite, 
the parts may be dabbed with milk and 
water or sugar and water; and, this 
failing, the leech should be discarded for 
another. 

The external canal of the ear must be 
plugged with cotton, as leeches that do 
not bite well often crawl into the audi- 
tory canal and fasten themselves there. 

Usually from three to six leeches are 
used at one time, two in front of the ear, 
over the paroted region, and four over 
the mastoid region. 

When they have filled with blood, they 
will drop off, and on no account should 
they be pulled oflf. After they release 
themselves, they should be returned to a 
vessel of clean water. 

The movements of the leech will make 
many patients feel very nervous. This 
may be avoided by placing a little cotton 
or gauze, between its body and the pa- 
tient's skin. If it should become necs- 
sary to take the leeches off before they 



become filled with blood, a little salt 
sprinkled upon their heads will make 
them drop off immediately. 

The odor of tobacco or strong disin- 
fectants will prevent leeches from bit- 
ing. 

They should not be applied over large 
blood vessels. All cavities near which 
they are to be applied should be filled 
with cotton, but if one accidentally en- 
ters a cavity it may be dislodged by an 
injection of strong salt and water. 

The bites should be allowed to bleed 
for a time, and then dressed antiseptic- 
ally, as any slight wound, with some 
dusting powder. 

PACKING 

Sometimes the nurse is required to 
pack the ear with gauze. This should 
be done with gauze cut in strips from 
six to twelve inches long, and from one- 
half to one inch broad. One end of the 
gauze is seized in aural forceps, and 
passed into the meatus to the bottom, the 
auricle being pulled backward and up- 
ward at the same time. The rest of the 
gauze being packed lightly, a^jd the end 
curled up in the hollow of the ear. A 
pad of gauze and cotton, held in place 
by bandage, completes the dressing. 

POLITZERIZATION 

If the doctor is to give, this treatment, 
the nurse must provide a Politzer bag, 
a eustachian catheter, some cotton- 
wound applicators, and an ear speculum. 

If the nurse is to give the treatment. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



173 



she should proceed as follows: To the 
Politzer bag should be attached the soft- 
rubber tube with the olive-shaped nose- 
piece. The nosepiece is introduced into 
the side of the nose requiring inflation, 
the patient's mouth, and the side into 
which the nosepiece is inserted are kept 
tightly closed by finger pressure. At 
the time when the patient puffs out the 
cheeks, the bag is quickly compressed, 
thereby blowing air into the middle ear. 
Occasionally the soft palate does not 
rise so as to shut the nose off from the 
throat. The patient should then hold 
a small amount of water in the mouth, 
and, when directed, swallow it; and 
during the act of swallowing the air 
should be forced from the Politzer bag, 
through the tube, into the middle ear. 

ARRANGEMENT FOR TREATING AURAL 
CASES 

If the otologist wishes to treat a case 
at the patient's own home, the nurse 
must provide a firm table of ordinary 
height and covered with a clean sheet 
or towels. 

Two chairs are placed on one side of 
the table, so that the right side of the 
patient and the left side of the physician 
come next the table. A good light with 
reflector must be so placed as to bring 
the flame on a level with the patient's 
ear, and opposite to the chair in which 
the patient is to sit. 

On the table should be placed two or 
three shallow dishes, one of which 
should hold some desired antiseptic, as 
Lysol, boric acid or i -.40 carbolic. In this 
solution should rest the instruments to 
be used and the nozzle of the irrigator. 

The irrigator should be ready for 
filling, and salt solution and sterile water 
ready. 

There must also be ready on the table 
absorbent cotton, a few sterile gauze 



pads, iodoform gauze, bandages, ear 
specula and mirrors, and cotton-wrapped 
applicators. If convenient, it will be 
well to have a 6 per cent, solution of 
cocain, also peroxide of hydrogen, ster- 
ile vaseline, and powdered boric acid. 

PREPARATION OF PATIENT FOR OPERATION 

Unless a special way is indicated by the 
surgeon, the hair all about the ear 
should be first clipped with scissors, and 
then shaved. for an area of three inches. 

The auricle, face and scalp, for three 
inches in all directions, may then be 
scrubbed with hot water and green or 
ethereal soap. The canal is cleansed 
with soap and water, by a cotton appli- 
cator, after which a piece of cotton is 
inserted. 

Bichloride i :iooo is then used, fol- 
lowed by bathing with sulphuric ether. 
Unless the operation is to be done im- 
mediately after this, a compress wet 
with I :iooo bichloride is bandaged over 
this cleansed area. 

When the patient is on the table, or 
ready for the operation, the bandage 
and pad are removed, and either a rub- 
ber bath-cap, that has been soaked in 
I :iooo bichloride, or a sterile towel is 
put upon the head so as to keep the hair 
entirely covered and protected from 
blood. 

The patient should lie upon the side 
which is not to be operated upon, and 
the area all about the field of opera- 
tion, covered with sterile towels. 

The patient should be dieted, and have 
cathartic and enema as before other 
operations. 

PREPARATION OF THE ROOM 

For ear operations the room will not 
require as careful cleaning as for lap- 
arotomoy operations. The room should 
be well swept and dusted, and window 
shades and draperies removed. 



174 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Two-thirds of the floor should be cov- 
ered with freshly laundered sheets, in- 
cluding the part of the floor where the 
table is to stand. 

The table used may be an ordinary 
kitchen table, well scrubbed. 

The following sterile supplies will be 
needed : Three sheets, a pillow case, 
one and one-half dozen towels, one 
pound absorbent cotton, six dozen 
sponges of three by four and five by 
six inches in size, and three pieces of 
gauze packing. 

The operating-table should be padded 
with a blanket and pillow, over which a 
rubber sheet and sterile sheet are used 
at time of operation. 

.One piece of rubber cloth or rubber 
shdeting, about a yard square, will be 
needed to protect the patient's clothing 
from blood. 

The instrument table should stand 
opposite to the side upon which the sur- 
geon stands; and another table should 
stand to the right and a little behind the 
surgeon, and having upon it : Two deep 
bowls contining rinsing solutions of bi- 
chloride I :iooo, and any other solution 
the operator may desire. 

The other arrangements for the anaes- 
thetizer's table and seat, and tables for 
"scrub-up" solutions, and sterile dress- 
ings, is identical with those spoken of in 
a previous paper in this series. 

PROPER ARRANGEMENT OF INSTRUMENT 
TABLE FOR AURAL OPERATIONS 

For aural operations, the manner of 
arranging instruments upon the table is 
usually as follows: The sharp instru- 
ments should be placed at the upper 
right hand. The chisels and knives are 



laid side by side, and their handles 
pointing toward the operator. The mal- 
lets should be placed next the chisels. 
Bone-cutting instruments and retractors 
are to be placed below the knives, 
handles pointed toward the operator. 
Needles, ligatures and sutures should be 
placed in a dry, sterile tray at the upper 
left corner of the table. Curettes should 
occupy the lower left-hand corner of 
table. The dressings should never be 
laid on the instrument table, but to oc- 
cupy a small table by themselves. 

CARE OF POWDER BLOWERS 

No excuse need be offered for a few 
suggestions on care of the powder 
blower, a very necessary adjunct of 
many post-operative dressings. 

The powder blower may be the means 
of infection of an otherwise "sterile 
case," as it is frequently used and then 
left expcfSed to the air. 

Those powder blowers made wholly 
of glass, or at least having glass bottle 
and glass projector, may be sterilized by 
either steam or by boiling in water. 
Those of glass bottle and hard-rubber 
fittings may be sterilized by boiling, or 
sterilizing the bottle in the steam steril- 
izer, and soaking and washing the hard- 
rubber fittings in 95 per cent, alcohol. 

The sterile parts should now be wrap- 
ped in a dry, sterile towel to dry, being 
handled only with sterile hands. And 
when thoroughly dry inside should be 
filled with the desired antiseptic or ster- 
ile powder, and while standing ready for 
use should be wrapped in a sterile 
towel. 

After each use, the projector or tip 
should be resterilized. 



{To he continued.) 



CDitortallp g)peafein5 



k 



The Present System of Training the 

Pupil Nurse and the Registered 

Nurse of the Future 

A careful study of the address de- 
livered by Dr. A. T. Bristow at the first 
informal meeting of the New York 
State Nurses' Association, November 20, 
1906, shows it to be in effect a powerful 
argument in support of the theory that 
an educational standard should first be 
worked out in the State, and that State 
registration should be, not the forerun- 
ner, as it was in the State of New York, 
for instance, but the result of that stand- 
ard. 

Dr. Bristow directs attention to the 
chaotic state of affairs which on the one 
hand grants registration to the gradu- 
ates of a two years' course thereby 
demonstrating that it is the opinion of 
the New York State Board of Nurse Ex- 
aminers that a woman can be made a 
competent nurses in that length of time 
while, on the other hand, that same board 
is endeavoring to prohibit the registra-' 
tion of any nurse who graduates from a 
school giving less than three years' 
course. The qualifications which deter- 
mine the eligibility of a nurse for State 
registration are so influenced by our 
ideas of an educational standard that it 
is impossible to consider one independ- 
ently of the other. 

In endeavoring to fix these standards 
we need to constantly remind ourselves 
that the majority of graduates are and 
always will be, employed in private prac- 
tice and that, as Dr. Bristow says. 
There is an economic side to the ques- 



tion, and, from an economic standpoint, 
the time taken in the education of the 
nurse ought to bear a reasonable propor- 
tion to the expectation of income, and 
the permanency of employment." We 
think he has conclusively shown that in 
the State of New York this proportion 
has not been maintained. He states posi- 
tively that it is possible to raise the stand- 
ard too high, that the present course is 
burdened with non-essentials, that much 
of the work required of the probationer 
is distinctly not nursing. She enters the 
hospital to be taught the intelligent care 
of the sick, but a good deal of her time 
and energy has been devoted to the ac- 
quirement of knowledge which has lit- 
tle real bearing on her work. He proves 
this by referring to the training school 
curriculums, and to the schedule of in- 
struction issued by the State board it- 
self. 

He definies the function of the trained 
nurse thus: first the care of the bodily 
needs of the patient, second the carry- 
ing out of the orders of the physician, 
third to record the vital phenomena of 
the patient. What graduate nurse who 
has had actual experience in private 
nursing can dispute the accuracy and 
truth of these statements? 

He says: "We (the medical profes- 
sion) cannot do our best work, or even 
very good work certainly in public in- 
stitutions without your aid." Accord- 
ingly the doctor^ have a most vital in- 
terest in the progress and perfection of 
the nurse and nursing. It is extraordi- 
nar}' that the medical profession should 



176 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



have to point out to us that this progress 
and perfection will not be attained by 
forcing the pupil nurse to spend her 
physical energy on the duties of a scrub- 
woman and maid of all work or her men- 
tal faculties on acquiring the erudition 
of a medical student. 

The support of the doctors, of the en- 
tire medical profession, is indispensible 
to the nursing profession. The pupil 
nurses of to-day will be the leaders of 
the profession in the future. What right 
have the leaders of to-day to antagonize 
and alienate the interest and support of 
the medical profession, and so under- 
mine the whole structure on which the 
success of the profession depends? Al- 
ready the results of such an attitude are 
evident and the observer who studies the 
signs of the times can see the danger sig- 
nals ahead and can point out the fallacy 
of many theories, which, however ad- 
mirable they may appear on paper, are 
hopelessly impractical when applied. 

Take the affiliation of the smaller hos- 
pitals and training schools for instance. 
Economic conditions peculiar to hos- 
pitals, and the idiosyncracies of human 
nature combine to make this a chimera, 
an impossible creation of the imagina- 
tion. In a few individual instances it 
may be successful, perhaps in the neigh- 
borhood of large cities, but in the strong- 
holds of the smaller hospitals, the coun- 
try districts, the likelihood of any such 
system being ever placed on a practical 
working basis is most remote. 

On the other hand, practical reforms 
and changes which might have very far- 
reaching results in the efficiency of the 
nurse are ignored. Dr. Bristow states 
that if the present methods of nurse 
training which he designates as a "sys- 
tem of servitude or industrial slavery" 
are continued, young women will seek 
other ways of earning a living. Will 



the superintendents deny that there has 
been a falling off in the number of ap- 
plicants for admission to some of the 
training schools, to the extent that they 
have even been obliged to change back 
to a two years' from a three years' course 
because of lack of applicants ? 

He states that "the so-called ten weeks' 
school will flourish and the correspond- 
ence schools will increase in number and 
audacity." Let any one who doubts this 
statement send a postal cafd asking for 
information to a correspondence school 
for nurses. The amount of money these 
schools spend on advertising, stationery 
and postage bespeaks a flourishing con- 
dition, and the editorials they quote in 
their prospectus, from bona-fide medical 
publications, are a revelation in them- 
selves as to the support they are receiv- 
ing and the scope of their work. 

Dr. Bristow states truly that "a tired 
body means a tired brain, and an inabil- 
ity to receive or retain knowledge." We, 
belive that it would be beneficial for both 
nurse and patient, if the classes and lec- 
tures which make up the theoretical side 
of the course of training were held in the 
morning hours before, instead of after, 
the day's routine of hard work, with its 
attendant physical strain. We wonder in 
how many schools this is done ! 

He states that as the outcome of the 
present conditions the public will avail 
themselves more and more of the un- 
trained or partially trained women, to 
the great detriment of the graduate 
nurse. We were told when the question 
of registration was first debated that it 
would be a check on the invasion of our 
field of work by the untrained and non- 
graduate nurse. We have had registra- 
tion in the State of New York for four 
years so far with absolutely no result in 
this respect! 

For it can be proved that never before 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



177 



has the correspondence school so flour- 
ished or the demand for the partially 
trained nurse been so great. This being 
the case, there must be something faulty 
with our system of registration. 

The ideal organization of graduate 
nurses is one which could occupy the 
whole field of nursing, ready and will- 
ing to respond to the demands of all 
classes at prices within the reach of all. 
At present this seems to be impossible, 
for we know- that Dr. Bristow's estimate 
of $650 as the average income of a nurse 
is correct, and that there are years when 
many a graduate does not even obtain 
this much. But it is imperative that the 
graduates concentrate their efforts in en- 
deavoring to supply as far as possible 
the demand for nurses. Therefore, we 
believe it is expedient that our require- 
ments for registration be along as broad 
lines as possible, so that registration may 
be extended to the largest possible num- 
ber of nurses, graduated from hospital 
training schools. The evidence goes to 
show that the present system of registra- 
tion in New York State falls far short 
of this. It is most important that the 
graduate nurses should realize how large 
a place the non-graduate fills in the com- 
munity to-day. In fact, many members 
of the medical profession recognize and 
endorse the work of these non-graduates 
to an extent which makes it impossible 
for the graduates to ignore them, and 
the graduate must remember that she 
herself has created the conditions which 
have given rise to the present demand 
for the non-graduate nurse and she her- 
self must now evolve a way out. 



The Standard of Nursing 

Apropos of the fact that from time to 
time it is stated that the organization of 
the graduate nurses is proceeding in ef- 



fect along labor union lines, and also 
that the financial side of the nurses' af- 
fairs is continually before the public, it 
might be instructive as well as interest- 
ing to note what Chancellor Day of 
Syracuse University said in a recent 
speech about the labor union question, 
namely, that it meant "getting as much 
as possible for doing as little as pos- 
sible." ' 

At the present time when it comes to 
an exact definition of the term "standard 
of nursing" all that the observer can dis- 
cover as to its real meaning is that the 
nurses who uphold the standard of nurs- 
ing are those who receive not less than 
twenty-five dollars a w-eek, and insist 
on having their two hours a day off duty, 
regardless of the condition of the patient 
and the circumstances of the family; 
while the nurse who is guided by the 
circumstnces of the case, and who is 
willing to accept a smaller renumera- 
tion or, as the correspondent X in the 
February number of The Trained 
Nurse expresses it, shows a "willingness 
to help" in ways not noted "in the bond" 
are classed as nurses who lower the 
standard. When it comes to deciding 
who is to receive skilled nursing, the an- 
swer seems to be, not those who need it, 
but those who are able to pay for it; 
that is, pay the twenty-five dollars a 
week or more. 

Accordingly we can hardly wonder 
that adverse comments do appear from 
time to time about nurses' organizations. 

Inasmuch that an attempt is made to 
have the nursing profession progress 
along lines analagous to that of the med- 
ical profession it would be well to re- 
member that the organization of the 
medical profession which resulted in its 
advance to its present honored place in 
the public esteem was never influenced 
or controlled by any consideration of the 



178 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



amount of remuneration which might be 
forthcoming from prospective patients, 
but depended rathief oh thfeir efforts to 
estabhsh a reasonably high standard to 
which all apf)licants to practice must at- 
tain before receiving a State license. 

The Medical Unity Bill, which has 
recently been introduced into the legisla- 
ture, is an instance of this. Its support- 
ers (and af the head of the list we note 
the name of our friend Dr. A. T. Bris- 
tow) expect to establish through it a 
representative State board of medicine, 
which will open the doors to official 
recognition of any and all schools, so 
long as its representatives can convince 
the board that they have a proper knowl- 
edge of the fundamental principles of 
medicine. All those who are interested 
in State registration for nurses and the 
questions which it gives rise to should 
be interested in this bill and the argu- 
ments for and against it. 

+ 

Our Prize Picture Contest 

On the opposite page are the five 
pictures to which third prizes were 
awarded. Each of them possesses some 
special excellence in the original which 
unfortunately cannot always be repro- 
duced in this magazine, because The 
Trained Nurse is printed on a paper 
not originally intended for half-tone 
illustrations, as is the paper of the 
illustrated magazines. Nevertheless we 



believe that the reproductions given are 
good enough to show why these pictures 
were awarded prizes. 

The picture in the upper left-hand 
corner is from Miss Margaret Hughes, 
Helena, Mont., and represents a scene 
on a Montana ranch. In the original, 
the reflections of the cattle in the water 
and the ripples are wonderfully clear, 
and are beautiful and artistic. 

The picture in the upper right-hand 
corner is from Miss C. C. Newington, 
Pittsburg, Pa. This needs no explana- 
tion. The child is pretty, the pose is 
charming, and the scene is attractive. 

The central picture and the picture in 
the lower left-hand corner also need 
little comment. But we regret that in 
the making of the half tone much of the 
clearness and beauty of the originals 
have been lost. The foliage, for in- 
stance, has not reproduced well at all. 
The middle picture is from Mrs. L. A. 
Buxton, of Chicago, III., and the other 
from Miss H. V. Leich, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The picture in the lower right-hand 
corner represents the garden of the 
parochial residence at St. Genevieve, 
Mo., the Rev. C. L. van Touwenhorst 
in the foreground. St. Genevieve is the 
oldest town in Missouri, having been 
settled by French Catholics in about 
1750, and was the first residence of the 
governor of the vast territory of 
Louisiana. We wish that all our readers 
could see the beautiful original picture. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 179 




L 



In tlje 0m6im Wotln 



Albany, N. Y. 

At the annual meeting of the board of 
managers of the Guild of the Sick Poor the 
following officers were elected: President, 
Mrs. W. W. Byington ; vice-president, Miss 
Jane D. Knowles; treasurer, Mrs. K. G. Van 
Loon; financial secretary, Mrs. Garib; corre- 
sponding secretary, Mrs. W. F. Winship; re- 
cording secretary, Mrs. R. D. Williams. 

The report of the secretary showed that one 
more regular nurse had been added to the 
staff during the year making a total of six 
graduate nurses now in the employ of the 
Guild. In addition to the staff nurses, a 
corps of five assistant nurses is regularly em- 
ployed by the Guild. 

An Albany newspaper has the following to 
say in regard to this most excellent institu- 
tion : 

"The Albany Guild for the Care of the Sick 
has completed another year of usefulness. 
This institution is doing a glorious work 
among the people of moderate circumstances 
and deserves to succeed. Its old board of 
officers has been re-elected, and the future 
looks bright for its continued success." 

The Guild proposes to open a lunch room 
about May 1st at^46 North Pearl street. By 
this means it is hoped to make the Guild self- 
supporting. 

The graduating exercises of the Eastern 
New York School for Nurses took place 
Tuesday evening, February 12th, at eight 
o'clock, in the lecture room of the Madison 
Avenue Reformed Church. 

The winter class of 1906-1907 is: Miss 
Mary Doty, Albany; Mrs. E. S. A. Poland, 
Albany; Mrs. Mary C. Gallop, Albany; Miss 
Maud Hallenbeck, Hoosick; Mrs. Carrie P. 
Hall, Greenwich; Miss Helen M. Healey, Al- 
bany; Mrs. Le Barrow, Albany; Miss Bessie 
Mallery, Schenectady; Mrs. Carrie Palmer, 
Rensselaer; Mrs. C. H. Seward, Troy; 
Mrs. J. M. Wagner, Canajoharie; Mrs. Har- 
riet Vines, Albany. 

The above school for domestice nurses is 
just concluding its fourth term. 



About twenty Albany physicians have be- 
come interested in this movement, feeling 
that there is a great need for improvement in 
the education of domestic nurses which nine- 
tenths of the population must rely upon in 
cases of sickness in their homes. 

The course of lectures which began last 
October and has lasted for something more 
than fourteen weeks has furnished between 
fifty and sixty lectures by physicians and sur- 
geons on the duties of the nurse under various 
circumstances. 

Instruction is given in anatomy, physiology 
and materia medica. Suitable text-books are 
required by the nurses for the lectures. The 
diseases of children, bacteriolog>', obstetrics, 
symptomatology, hygiene and sanitation, 
accidents and emergencies, contagious and in- 
fectious diseases, nervous diseases and in- 
sanity, surgical nursing, eye and ear diseases, 
medical nursing, electricity, skin diseases and 
matters interesting the nurse in relation to 
nose and throat diseases, have been considered 
in these lectures. 

The head nurse, who is a registered gradu- 
ate nurse and her assistant give as many lec- 
tures as do the doctor and also furnish prac- 
tical demonstrations. 

The head nurses lecture on elementary nurs- 
ing and instruct in taking the temperature, 
pulse and respirations, the keeping of charts 
and records, on sponging and baths, bed-mak- 
ing, giving packs and enemata, the care of 
instruments and surgical materials, the prep- 
arations of dressings and the scientific 
preparation of food for the sick. 

There is a constant and growing demand for 
the graduates of the institution. A demand 
which probably will not be met for twenty-five 
years to come. 

The next and fifth course of lectures will 
begin on March 4th. Applications from pu- 
pils have been received from Cincinnati, 
Boston, Baltimore and several other distant 
places. 

Miss Dock and Miss Walter, who repre- 
sented the Nurses' Settlement Work of New 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



181 



York, accompanied Mrs. Harriet Stanton 
Blatch, of New York, came to the city to 
attend the discussion of "Full Woman Suff- 
rage," held January 29th. 



Mrs. Jane E. Hitchcock, secretary to the 
Board of Nurse Examiners, conducted exami- 
nations for nurses desiring State registration. 

In the neighborhood of 105 nurses took the 
examinations, the written part of which was 
held at the capital and the practical part at 
the Albany Hospital. 



Miss Luke, of the Training School for 
Nurses, of the Albany Hospital, has accepted 
a position at a sanitarium in Michigan. She 
left February 1st. 



Dr. Bloodgood, of New Baltimore, was the 
house g^uest of Dr. and Mrs. George E. Beilby, 
of State Street, during the annual session of 
the State Medical Society. , 



Miss Estelle Marcell has returned from Fort 
Edward after a several months stay. 

+ 

Buffalo, N. v. 

The annual banquet of the Buffalo Nurses' 
Association was held the evening of the six- 
teenth of January, in Miss Vincent's tea 
rooms, and was one of the most delightful 
social affairs ever held by that body. 

The honor guests were !Mrs. Frank Shuler, 
president of the Western Federation; Dr. 
Maud Fr\-e, an honorary n^ember, and Mrs. 
Henry Altman, chairman of the educational 
committee of the City Federation. Much re- 
gret was expressed over the absence of Mrs. 
Annette Sumner Rose, who had been especially 
invited, and many nurses who had met Mrs. 
Rose on previous visits to Buffalo hoped to 
renew the friendship. A telegram was 
received from Mrs. Rose announcing her 
inability to be with us and was read at the 
tables, and it was voted that a letter of regret 
should be sent her. 

The tables were decorated in green and 
white, tiny pine trees with frost-like effects 
gave a most pleasing appearance; the favors 
were medicine glasses filled with green and 
white confections and tied with green and 
white ribbons. Place cards with green clover 
designs and each one with a suitable quota- 
tion marked the places. 



Between courses the nurses enjoyed dancing 
Sir Roger de Coverly and we fear a few pre- 
ferred the dance to the dinner. 

Miss Mary Jayne Cole, the president, acted 
as toastmistress. 

Dr. Maud Frye responded to the toast "The 
Patient," as follows: 

DR. FRYE's response. 

I am to say a few words to you to-night in 
behalf of the one on whom we all, both 
nurses and doctors, depend for our daily bread 
— the patient. 

A very wise physician has said no physician 
should be allowed to practice medicine till he 
has had typhoid fever. Acting upon 
his advice, at the end of my year as a hos- 
pital interne I took a two-months' post- 
graduate course in typhoid. I have never re- 
gretted the time I spent. I learned more 
practical medicine then than in any other two- 
months' of my entire student or professioinal 
life, and I have once or twice since had occa- 
sion to observe the practice of medicine 
from the . patient's standpoint It is not 
alone medicine which I have learned during 
these enforced periods of study. There is no 
better way to learn nursing. 

I will not go so far as to advise a nurse 
before undertaking her chosen work outside 
her hospital training school, to deliberately 
innoculate herself with typhoid, measles, in- 
fluenza or mumps, merely to make her train- 
ing complete, but I believe that each and every 
illness that befalls her, will tend to make her 
a better nurse. One learns when one's own 
back is aching why it is sometimes so difficult 
to adjust the pillows right. The restfulness of 
absolute quiet will never be appreciated to the 
full, except by the one who has herself been 
hurt — from the blows of sound. The things 
you learn about sick-room visitors when j'ou 
yourself are the visitee! How you would 
like them all to adopt the motto: "Be 
Brief." The sensitiveness of the average in- 
valid is something which the well seldom 
appreciate. Laugh with your patient as much 
as you will, but don't laugh at her. Most of 
all when your own personal and family secrets 
are of necessity laid bare to stranger eyes, 
how you will appreciate the nurse who has 
learned to hold her tongue. How do you 
know her? A dog who fetches a bone will 
carry a bone. If your nurse gossips to you 
of one and another patient and her affairs, 



182 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



will she not also in turn discuss yours? Your 
nurses' association serves among other good 
purposes to interest its members in something 
outside the sick-room, and I would urge you 
all to avail yourselves of the opportunities 
which it affords and of all other opportunities 
which offer for intellectual and social enjoy- 
ment and improvements, not only for your own 
sakes, but that you may be able to interest 
your patients without being gossips, bright 
without being malicious. Last and best of all 
sickness teaches you how much a good nurse 
comes to be loved by those she cares for. 
You will never fully understand the mingled 
feeling of dependence and gratitude and ab- 
solute confidence with which it is your 
privilege sometimes to be regarded until you 
have been cared for by a woman worthy of 
such regard. I have some tender memories 
treasured up of women who have nursed 
me and mine in critical illness. Sympathetic 
without being depressing, cheerful and even 
merry without being frivolous, brave and un- 
selfish and untiring, their price is above rubies. 
When you come to take the special course in 
nursing which I have advised, may j'ou fall 
into such hands. 

Miss Katherine Meagher spoke on "The 
Helping Hand" ; Mrs. J. L. Brodie "The Club- 
women," and Mrs. Storck gave a toast which 
had been prepared by Miss Ten Eyck, but 
who was unable to be present, "Tell me why 
when asked a question you will ahvaj'S answer 
No?" 

Miss Mary Swartz responded to the toast 
"Looking Forward," and Miss Nye spoke on 
"Looking Backward." 

Mrs. Frank Shuler talked on the work of 
the Western Federation and of the place the 
nursing profession holds and should hold in 
civic life. Mrs. Altman told of securing 
medical inspection in the public schools. 

The arrangements for the banquet were 
made by Mrs. Jennie T. Anderson and Miss 
Adella Walters. 



Miss Olivia Moore and Miss Maud Beach 
Crarj' had charge of the program of the Feb- 
ruar>' meeting of the Buffalo Association. 
. Mrs. William Bartley spoke on "The 
Science of Handreading." Mrs. Bartley de- 
scribed the deductions of the expert from the 
shape of the hands, as well as from the lines, 
dwelling especially on the facts relating to 
health and mind. 



Miss Moore had charge of a Valentine Box 
and at the close of the program, a little white- 
clad boy with a red cap made his appearance 
with a bag of valentines. The tiny postman 
was John Irving, of Westminster House. The 
association accepted invitations to the tea to 
be given by the Homeopathic Alumnae on the 
afternoon of February twenty-sixth, and on-; 
to University Day at the Teck Theatre. 

Refreshments were served. 



Miss Minnetta Grovenbery, a member of 
the Buffalo Association, who has been spend- 
ing the past year in Lincoln, Nebraska, has 
been paying a visit to Buffalo friends. To 
the regret of her many Buffalo friends Miss 
Grovenbery has decided to locate permanently 
in Lincoln. She will retain her membership 
in the association of which she is a valued 
member. 

Miss Nellie Davis, of the Arnot-Ogden 
Hospital, of Elmira, is now in charge of the 
Erie County Hospital. Miss Davis is a woman 
of executive ability and well fitted for this 
arduous position. 

Miss Pauline Howden, of the Buffalo Gen- 
eral Hospital, class of 1905, has gone to De- 
troit to reside. 

Miss Margaret Perkins, a graduate of the 
Lowell Hospital, has located in Buffalo. 

Mrs. Jennie T. Anderson, Mrs. Gertrude 
Weaner Boyd, Margaret Kamerer, Mrs. 
Auerback-Miller, and Miss Sylvan V. Nye, 
attended the midwinter meeting of. the Wes- 
tern Federation of Women's Clubs at Tona- 
wanda. Much interest was felt in the paper 
and discussion on the "Patent Medicine Evil." 

Miss Emma Bugg is a new member of the 
Buffalo Association. 

Miss Preston, of the class of 1906, of the 
Buffalo Geheral Hospital, assisted in the care 
of Ex-Governor Higgins. 

Miss Mary Kennedy was in Scranton dur- 
ing the recent epidemic of typhoid. 



The Buffalo City Federation of Women's 
Clubs, of which the Nurses' Association is a 
member, have established penny luncheons at 
schools 44 and 3. About two hundred and 
forty children are served daily with a bowl 
of hot soup and a bun. Miss Sylveen Nye 
is a member of the committee that established 
these luncheons and as the plan is to en- 
large the work it is hoped that other nurses 
whose occupation will permit will give help. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



183 



Miss Margaret McMahon, a graduate of 
Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, has located 
in Buffalo. 

Will Buffalo nurs^ hold a fair in the fall 
of 1907? "That is the question." 

University Day, February Fourteenth! 
Next month we will tell you all about it. 

Mrs. Mary Chr>'sler Jackson, formerly 
superintendent of the Brooks Memorial Hos- 
pital, of Dunkirk, has been appointed super- 
intendent of Lincoln Hospital, of this city. 

Marguerite Craig is in charge of River- 
side Accident Hospital. 



Camp Roosevelt 

The February meeting of Camp Roosevelt 
was held on Monday afternoon, the 4th, from 
3.30 to 6.00, at 245 West Fourteenth Street, 
and notwithstanding the heavy snow storm the 
attendance was good. Miss Charlotte, vice- 
chairman, conducted the meeting owing to the 
absence of Miss Hazelton. . The "Gossip" was 
distributed, a nominating committee was ap- 
pointed and a ballot prepared to be sent out, 
for the election of officers for the ensuing 
year, which takes place at the annual meeting, 
to be held on Monday, March the 4th. As 
this is a very important meeting all members 
are requested to make an effort to attend. The 
meeting will be at 245 West Fourteenth Street, 
3.30 to 6.00 P. M. 

Florence M. Kelly, R.N., 
Sec'y of Camp. 



Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The annual meeting for the election of 
officers of the Brooklyn Hospital Training 
School Alumnae was held at the training 
school, February 5th. 

Results of ballot as follows: President, 
Miss Kate Madden, R.N.; first vice-president, 
Mrs. A. W. Pierce, R.N.; second vice-presi- 
dent, Miss W. Rothermund, R.N.; recording 
secretary, Mrs. A. de Zouche, R.U. ; corre- 
sponding secretary, Miss F. Fuller; treasurer. 
Miss M. E. Holt, R.N. 

+ 
Troy, N. Y. 

On the evening of January 31, the Samaritan 
Hospital, of Troy, N. Y., graduated its sixth 
class of nurses from the training school. The 



exercises were held in the assembly room of 
Thurman Home. 

The room was decorated with palms and 
flowers — the class colors, green and yellow, 
predominating. 

Dr. Bryant, of New York, gave the address, 
which was full of helpful suggestions to the 
nurses. 

Following the exercises a reception was 
given the class. 

The evening preceding graduation the an- 
nual meeting of the alumnae association was 
held, at which the following officers were 
elected for the ensuing year: President, Miss 
Catherine Ross ; vice-president. Miss Minnie 
Maria Gribble; treasurer. Miss Juila Emaline 
Clickner; secretary. Miss Endocia Jeanette 
Higby. 



A surprise party was given to the nurses 
of the Troy Hospital Training School by the 
Sisters in charge, Wednesday evening, Janu- 
ary 16th. The nurses were gathered together 
in the lecture room by the superintendent (S. 
M. Rose). Santa Claus was there, and visited 
each nurse, after which there was music, reci- 
tations and games. Refreshments were served 
later in the nurses dining room. A very en- 
joyable evening was thus spent. 



Connecticut State Association 

A severe snow storm, which caused much 
interference with traveHng, in conjunction 
with the very busy season for nurses in all 
parts of the State, rendered the attendance at 
the regular quarterly meeting of the Connecti- 
cut State Association, held in Bridgeport Feb- 
ruary 6th, very small, only about a dozen 
being present. 

Miss Albaugh, the president, called the 
meeting to order and the motion was made 
and carried -for adjournment to the annual 
May meeting, to be held in Hartford. 



Paterson, N. J. 

The regular meeting of the Paterson Gen- 
eral Hospital Alumnae was held at the hos- 
pital on Tuesday, February 12th, with a good 
attendance. 

Nine new members were received into the 
association. After the meeting a social half- 
hour was enjoyed by all 



184 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Philadelphia, Pal 

The annual meeting of St. Agnes' Hospital 
Alumnae Association of Nurses was held 
Thursday, January 31, 1907, in the study hall 
of the hospital with the president, Mr. Doyle, 
in the chair. The meeting was well attended 
and after the routine business tea was served 
by the head nurse Sr. M. Manra. Officers 
elected for the year were, president. Miss 
Frances Lundy; vice-president, Mr. Philip 
Philbin; secretary, Miss Cecila Hund; treas- 
urer. Miss M. Agnes Dougherty. 



The regular monthly meeting of the Jef- 
ferson Hospital Nurses' Alumnae, of Phila- 
delphia, was held at the Nurses' Home, 226 
South Washington Square, on Fridaj', Janu- 
ary 25th, at three o'clock, and was well at- 
tended. 

It is with much pleasure the alumnae has 
welcomed so many new members during the 
past few months, and at this meeting the ap- 
plications of two more were read and referred 
to the executive committee. 
■ Since last reporting to The Trained Nurse 
the alumnae have held a theatre benefit which 
was enjoyed by all and the net proceeds very 
good indeed. The bazaar, which the Alumnce 
contemplated holding in the early spring has 
been postponed until next winter. 

As there was no further business to trans- 
act, motion was made and seconded that we 
adjourn to meet again on Friday, February 22, 
1907. 

O. E. MocuMBER, Sec'y, 
Jeflferson Hospital. 



Pittsburg, Pa. 

The graduate nurses of Mercy Hospital held 
a meeting January 15th at the hospital and 
organized an alumni association, Miss Helen 
Splain presiding. Miss O'Sullivan was ap- 
pointed president of the new organization and 
Miss St. Clair was elected secretary. Chris- 
tina Martina is chairman of the committee 
appointed to prepare the by-laws, the members 
including Miss Ethel Breda, Miss Splain, Miss 
Sartland, Miss McCann, Miss O'Donnell and 
Miss McNulty. The association will meet at 
the hospital the third Wednesday of every 
month. 



Baltimore, Md. 

To assist in the raising of the $50,000 
which the board of governors needs for the 
enlargement of St. Luke's Hospital, 116 West 
North Avenue, the nurses have pledged 
themselves to contribute $1,000 of that 
amount. A unique plan has been arranged 
whereby they hope to procure $800 of that 
sum. The nurses have asked their friends 
for one mile of pennies, which after careful 
calculation they have concluded will amount 
to the sum named, and the nurses aire hoping 
that pennies will also come in by the yards 
and furlongs. They are also arranging to 
hold an entertainment for this fund in the 
early spring. 



Boston, Mass. 

The following letter has been addressed to 
members of the Alumnae Association of the 
Boston and Massachusetts General Hospital 
Training Schools for Nurses, and will be of 
interest to all graduates of the Massachu- 
setts General Hospital Training School for 
Nurses : 

At the last meeting of the Alumnae Asso- 
ciation of the Boston and Massachusetts Gen- 
eral Hospital Training School for Nurses an 
unusually large number of nurses were pres- 
ent. This was due to the great interest in the 
subject announced, namely, that immediate 
efforts be made by its members to establish a 
free bed at the hospital to be under the con- 
trol of the Massachusetts General Hospital 
Alumnae Association. It was voted that im- 
mediate steps be taken to accomplish this, and 
several committees were appointed to formu- 
late plans. It is proposed to hold a bazaar 
at some central place in Boston not later than 
December next. All graduates are urged to 
begin at once to collect useful and fancy 
articles for this sale. It was further pro- 
posed that each graduate be asked to con- 
tribute one dollar and as there are more 
than 700 and the addresses of some are not 
available, it was voted to send an announce- 
ment of our plan to the Journal of Nursing 
and The Trained Nurse, in the hope of 
reaching all former pupils of the school. We 
have already a nucleus of about $250 which 
has been subscribed for this purpose, and if 
the graduates all respond we shall be assured 
of our first thousand dollars. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



I»5 



It was then voted to ask each alumnae to 
either give or hold herself responsible for the 
collection of $5 more. There are about 250 
members and if they all acquiesce in this it 
will mean that the second thousand will be 
taken care of. 

The bed will cost $5,000 and will mean not 
a bed in an open ward but one in a private 
room. All graduates are urged to work for 
this and to interest their friends. It is fully 
expeced that the entire s"m «'«ll be raised 
inside of two years. 

All contributions of money should be sent 
to the treasurer, Miss Grace Beattie, Brock- 
ton Hospital, Brockton, Mass. All corre- 
spondence .to the secretary, Miss Agnes 
Aikman, 24 McLean Street, Boston, Mass. 
+ 

Fall River, Mass. 

The regular meeting of the Nurses' 
Alumnae Association of the Union Hospital, 
of Fall River, Mass., was held February 6th. 
It was voted to provide for any needed assist- 
ance for sick nurses during the year 1907, by 
special assessment and not use money from the 
fund for another year. An interesting paper 
describing a case of gastro-enterotomy was 
read by Miss Hunt. 

+ 

North Adams, Mass. 

It is stated that some of the leading doc- 
tors of North Adams have under consideration 
a movement to establish a new school for 
nurses. Prominent persons of wealth have 
been approached to see what support might 
be obtained for the movement. The argument 
for the new departure is that the nurses of the 
city are now asking too much for their ser- 
vices and that for that reason many poor 
families have to go without the services of a 
nurse in case of sickness. The new plan 
would be to establish a school and place it in 
charge of a competent person. The pupils of 
this school would be accepted on the under- 
standing that when they have become gradu- 
ates they shall not ask more than $7 or $8 a 
week and their board for their services. The 
pay asked and received by the present nurses 
is twice that amount. 

+ 

Somerville, Mass. 

The Alumnae Association of the Somer- 
ville Hospital held their annual dinner at the 
Hotel Nottingham, Boston, February 12, 1907. 



The guests of honor we're Miss Hogle, super- 
intendent of the Somerville Hospital; Mr. 
and Mrs. Sam Waller Foss, of Somerville, 
and Miss Taylor. 

After the dinner an entertainment was held 
in the hotel parlors. Mr. Foss gave several 
of his own readings. Mrs. L. G. Galletly, of 
Somerville, gave a short and very interest- 
ing talk on scientific palmistry. With vocal 
and instrumental music, a very enjoyable 
evening was spent by all. Previous to the 
dinner, a business meeting was held, at which 
was the annual election of officers. The fol- 
lowing were elected : Miss Annie Taylor, 
president ; Miss A. McBride, secretary ; Mrs. 
Alger, treasurer; Mrs. Muldoon, vice-presi- 
dent ; Miss Murphy, second vice-president ; 
Miss Goodwin, substitute secretary. 

The annual report of the secretary showed 
that during the last year the average attend- 
ance of members was eleven. Four new 
members joined during the year. 

+ 

Nashua, N. H. 

Nashua is the second city in the Granite 
State, in point of size and population. It is 
located on the banks of the two picturesque 
rivers, the Nashua and the Merrimac. It oc- 
cupies, the central and most beautiful portion 
of the historic territory of old Dunstable. The 
history of this territory is a familiar one. 
Every inch of its soil is hallowed with incident 
and patriotic deed. It furnished heroes in 
Indian and Revolutionary troubles — men who 
faced the untutored savage in the forest, as 
well as the trained soldiers of Concord, Lex- 
ington and Bunker Hill. 

The city has now made a journey of more 
than fifty years, and its inhabitants point out 
with an enthusiasm which is bom of love, the 
steady advancement which has been made in 
their city. 

The present hospital building was opened 
for the reception of patients October 17, 1893. 
From the opening of the hospital until No- 
vember of the same >-ear local nurses were 
employed. The first patient was received into 
the hospital October 17, 1893. 

In the year 1899 a training school was estab- 
lished at the hospital. 

The number of nurses in the scliool at the 
present time is twelve. 

Previously the course of instruction has 
been two years. During the past year it -was 



186 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



deemed best to follow* the example of other 
training schools and lengthen our course to 
three years, at the close of which we should 
hold some graduating exercises. As a result 
of this plan we held on the evening of August 
9, 1906, the graduating exercises for the class 
of 1906. 

Upon the lawn of the hospital were as- 
sembled the friends of the class ; and from the 
porch, which was beautifully decorated with 
potted plants and cut flowers, the address was 
given. 

The program of the evening was opened by 
a selection from the orchestra. Dr. H. L. 
Smith, president of the training school, then 
addressed the audience with a few remarks. 
He spoke very interestingly of the encourag- 
ing progress which has been made by the 
school since it started. 

The address of the evening was made by 
Dr. C. B. Hammond, of Nashua. 

Dr. Hammond in speaking to the nurses 
said: 

"What can be more touching than to watch 
the living picture of that faithful nurse as 
she bends low over the feverish couch of the 
sinking child — to smooth out the tiny pillow — 
to soften a certain spot — to bathe the fevered 
head — or to see the little emaciated hand 
slowly and tremblingly creep up and so trust- 
fully and confidingly laid on the cheek of that 
weeping watcher. 

What greater is there for one in this world, 
where can you find another profession more 
exalted? If it is ever brought to your mind 
that your work is chiefly associated with sor- 
row and suffering, then remember that it is 
among just such conditions as these that the 
bonds of friendship and love are most firmly 
united. Just as long as this world shall 
exist, just so long will your services be 
demanded. The addition of time will 
cause your duties to become more onerous 
and exacting, and be so greatly increased 
that they shall bear heavily on your shoulders ; 
and, in fact, may cause you to stag- 
ger and grow faint beneath them. But 
be of good cheer, and always keep in view 
the symbol of your order — the bright red 
cross, emblematic of that blood shed upon Cal- 
vary's fateful hill. Do not think, however, 
that all is sorrow and pain in the life of a 
nurse. They have their own joys and pleas- 
ures, and they are not few and far between. 
The gratification and satisfaction of having' 



brought back to health and happiness one who 
has been low on a bed of sickness — for it may 
be weeks and months — will in itself bring the 
keenest sense of delight and pleasure to their 
hearts. 

The nurse, to a certain extent must be inde- 
pendent. Let me charge you: Stand close 
to all, but lean on none, and if the crowd de-. 
sert you, stand just as fearlessly alone. Idle 
talk and gossip will often cut and sting you, 
but believe only half that you hear, and be 
very careful which half you select. 

To-night, my friends of the graduating 
class, let us throw care and trouble to the four 
winds and enjoy fully the pleasure and satis- 
faction of having well completed a long and 
tiresome duty. I bid you as graduate nurses 
a "God speed," and trust that in whatever 
field you may chance to sow your grain, you 
may have the best of success and an abundant 
harvest." 

The diplomas were presented to the gradu- 
ates by the mayor of the city. 

After the exercises the orchestra continued 
to furnish music during the social part of the 
program which continued till late into the 
evening, closing a very successful and enjoy- 
able event in the history of the institution. 
+ 
Toledo, Ohio 

The Toledo Hospital Alumnae Association 
is making great preparations to entertain the 
outgoing class this year as it is the first class 
of the three years' course, the alumnae hopes 
to make them feel that the extended time has 
not been spent in vain, that they have value 
received for all their hard work. 

The Graduate Nurses' Association, of To- 
ledo O., was organized in May, 1904, with 
a charter membership of sixty-six graduates; 
this association not only embraces Toledo 
graduates, but any graduate residing in the 
city or country, the object of which is the ad- 
vancement of the educational standard of 
nurses, the furtherance of the efficient care 
of the sick, the maintenance of the honor and 
character of the nursing profession, and the 
fostering of good fellowship between the 
graduate nurses of Toledo and other cities. 



We all feel very keenly the death of Miss 
Frances D. Lynehan, class of '02, which 
occurred at Toledo Hospital on January 8, 
1907, after a lingering illness extending over 
four months. Her unswerving loyalty to our 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



187 



Alma Mater and the ready response to any 
call showing her great devotion to the work, 
was most unusual. Lying in state at the par- 
lor at the Nurses' Home, a short service was 
held by Father O'Connel, of St. Frances De 
Sales Church, after which the remains were 
taken to Corning, N. Y., for burial. 

- -— ' + 

Findlay, Ohio 

Miss M. L. Margerun has resumed her 
duties in the Findlay Hospital after a three 
months' leave of absence on account of illness. 

Miss Marie Cribley and Miss Grace B. Dye 
have taken up private duty since their gradua- 
tion from the Findlay Hospital. 



for registration under "An Act Relating to 
Professional Nursing." L. C. Boyd, sccre- 
tarj-, 125 East 18th Avenue, Denver, Col. 

+ 

St. Louis, Mo. 

An ordinance regulating the employment of 
nurses in the institutions of the St. Louis 
health department and employing graduates 
from the St. Louis training school, was intro- 
duced in the council January 24th by Council- 
man Hitchcock by request. The proposed 
ordinance authorizes a superintendent of 
nurses at a salary of $900 a year. Appoint- 
ments of nurses are to be made by the health 
commissioner with the approval of the board 




GROUP OF NURSES, NASHU HOSPITAL, NASHU.\, X. H. 



Mrs. Harvey S. Long (nee Elliot) has given 
birth to a baby girl in the Findlay Hospital, 
of which school she was a graduate of the 
class of '05. 

Miss Charlotte Kerans, superintendent of 
the Findlay Hospital, spent the holidays at her 
home in Cincinnati. 

Miss Atha B. Heck has taken a position in 
the Findlay Hospital of which school she is a 
graduate. 

The Findlay Hospital is arranging to erect 
a much-needed nurses home. 

The Findlay Hospital is now self-support- 
ing for the first time since its organization. 

The Findlay Hospital is being improved to 
the extent of a fine new elevator. 
+ 
Denver, Colo. 

The State Board of Nurse Examiners will 
meet on April 24, 1907, to examine applicants 



of health. Health Commissioner Bond has 
approved the draft of the proposed ordi- 
nance. 

+ 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 

The Graduate Nurses Association of Kala- 
mazoo met February 6, 1907, at the Y. W. 
C. A. Home, with a good attendance. Two 
new members were elected to membership. 

The annual report of the secretary and 
treasurer was followed by the reports of com- 
mittees, after which the fourth annual election 
of officers took place and resulted as follows : 
Elizabeth Pyle, president; Florence Lee, vice- 
president; Effie C. Pierce, secretary-, and Miss 
Elizabeth Lounsbury, censor. 

The annual banquet took place Friday even- 
ing, February 9th, preceded by a sleighride 
from seven to eight. The banquet was given 
in the Elks' Temple. The decorations were 



188 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



pink carnations and smilax. The usual toasts 
were supplanted by a literary salad. On each 
lettuce leaf was a question to which the guest 
responded, followed by a literary romance 
embracing the names of eighty books, read by 
Miss Florence Lee. Each guest was sup- 
plied with paper and pencil and asked to 
guess the names of the author of the books 
named. A prize was awarded to the one 
giving the greatest number of names. Miss 
Pyle presided and all but five members of the 
association were present. 

E. C. Puree, Secy. 
+ 
Des Moines, Iowa 
The series of exercises given by the gradu- 
ating class of the Iowa Methodist Hospital, 
began Sunday evening, January 27th at the 
Grace Methodist Church, Dr. Charles Lyman 
Nye preaching the baccalaureate sermon to 
the sixteen nurses of the class. Taking for his 
text "Not to be Ministered Unto but to Min- 
ister," — which is also the class motto. Mon- 
day evening, January 28th, the class day exer- 
cises were held at the Nurses' Home, a large 
number of the graduates' friends and relatives 
being in attendance as well as the hospital 
board and members of the school. A pleasing 
program was rendered by the class consisting 
of instrumental and vocal music, reading class 
poems, class history, demonstrations in mas- 
sage, etc. Tuesday evening, January 29th, the 
graduating exercises proper were held at the 
Grace M. E. Church before an appreciative 
audience. Thirteen young women and three 
young men clad in the spotless white uniform 
of their chosen professions made up the class 
and were the recipients of many compliments 
and favors from those in attendance. Dr. 
D. W. Smouse presided. The program 
included several fine musical numbers by 
the Wesley Church Choir, invocation and 
address by Rev. E. T. Hagerman; class ad- 
dress by Dr. Howard D. Grey ; presentation of 
diplomas, Mr. C. H. Ainley, president of the 
board of managers. The members of the class 
are Misses Cecelia Olive Dale, Delia Coe, 
Amanda Strickland, Isabelle M'Harg, Julia 
Spangler, Mary Smith, Susan H. Conley, Es- 
telle Myers, Jessie Hall, Rose White, Mar- 
garet Spohn, EflFa Wood and Messrs John L. 
Wexels, Garfield Reuttes, Frances Donaghy. 



On the evening of Wednesday, January 23d, 



the juniors of the Iowa Methodist Hospital 
Training School for Nurses, Des Moines, la., 
gave a very enjoyable reception at the Nurses' 
Home for the senior class, which consists of 
thirteen young women and three young men. 
The class colors, blue and white, were pre- 
dominant wherever possible, appearing as 
decorations in the reception and dining-rooms 
and even in the refreshments. The dishes, 
napkins, etc., all being in these colors. The 
souvenirs of the evening being little take-offs 
on each member of the senior class. The fol- 
lowing entertaining program was given dur- 
ing the evening. 

Instrumental music, Misses Belle Sholand, 
Pearl Passwatter and Susan Clay. 

Reading, Miss Elizabeth Smallwood. 

Vocal solo, Miss Eva Lansing. 

Club swinging. Miss Josie Van Horn. 

Class prophecy — Misses Sutton and Dawson. 

Farwell address. Miss Catherine Erhardt, 
president of the junior class. 
+ 
Charleston, W. Va. 

Misses Coover, Sherman and Studor, of 405 
Brooke Street, were hostesses to Kanawha 
Branch Nurses' Association, Monday, Febru- 
ary 4th. In spite of the fact that nearly all the 
members were on cases and the weather was 
very bad, there was a good attendance. 

The meeting was called to order by the 
president, Mrs. Lounsbery,. and several im- 
portant matters were discussed. Among them 
were ways and means of aiding the Nurses' 
Registration bill to become a law, the pos- 
sibility of maintaining a Nurses' Home in 
Charleston and some points in ethics. 

After the business meeting the nurses were 
invited to the dining-room prettily decorated — 
color scheme being red and green. The table 
decorations were smilax and red tulips, with 
covers laid for nine. Red-shaded candles 
shed a mellow light while a dainty luncheon 
was served. 

When the meeting adjourned to meet the 
first Monday in March, each nurse returned 
to her duty feeling rested and glad her "hours 
off" had been spent in such a pleasant and 
profitable manner. 

+ 

Sioux Falls, S. D. 

The Sioux Falls nurses were very glad to 
welcome Miss Anna Nickel, a graduate from 
the Sioux Falls Hospital, who has been visit- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



189 



ing at Grand Forks, North Dakota, for some 
time. Miss Nickel, when interviewed said, 
"The snow was so drifted that the train had 
to pass through tunnels at certain places, and 
the thermometer registered forty degrees be- 
low zero at times. Sioux Falls did seem very 
warm and nice, after being so far north. 

Miss Bernice Donoghue, graduate nurse, 
has been ill with measles. Her many friends 
will be glad to know that she is better. 

Miss Beski, who took a government claim 
last summer, has been allowed her permit and 
returned to Sioux Falls to practice nursing. 

A couple of good nurses could locate in 
Sioux Falls. We have not enough for the 
demand. 

A movement is on foot to organize a nurses' 
association. Such an organization is necessary 
and would be of benefit to the Sioux Falls 
nurses. 

+ 
Orange, N. J. 

The monthly meeting of the Guild of St. 
Barnabas for nurses of the Orange branch 
was held Thursday, January 31, 1907, at 
Christ Church, Bloomfield, where the mem- 
bers were treated to an address by Bishop 
Lines, of the diocese of Newark. 

At this service cards containing the Guild 
service were introduced for the first time, the 
idea having been suggested by a member who 
had attended a Guild service at the Brooklyn 
Branch where service cards are used. 

A good attendance of members was noted; 
business meeting followed the service at the 
termination of which refreshments and a 
social period followed. 



The regular quarterly meeting of the 
Orange Training School Alumnae was held 
the afternoon of the third Wednesday in 
January-, at the Visiting Nurses' Settlement, 
24 Valley Street, Orange. Considering the 
busy time the nurses are now having a good 
attendance of members was noted. 

The meeting was called to order by the 
new president, Miss Martha Clark. One of 
the subjects under discussion was the advis- 
ability of the nurses endowing a bed for sick 
nurses in the Memorial Hospital. In report- 
ing upon the prices quoted by the hospital 
board for an endowed room, Miss Hollister 
laid before the meeting a plan which is being 
followed by one of the New York training 
school alumnae associations in their eflFort to 



endow a room. The plan was to pay down a 
nominal sum and the balance to be paid by 
degrees as was possible, the association in the 
meantime to pay regular interest on the un- 
paid balance. The idea of carryirig what 
seemed to be a debt was too appalling for 
many of the members and the plan was not 
embraced. 

A letter was read from the board of the 
East Orange Visiting Nurses' Association 
asking for co-operation in the establishment 
of a central registry of nurses. The matter 
was tabled for the March meeting. 

After the close of the business meeting re- 
freshments and a social hour followed with 
reception for the graduating class. Tea was 
poured by Miss Marietta Squire, superintend- 
ent of the training school, and coflfee by Mrs. 
Frank Mann. 

+ 
— Married 

At their home in Sturgis, Mich., Wednesday 
evening, January 23d, by Rev. L. H. Manning, 
Miss Eva Kellogg to RoUa H. Hitt Mrs. 
Hitt is a graduate of Emergency Hospital, 
Detroit, Mich., class of 1904, and one of De- 
troit's most popular nurses. 



On January 23, 1907, Miss Harriette Belle 
Parker was married at Holgate, O., to Mr. 
N. J. Jamieson, of Port Huron, Mich. Mrs. 
Jamieson is a graduate of Nichols Memorial 
Training School, class of 1906, and one of 
Battle Creek's most popular nurses. Mr. and 
Mrs. Jamieson will reside in Battle Creek. 



Miss Louise Greenwood, class of 1887, 
Rochester City Hospital, Rochester, N. Y., 
and of 1890 BuflFalo General Hospital, Buffalo, 
N. Y., was married to Mr. Wm. W. Cunning- 
ham at the Greenwood Mission Chapel at 
Manistique, Mich., January 24, 1907. Mr. and 
Mrs. Cunningham .will be at home to their 
friends at "Woodside," Manistique, Mich., 
after March 1, 1907. 



Miss Abigail Edwards and E. J. Siechty, 
M.D., were married in Sioux City, la., Janu- 
ary 1, 1907. Mrs. Siechty is a graduate of the 
Samaritan Hospital, Sioux City, la. Dr. 
Siechty is a graduate of Drake Medical Col- 
lege and is practicing at Corsica, S. D. 



The marriage is announced of Miss Mabel 



190 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Zenobia Smith and J. F. Bowman, M.D, Mrs. 
Bowman was a nurse in the surgical ward of 
Bellevue Hospital, N. Y., and Dr. Bowman 
interne in the same institution. 



Mrs. Lucy L. Matthews, of Wilmington, 
Del., and Mr. G. B. Vernon, of Claymont, 
Del., both being recent graduates in mechano- 
therapy of the Pennsylvania Orthopaedic In- 
stitute, Philadelphia, were married in Phila- 
delphia on the 31st of January, 1907. Mr. and 
Mrs. Vernon contemplate living in Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

+ 
Personal 

The following nurses. Miss Keller, Mrs. 
Byrne, Miss Katherine Macdonald, Miss Clair, 
Miss Bell and Miss Rea, formerly of the 
Vina Z. Foote Registery, have lately taken up 
their residence at Mrs. MacCarthy's Nurses' 
Home, 245 West Fourteenth street. 



Miss M. Eugenie Hibbard has resigned 
her position as superintendent of nurses in the 
Panama Service and is taking a much-needed 
rest at her home in Manchester, N. H. 



Mary C. Jeorgenson, a graduate of the 
Troy City Hospital Training School, class of 
1905, who has been nurse in charge of the In- 
dian School Hospital, Chelosco, Oklahoma, 
has received an appointment at the Presidio, 
San Francisco. 



Miss Maud Robertson, a nurse of high 
standing, has been elected superintendent of 
the Chester Hospital, to succeed Miss Eliza- 
beth V. Lobb, who has held the position for 
about three months. Miss Lobb will return 
to the Medico-Chirurgical Hospital, Phila- 
delphia, which she left to come to Chester, and 
will assume the position of director of nurses. 



Miss Alice Morris, graduate nurse, of 
Rochester, Minn., has accepted the position of 
chief nurse at the South Florida Sanatorium, 
Tampa, Fla. 



After an absence of five months Miss Min- 
erva V. Updegrove, a graduate of the 
Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Institute, Philadel- 
phia, has returned to the Victoria Sanatorium 
at Colfax, Iowa, to again take charge of the 
massage, electro and hydropathic department 
at this sanatorium. 



Miss Mary O'Connor,, of El Paso, Texas, 
a graduate of St. Joseph's Hospital, Chicago, 
has just recovered from a serious attack of 
typhoid fever. She and her sister, who is also 
a graduate nurse, sail for Europe on the 16th 
of March, for several months stay. 



Miss Florence N. Maillene, graduate nurse, 
has returned to her home in Cleveland, Ohio, 
after a three months' vacation on the Pacific 
Coast, taking in Vancouver, B. C, Seattle, 
Wash., and other Puget Sound points, return- 
ing by Yellowstone line via Denver. Col. 



Miss Eleanor Koran, graduate of Trinity 
Hospital Training School, Milwaukee, Wis., 
class of 1896, who is at present at the hos- 
pital for the benefit of her health, will soon 
return to the Nurses' Club of Omaha, Neb. 
Later she expects to make her home on the 
prairies of Colorado. The Trained Nurse, to 
which she has been a faithful subscriber for 
eleven years, will keep her company upon the 
prairies. 



Miss Katherine Stevenson has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Wingham Gen- 
eral Hospital, Ontario, and has entered upon 
her duties at that institution. 



On the evening of January 12, 1907, Miss 
Harriette Parker was given a kitchen shower 
by the graduate nurses of Nichols Memorial 
Training School, Battle Creek. A bountiful 
lunch was served and the evening was passed 
with social games and music. Miss Parker 
received many useful gifts. 



Obituary 

Miss Lydia B. Andrew died at Villisea, 
la., January 10th, at the home of her father, 
W, H. Andrew, after a brief illness of typhoid 
fever. 

Miss Andrew was a graduate of the Illinois 
School for Nurses, class 1903, and since her 
graduation has been an earnest and active 
member of the Nurses' Club of Omaha, act- 
ing for two years as their secretary. 



Nurses' Club, Omaha, Nebraska. 
Whereas, On the 10th day of January, 1907, 
the Supreme Ruler called hence from a busy 
and useful life, one whose presence inspired 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



191 



those who were acquainted with her with re- 
spect and admiration, and 

Whereas, By the sudden and untimely 
death of our beloved friend and co-worker, 
Lydia Andrew, one who gave promise of a 
long and useful life, her parents and members 
of her home are bereft of a loving daughter 
and sister; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the officers and members of 
the Nurses' Club of Omaha, do most sincerely 
extend to her family and friends their sincere 
sympathy and condolence in this their hour 
of sad affliction; and be it further 

Resolved, That this resolution be spread on 

the records of the club and a copy thereof be 

sent to the parents of our deceased friend, to 

• The . Trained Nurse and to the National 

Hospital Record. 

Rhoda Randall, 
Committee, -l Emma Kite, 

Frances S. Elmer, 



Whereas, God in his allwise providence has 
seen fit to remove from our midst, Lulu C. 
Nixon, be it 

Resolved, That we, the members of the 
Rhode Island Hospital Nurses' Club, have sus- 
tained in her death, the loss of a valued 
friend, and that we tender to her family our 
sincere sympathy. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions 
be sent to her family, to the nursing journals 
and be recorded in the minutes of the club. 
Signed, 

Nellie M. Green, 
Mary A. Quinn, 
Elizabeth F. Sherman. 



Miss Beulah Troxel, of St. Luke's Hospi- 
tal, Denver, Colorado, died from bloo 1 
poisoning, after a slight scratch from an in- 
fected pen-point. Her remains were taken to 
Beatrice, Neb., for interment. 



The young woman was the daughter of 
H. B. Troxel, a wealthy horse buyer of Beat- 
rice. She graduated from the high school 
there last year, where she was prominent in 
society circles. She had a desire to be use- 
ful in the world and although not obliged 
to earn her own living, went to Denver to 
study the profession of a nurse. 

The fatal termination of her illness was a 
great shock at her home in Beatrice, where 
her condition was not supposed to be serious. 

Died, • on January 7, 1907, at Nanticoke, 
Pa., Miss Sara Emlyn Winter, graduate of 
the Metropolitan Training School for Nurses, 
class of 1904. At the regular meeting of the 
Alumnae Association . of the Metropolitan 
Training School for Nurses the following 
resolutions were adopted: 

Whereas, God, in His infinite wisdom, has 
taken unto Himself our beloved friend and 
sister; therefore be it 

Resolved, That this alumnae association has 
lost one of its brightest and most efficient 
members, one always interested in every good 
work, with ready smile and words of cheer 
and comfort; and be it further 

Resolved, That we express to her bereaved 
parents and family our heart-felt sorrow in 
their bereavement; be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions 
be sent to the parents and family of our de- 
ceased sister, placed on the minutes of this 
alumnae association, and sent to The Trained 
Nurse and other nursing journals. 
Katherine a. Dillon, R.N., | 
Emily Wilkinson, R. N., j 

Miss Jennie Cromwell, graduate of Trinity 
Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, died Febru- 
ary 9th, at Butte, Montana, where she had 
been engaged in private nursing for the past 
year and a half. The cause of death was 
Bright's disease. The burial took place at 
Rose Lake, Idaho. 



(Continued on fage 214) 



THE EDITOR IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE VIEWS OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Comments on "Red Cross Nurses Corps" 

To the Editor of the Trained Nurse: 

In the February number of The Trained 
Nurse there appeared an article entitled, 
"The Red Cross Nurses Q)rps," concerning 
which I feel compelled to make two comments 
in order that readers may not draw erroneous 
•onclusions. 

Firstly: The article confuses two different 
things, for at the outset it is stated that "It 
is now tzuo years since the organization of the 
American National Red Cross was effected," 
and yet half of the article is devoted to what 
the ''Red Cross" did for the nurses "in 1898!" 
By this time I think everyone must know that 
the present Red Cross, with its official or- 
ganization and its membership, was totally 
non-existent in '98, and therefore it seems odd 
that it should claim a sort of reward for what 
was done then by another society, with a 
similar name. The fact is that we now have, 
for the first time, a true society of the Red 
Cross, formed on the right basis, which will 
in time become comparable with those of 
other nations. Its failure to enroll nurses, as 
announced in the article in question, would 
seem to indicate that there is a defect in its 
organization in that particular respect, for I 
have found even busy nurses willing to do 
work which appealed to them. The Red 
Cross Society is in a position to offer induce- 
ments to nurses and to plan its work on a 
basis which is impossible for the Army Nurse 
Corps, hampered as that is by government 
restrictions, and I feel confident that if it took 
advantage of its opportunities and organized 
its nurse corps on a broad and generous plan 
it could easily form a big, live, effective body 
of workers. Without that, no amount of 
talking will lead to success. In offering this 
suggestion to the author of the article, I do 
not wish to criticise, or to put anything in the 
way of, the efforts to enroll nurses, but, on 
the contrary, to assist this movement. 

Secondly: So far as I recall, the article 
is correct in the facts of '98 which it states. 



but a false impression is liable to be created 
by its omission of facts which were evidently 
not known to its author. The Society for 
Maintenance of Trained Nurses, commonly 
called "the Auxiliary" to the New York Red 
Cross Committee, which existed in 1898, but 
disbanded not long thereafter, certainly de- 
serves great credit, a lion's share of which 
should be given to its noble and efficient 
officer, the late, lamented Mrs. Lena Potter 
Cowdin. Yet one is liable to get the im- 
pression from what the article says about its 
work that prior to the visit of Mrs. White- 
law Reid and Mrs. Cowdin to the President 
in the latter part of July, the Surgeon-Gen- 
eral had appointed no army nurses ; while the 
facts are that he had obtained from Congress 
authority to employ and pay nurses as early 
as April, almost three months before that 
visit, and that, also in April, he had author- 
ized the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion (not "Daughters of the Revolution") 
Hospital Corps which I had organized, to 
take charge of all applications • and select 
nurses for army service. The first party of 
nurses sent out by the Surgeon-General 
had been at work about two and a half 
months before the visit mentioned, and a 
number of other parties had been sent to 
various places, including the field hospitals 
at Santiago. 

My efforts throughout the whole work 
were directed toward the employment of 
none but properly endorsed trained nurses, 
and also to the official recognition of these 
nurses by the government. Without this, 
the position of a woman with an army, no 
matter how fine her intentions and character, 
is, in plain language, simply that of a camp- 
follower, and it was therefore of the utmost 
importance to the nurses that they should 
have the official right to be with, and work 
for, the army, and this right could be given 
by the contract with the Surgeon-General, 
and in no other way. Therefore, when Mrs. 
Reid was authorized by the President to send 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



193 



nurses without contracts to certain general 
hospitals, instead of having them appointed in 
the established way, I foresaw the great in- 
jury that would be wrought. I also knew 
that the Auxiliary had accepted as nurses 
women without training or the other quali- 
fications required for the army, and feeling 
the moment a critical one, I asked permission 
from the Surgeon-General to go myself to 
New York and explain the situation to Mrs. 
Reid and Mrs. Q>wdin. With the kind as- 
sistance of Miss Brennan, of Bellevue Hos- 
pital, an interview was arranged and these 
ladies saw at once the reasons for my 
position. They therefore agreed to have all 
nurses they should send out thereafter con- 
form to army standards and fill out the D. 
A. R. Hospital Corps application blanks for 
file in Washington, while on my side I agreed 
that the Hospital Corps would include in its 
appointments the nurses to be endorsed in 
future by the Auxiliary, and that army con- 
tracts would be made with them. At the 
same time I saw some of the most influential 
superintendents of nurses in New York, who 
had held aloof from the Auxiliary and asked 
them to co-operate with it. 

Notwithstanding this agreement, there 
were some unfortunate nurses at a few army 
hospitals, named in the article, who were 
paid by the Auxiliary, and therefore had no 
contracts. If all the army nursing had been 
done in this private way, as originally pro- 
posed by the Auxiliary, there would be no 
Army Nurse Corps at the present time. For- 
tunately for the army and for trained nurs- 
ing, there were about one thousand five hun- 
dred nurses who did have contracts in 1898 
(including most of those paid for a time by 
the Auxiliary as they had contracts later). 
It is to the work of these contract nurses in 
the army hospitals that the "credit for the 
organization of the Army Nurse Corps" 
should be given, for if they had failed qt the 
critical time, no amount of money would 
have kept them in the service. 

At the same time, the money which was 
wisely spent by the Auxiliary in providing 
board, transportation, laundry and comforts 
for nurses (as specified in the article) at a 
period when it required time to cut the rpd 
tape, was of exceedingly great benefit to the 
nurses, and its availability certainly did result 
in their being sent to certain places, such as 
Fortress Monroe, sooner than would other- 



wise have been possible. Hundreds of army 
nurses will join me in gratitude to the 
Auxiliary, but they know that it disbanded 
years before the present American National 
Red Cross was born, and that in spite of the 
use of the word "Auxiliary" and the technical 
connection that may remotely be claimed by 
the latter society, the '98 organization was in 
fact a quite independent society. Perhaps I 
shall add that the ladies of the Auxiliary did me 
the honor to elect me a member of their board, 
and while I attended only one of their meet- 
ings and took no part in their work,' yet I 
was in constant communication with Mrs. 
Cowdin during the active time of the war, 
when she was in sole control of the Aux- 
iliary's labors. May I add another word to 
say how deeply I mourn the loss of that 
brave, modest woman. 

Anita Newcx)mb McGee. 



The Question of the Catheter 

To the Editor of The Trained Nurse: 

There has been recently some discussion 
concerning the subject "whether or not a 
female nurse should pass a catheter upon a 
conscious male patient." 

Superintendents of some of the training 
schools are greatly agitated over this mat- 
ter. Personally I can see no reason for all 
this controversy for there is only one answer 
to this question and that is emphatically, NO. 
SHE SHOULD NOT. 

The principle involved which causes me to 
make this definite negative answer is not 
moral, but is one purely and simply of surgical 
technique. I would never allow a nurse 
either male or female to pass a catheter upon 
a male patient either conscious or uncon- 
scious because the procedure even in normal 
conditions is particularly difficult and where 
there are abnormalities arising from patho- 
logical lesions catheterization sometimes is 
almost impossible in the hands of a specialist. 
I have seen grave conditions arise from un- 
skilled instrumentation of the male urethra. 

I do believe that a female nurse should be 
instructed regarding the nursing technique in 
all the uro-genital operations upon the male. 
This is rarely done, for I find that in most of 
our hospitals the female nurse is excluded 
from the operating room at such times. This 
is wrong, for after • graduation nurses fre- 
quently go into fields where there arc no hos- 



194 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



pital facilities or male nurses and it neces- 
sarily becomes her duty to participate as the 
surgeon's assistant in operations involving the 
male genital organs. She should, therefore, 
have the skilled training for such cases. 

Again after genito.urinary operations the 
nurse is usually called upon to change the 
dressings as often as they become soiled and 
she should be able to accomplish this scien- 
tifically, with all the confidence of perfect 
training. 

There are so many peculiarities and ano- 
malies in the anatomical structure of the male 
urethra that catheterization and instrumenta- 
tion of any description should be performed 
only by the physician, unless of course, a life 
is in danger. Very truly yours, 

L. W. Bremerman, A.m., M.D., 
Prof. Genito-Urinary Surgery New York 
School Clinical Medicine. 



Texas and a Bit of Old Mexico 

To the Editor of the Trained Nurse: 

To those who may be interested in see- 
ing new places, new people, and new coun- 
tries, I want to tell what interested me 
on my recent pleasure trip. First, the 
passing through the cotton fields of the Caro- 
linas and Georgia. The pickers were in the 
fields picking the cotton which looks like little 
snowballs on brown stalks about two and one 
half feet high. They have bags fastened about 
their waists and pick with both hands putting 
into the bags ; when full they empty into large 
baskets or directly into carts. The carts are 
drawn to the cotton gins where a suction 
pipe draws the contents of the wagon up into 
the gin. Then a number of little saw-like 
wheels pick it, letting the seeds drop into re- 
ceptacles and little brushes moving in the 
opposite direction to the saw wheels, brush the 
cleaned cotton off the wheels and it falls into 
a bin in which it is pressed by machinery. 
The old way was for colored m€n to press it 
by walking and stamping on it. It is then 
baled and sold. 

Theri are many manufacturing plants for 
cotton cloth. Our mercerized cotton fabrics 
are manufactured South and sent North to 
Massachusetts or Pennsylvania to be mercer- 
ized. 

In Louisiana and Texas we passed through 
plantations of stjgar cane which was being 



gathered and everywhere carloads of the cane 
were ready for shipment. The cane grows 
from five to seven feet high, looking like corn 
fields. The leaves are stripped off and the 
cane is ready for the sugar mills. 

Oil is used for burning on the engines and 
the tracks are oiled, through Texas, making 
it possible to sit outside on the Observation 
car without being covered with dirt and cin- 
ders. 

At San Antonio, where I spent some time, 
there is much of interest. The first thing shown 
a stranger is the Alamo, which is an old ruin, 
built in 1718 by the Jesuit missionaries for 
converting and civilizing the Indians and used 
as a stronghold by the Texans in the siege of 
1836 against the Mexicans. David Crockett, 
Boone, Evans and Travis, with 144 men, held 
the fort for ten days and nights against Santa 
Anna with 4,000 picked soldiers from the 
Mexican army, who at last scaled the walls 
and butchered the starving besieged. 

The name Alamo is Spanish for cotton 
wood, the shrine having been surrounded by 
cotton wood trees. Fort Sam Houston, situ- 
ated just outside of city is the second largest 
military post in the United States. The view 
from the observation tower is very fine. The 
San Antonio River running through the city 
has 200 bridges crossing it,. forty-five of which 
are in the city. All along the banks are ban- 
ana plants. There is much of the Mexican 
element here, making it very picturesque. It 
is a quaint old town with low houses of one 
and two stories. The people are very pleas- 
ant and friendly. 

There are several hospitals, the largest of 
which is St. Rose's, under the management 
of the Sisters of Charity. It has a training 
school for nurses. The Physicians and Sur- 
geons is a small, new hospital and has a well- 
equipped training school said to be the best 
in the city. Miss Bailor, the superintendent, 
is a very competent, agreeable young woman. 
The hospital has a very homelike atmosphere 
and appearance. The rooms are pleasant and 
arranged so they may be used in suites so 
that the patients may have their family or 
friends stay with them if they wish. There 
are quite a number of nurses in San Antonio 
who are well paid and kept busy I am told. 

Three artesian wells near the city dis- 
charge over 800,000 gallons daily of hot sul- 
phur water at a temperature of lOi'-lOe". 



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WTien you write Advertisers, please mention The Tbaimed Nuisk. 



196 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



There are irrigation farms, which were new to 
me. 

The trees are very different from any I 
have seen. The hackberry tree and china 
berry tree are much usd for shade, having 
a very dense foliage. The mistletoe grows 
here and is used for. Christmas decoration as 
we use the holly in the North. 

There are several small parks and Bracken- 
ridge Park, the largest, of about 200 acres, 
has a small herd of buffalo, a herd of elk, 
and many deer roaming through the forests. 
A drive through Brackenridge Park is a de- 
light. 

Leaving San Antonio we went through many 
miles of level land covered with short, scrubby, 
leafless trees, (called the Misquite) enlivened 
by tufts of mistletoe and the dark green of the 
live oak. 

As we approached El Paso the country be- 
came hilly and vegetation more and more 
scarce, leaving the cacte almost the only form 
of vegetation. The scenery about the Devil's 
River is grand. In crossing the Pecos River 
we crossed the third highest bridge in the 
world, looking down over 300 feet to the 
water below which is very muddy as is also 
the Rio Grande. Arriving at El Paso we 
found many mud huts occupied by Mexicans. 
It vyas quite cold here, one needed as warm 
clothing as in New York. 

El Paso, although having an elevation of 
3,620 feet, is nestled down among the hills 
which seem to smile down upon the city in a 
very close, friendly way, but if you were to 
attempt a walk to them, you would marvel at 
the distance. The atmosphere is so clear that 
distances are deceptive. 

The city is growing very rapidly. North 
of the city is a settlement which used to be 
called Tent City because so many invalids oc- 
cupied tents there. The tents have been 
replaced by small dwellings a little larger 
than good-sized dog houses and looking not 
unlike them. 

There is a private sanitarium out here hav- 
ing been built about three years but not yet 
occupied. I could not ascertain the reason. 

The past two winters have been much colder 
and more rain has fallen than formerly. 

There are two hospitals, the largest, Hotel 
Dieu, in charge of the Sisters of Charity, has 
a good-sized training school and is a very 
fine, up-to-date institution. The Providence 



Hospital is smaller and also has a training 
school. 

A five minutes' car ride takes one across 
the Rio Grande River into Ciudad Juarez, 
Mexico. Here one is in a strange land with 
a strange language spoken and a very foreign- 
looking people. 

The market place is in the form of a large 
square, with the markets like booths around 
the four sides and in an open space in the 
centre are restaurants or eating places which 
consist of a steaming, black pot, attended by 
a Mexican woman who serves some mysteri- 
ous ingredients to natives standing and eating 
at a board partition, forming a sort of table. 

The old Guadalupe Cathedral on the Plaza 
is a very old, decidedly foreign-looking build- 
ing having five bells in the tower. There are 
no pews or seats of any kind in the church. 
The El Paso Smelter is one of the places of 
interest to see. I spent a very pleasant and 
instructive hour going through it with the 
superintendent to whom I had a card of intro- 
duction. It is a small city in itself with the 
settlement for the workmen and their fami- 
lies, having their own stores, church, and 
school. It is situated at a little distance from 
El Paso. The houses in. El Paso are nearly 
all built of brick while those in San Antonio 
are mostly of wood. 

E. Enright. 
+ 

Information Wanted 

Editor Trained Nurse: Will some of the 
superintendents of nurses in charge of train- 
ing schools in hospitals, conducted by the Sis- 
ters of the Catholic Church, kindly 
tell me how much authority they have. Do 
they answer the correspondence of applicants, 
and, accept the pupils as they do in other 
schools, or does the supervisor do that? I 
would like to know just how the duties com- 
pare? E. 

+ 
Formula Qiven 

Editor The Trained Nurse: In answer to 
"Formula Wanted," page 105, February 
Trained Nurse, I believe it is: Glycerine, 
.5i, Tr. Benzoin, Bss, Rose Water, Yz pt. 
Yours truly, 

Clara D. Crocker, 
Graduate Nurse. 

(Continued on page 2o6~). 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




^ 



TVo Soaps with Init a Siti^e Thought- 

CLEANI/EVESS 1 



When you write Advertisers, please mention The Trained Nurse. 



Boofe B^etoietos 



A Text-Book of Anatomy for Nurses By 
Elizabeth R. Bundy, M.D., Member of the 
Medical Staff of the Woman's Hospital of 
Philadelphia; Gynecologist New Jersey Train- 
ing School, Vineland; late adjunct Professor 
of Anatomy, and Demonstrator of Anatomy 
in the Woman's Medical College of Pennsyl- 
vania ; formerly superintendent of Connecti- 
cut Training School for Nurses, New Haven, 
etc. With a Glossary and 191 illustrations, 
thirty-four of which are printed in colors. 
P. Blakeston's Son and Co., Philadelphia. 
Price, $1.75. For sale by the Lakeside Pub- 
lishing Company. 

"Gentlemen, bones are dry," Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes was wont, with that whimsical 
smile which endeared him to everyone, to 
observe in beginning his annual course of 
lectures on anatomy. But then Dr. Holmes 
had never seen Dr. Bundy's book, which is 
really a very — indeed, an unusually attractive 
presentation of a most difficult subject. Nor 
does any detail essential to be known by the 
nurse escape quite adequate exposition. 
Moreover, very valuable data are set forth 
concerning histology, tissue formation, the 
nervous forces and digestion, cerebral func- 
tions, the lymphatics, etc. In addition to being 
a very admirable treatise on anatomy for 
nurses, the author might well claim that it is 
also a text-book of applied anatomy, so pro- 
fuse are the surgical, medical, obstetrical and 
physiological suggestions which accompany 
the anatomical descriptions. 

Dr. Bundy has, in general terms, adopted 
the nomeclature accepted by the German 
Anatomical Society in 1895, in which wise 
course she will no doubt find herself in con- 
formity with those who teach the subject in 
the colleges which graduate physicians. 
Those of us who are accustomed to the 
terms internal and external will find instead 
medial and lateral in this book. The palm 
of the hand being anterior, the little finger 
is always medial to the others. Any part or 
surface of one-half of the body is medial to 
another part if it is nearer the median line 
while in the anatomical position, or lateral to 



another part if it is farther from the median 
line. 

Illustrations in a work of this sort are 
essential. They are immensely informing, 
and a sense of proportion and topography is 
got from them which cannot be had from the 
written text. Besides, after a study of the 
text, they are invaluable when it is desired 
to refresh one's memory in any part of the 
subject. The illustrations in this book are 
very numerous, excellently drawn, colored 
where necessary ; and the structures or tissues 
to which they relate are clearly indicated and 
explained by the printed matter subjoined to 
them. Nothing could be clearer than the rep- 
resentation of the muscles of the head and 
neck; of the bones of the skull; of the in- 
terior and floor of the true pelvis; of nerve 
cells; of the nasopharynx; of the intestinal 
lacteals; of the three portions of the aorta 
(beautifully colored); of brain structure; of 
the sympathetic system of the ear; and of the 
lymphatics in the neck. There is a "brief study 
of important regions" which alone is worth 
the price of the book. The superficial vessels 
of the head are explained; as also the tri- 
angles of the neck, the thoracic viscera, the 
mediastinum; the abdominal viscera; the 
ischio-rectal fossa; the axillary space; 
Scerpa's triangle. Hunter's canal, the popliteal 
space; the various openings through which 
hernias may protrude; the location of large 
vessels and nerves in the extremities; and 
points for compression of the important 
arteries. No doubt a hasty examination of 
this section would do even the active prac- 
titioner, when called upon in an emergency 
case, a world of good. The peritoneum, that 
heart-breaking structure, the attempt to mas- 
ter which has brought many a student to the 
very brink of emotional insanity, is in one 
page very succinctly and concisely described. 
This work is with much gratification recom- 
mended to the hard working .lUrse — who has 
little time for book study — as an excellent 
treatise upon the essentials of a subject which, 
with physiolog)', forms the basis of the heal- 
ing art, and without an adequate knowledge 



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Its Arsenic (1=40 gr. to the tablespoonful) restores and 
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Its Strychnia (1-80 gr. to the tablespoonful) is generally 
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DOSE: One tablespoonful 3 or 4 times a day. 

THE PALISADE MANTO CO.. Yonkers, N. Y. 



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GUARANTE-HD ! 

THE new Pure Food and Drugs Act requires all manufacturers to sell 
their products under a guaranty, and a general guaranty should be 
filed in the office of the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington. 

The following is a copy of a letter Issued from the Department of 
Agriculture to us : 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

Office of the Secreuiy 

WASiUNGTOr< • 

November 1, 1906. 
The Amtikamnia Chemical Company. 

St. Louii, Mo. 
Gentlemen. — 

Your enarantee as to the character of the matertah manutactureti 
and sold by you. given in accordance with Circular 21 of this office, has 
been received, found to be in proper form and is regularly filed. The 
serial number attached thereto is No. 10. 

Respectfully, 

IV. Jif. HA YS. Act. Sec'y. 



All Antikamnia Preparations are sold under this guaranty and our 
Serial No. I appears on every package sold under the new law, thus 
assuring the medical profession of the absolute reliability of these 

ph,r„..«uticau. ^^ ANTIKAMNIA CHEMICAL CO, " y"^^"° • 



When you write Advertisers, please mention Thb Tbaiiced Noi 



200 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



of which no nurse can hope to practice her 
profession to her own or anybody else's sat- 
isfaction. And Dr. Bundy's book might well 
interest the medical student as an outlining 
of and an introduction to the more detailed 
study of this subject, of which he must be- 
come master. Nor will the practicing 
physician fail to find it a grateful aid when- 
ever he has occasion to brush up before such 
operations as fall within his scope. 



The Immediate Care of the Injured. By 
Albert S. Morrow, M.D., Attending Surgeon 
to the Workhouse Hospital and to the New 
York City Home for the Aged and Infirm. 
Three hundred and forty pages, with 238 illus- 
trations. 1906. Cloth, $2.50 . net. For «ale 
by the Lakeside Publishing Company. 

This work is the most pretentious work of 
its kind of which we have knowledge. It is 
by no means a pocket edition, being 9x6 
inches, and it is not a work which is meant 
for reference at a moment's notice after an 
accident has happened. On the other hand 
as the author says in his preface, he "has 
endeavored to prepare a book that would be 
useful alike to physicians, nurses, and lay- 
men, and at the same time serve as a text- 
book for the use of first-aid classes. With 
this object in view the subjects considered 
have been presented in as simple language as 
is consistent with clearness, technical terms 
being omitted as far as possible. Recogniz- 
ing that illustrations are often of more value 
than descriptive text in conveying such in- 
struction, a large number — many of them 
original — have been introduced with a view 
to affording a clear explanation of points 
which might otherwise be misunderstood. 

The arrangement of the book is as follows : 
As a previous understanding of the structure 
and normal workings of the human body is 
necessary in order to give intelligent assist- 
ance in an emergency, Part I briefly outlines 
the anatomy and physiology of the human 
.body. Part II is devoted to bandaging, dress- 
ing, and practical remedies, etc., and methods 
of application being thoroughly explained. 
Part III contains detailed description of what 
to do in accidents and emergencies. 

The author strongly advises those who de- 
sire to properly equip themselves with a 
practical knowledge of First Aid to take up 
the subjects in the order presented, carefully 



studying and practicing the methods of apply- 
ing bandages, dressings, etc. 

We are most pleased with the work. The 
type is large and good; the illustrations are 
clear and practical; the wording of the book 
is plain and reasonably concise. While the 
price is a little higher than nurses usually 
care to pay for a book, still, we advise its 
purchase by all those who want either a text- 
book on this subject, or a reference work for 
their library. 

+ 

The American Pocket Medical Dictionary. 
The New (5th) Edition. Edited by W. A. 
Newman Dorland, M.D., editor "The Ameri- 
can Illustrated Medical Dictionary. 32mo. 
of 574 pages. 1906. Flexible morocco, gold 
edges, $1.00 net; thumb indexed, $1.25 net. 
For sale by the Lakeside Publishing Com- 
pany. 

It was only a few weeks ago that we had 
occasion to welcome a new edition of the 
American • Illustrated Medical Dictionary 
which we praised at the time as one of the 
best medical dictionaries we had ever seen, 
and now we have before us a new edition of 
the American Pocket Medical Dictionary by 
the same editor. 

The fifth edition of this book is even 
handsomer than those which have gone be- 
fore. The type is exceedingly clear and the 
morocco leather cover, gold edges, and gold 
lettering make a very handsome little vohtme 
to start with. 

In the preface to the fifth edition the 
author sums up so concisely. everything which 
we could say about the book that we quote 
the preface entire. 

"The constantly increasing sale of this 
little volume has encouraged the editor in 
his efforts to make it represent as fully as 
possible the continuous advance of medical 
literature. 

"For this edition the text has been care- 
fully revised and a large number of nevv 
words have been defined. • Most of these 
words are of the very latest coinage and 
arc not to be found in any similar publication. 

"By repeated revision and improvement it 
is hoped that the American Pocket Dictionary 
will meet more fully than ever the needs 
of students and physicians." 

We predict that this edition will be very 
popular, both on acount of its attractive aij- 
pearance and intrinsic worth. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Headquarters for Nurses' Dresses I 



Z^'^E are furnishing some of the largest hospitals with aL of their Nuraea* Uniforms. Hundreds of 
nurses, all over the country, will wear no other uniform. Flead} •to-wear — well-finiihed and 
well-fitting; or made to your measure at about one-third higher cost. These three numbers are 
unequaled at the prices. Call, write or 'phone us — we want your trade : 




STYLE A — One-piece Uniforms of strifjed gingham or plain blue chambray Waist has plain 
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Same, made to measurement — $3.00. 

STYLE B^Two-piece Uniforms. Of striped gingham (blue or pink), or plain blue chambray. 
The shirt waist has plain back, plaited front, bishop sleeves. Fnre-gore skirt with deep hem — $2.50. 
Same, made to measurement — $3.T5. 

STYLE C — Two-piece Uniforms, in same model as Style B. Prices : of white duck — $3 . 50 j 
made to order for $4.75 " of white linen — $4.50 | n»a<l« *o order for $6.75. 



Jftrawbridg'e <©. Clothier 

PHiladelpKia, Pa., U. S. i\. 



When yoQ write Advertisert, pleaie mention Thb Tbaimd Nobsb. 



Cije hospital B^etiieto 



Des Moines, Iowa, has secured through the 
united efforts of the city board of health and 
the State Medical Society a bacteriological 
lat)oratory, auxiliary to the State laboratory 
at Iowa City for general test work and 
particularly the diagnosis of dipththeria and 
tuberculosis germs. It has been established 
in Science Hall, Drake University and is now 
equipped and in running order. Prof. Ross, 
of the Drake Medical College in charge. The 
establishment of this laboratory is expected 
to be of great service to physicians, medical 
students, nurses and the public at large in its 
benefit to the public health of the city and 
immediate vicinitv. 

+ 
As the result of a recent ruling of the State 
Board of Health of Iowa, a new law has been 
established in the lifting of quarantine for 
diphtheria which will practically abolish the 
old arbitrary method of keeping patients in 
isolation and homes in quarantine thirty-five 
days. The new rule being as follows : After 
a minimum period of twenty days by obtain- 
ing two successive negative swabbings from 
the throat. The first swabbing is to be taken 
by the attending physician, the second by the 
city health officer. This alternate swabbing is 
carried on by the two physicians in conjunc- 
tion until two negative reports are received, 
then. the house and its occupants can be fumi- 
gated and released from quarantine. The 
result of such a health law has been deter- 
mined on so as to serve the greatest number 
on the most modern and approved way ac- 
cording to bacteriological methods. 
+ 

Dr. B. F. Cummer, of Omaha, Nebraska, 
one of the best known and talented physicians 
and surgeons of the West, died January 24th 
from the effects of a paralytic stroke which 
occurred last spring. Dr. Crummer was a 
prominent instructor in the Omaha Medical 
College. A great promoter in hospital and 
for some time chairman of the State Medical 
Board. 

Dr. W. G. Morton, for some time assistant 
surgeon of the Iowa Soldiers' Home Hospital, 



Marshalltown, Iowa, has resigned his posi- 
tion on account of ill health and will take 
up his residence in Colorado after March 1st. 

+ 

The yearly report of Toledo, Ohio, shows 
a wonderful increase in the amount of work 
done during 1906. There were 1,706 patients 
admitted showing an increase of 233 over last 
year; 935 dispensary patients and 406 charity 
cases, making a total of 1,341 charity cases 
treated during the year; 119 operations, 342 
being major cases; 5,587 dressings, and 503 
patients received outside treatment. 
+ 

The Deaconess Hospital, of Toledo, Ohio, 
was opened by the Central Ohio Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church June 1, 
1906, under the supervision of the deaconesses. 
This institution is for the benefit of the gen- 
eral public as well as the church ; the doors 
are open to all worthy patients, both charity 
and otherwise; the nursing at present is done 
by graduates; there are hopes of a more 
commodious hospital and training school. 

Announcement was made at the annual 
meeting of the Lakeside Hospital Corporation 
at the hospital, January 29th, of an increase 
in the endowment fund of that institution of 
$295,000 during the past year. Of this $245,- 
000 was received in payment of the pledges 
announced one year ago toward the $500,000 
fund. 

The pledges were made on the condition 
that a total fund of $500,000 be raised, but the 
condition was not insisted upon by four of the 
donors, who liquidated their pledges during 
the last year. The pledges liquidated were 
two of $100,000, one of $20,000 and one of 
$25,000. 

The receipt was announced of $10,000 from 
the estate of Anne Walworth and of the last 
portion, $18,000 of the bequest of Mrs. James 
F. Clark. 

An endowment gift of $15,(100 was also 
made. Mrs. William Chisholm, her son, A. 
S. Chisolm and her daughter, Mrs. Jean 
Drake, notified Samuel Mather that they 
wished to endow a room in the hospital in 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




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RECORD 

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and BLANKS? 

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Endorsed by all the 
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Also Clinical Charts, Receipt Blanks, History 
Sheets, Operation Blanks, Bedside Notes, 
Temperature Charts, etc. 

Samples and Price Lists furnished free 
upon application. Estimates promptly 
furnished on Special Blanks of any kind 

CHARLES A, LAWES CO. 

(Successors to Belden & Company) 
302 Dearborn Street, Chicago, III. 



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BLOOD GENESIS 






T 



HE formation of a rich nutrient circulating flaid. Blood which shall contain an abtmdance 

of red corpuscles of the necessary structural and physico-chemical integrity. 
How to "build " such blood is an ever-present therapeutic problem for the physician to sdve. 

is a powerful blood-formingf agent ; it induces the generation of haemoglobin, the oxygen carrying 

constituent of the blood ; it is a genuine haemoglobinogenetic. It feeds the red corpuscles 

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Anaemia from any cause, GHiorosIs, Amenorrhoea, Chorea, Bright's Disease, etc. 

To assure proper filling of prescriptions, order Pepto-Mangan "Glide" in original bottles ( § xi). 

IT'S NEVER SOLD IN BULK. 

M. J. BREITENBACH COMPANY, 



LABOAATORV, 

LCI«>ZIG. CCRMANV 



ro oc tna 



New YORKt 



When you write Advertisers, please mention The T«aihkd Nuksb. 



204 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



memory of William Chisholm who died about 
a year ago. The amount will be $15,000 and 
will be perpetual. 

+ 

The special appropriation bill of the New 
York State Lunacy Commission was re-intro- 
duced into the Assembly January 25, in the 
name of Mr. Rogers, of Broome. In all, it 
calls for an appropriation of $362,500 for im- 
provements to the various State hospitals. 

The sum of $81,000 is named as the sum 
designed to build and equip a nurses' home 
at the State hospital in Middletown, a similar 
amount for a similar purpose is called for at 
the Poughkeepsie State Hospital. Other 
buildings are contemplated at the Binghamton 
and King's Park institutions. 

Nurses' homes were built at the Middletown 
State Hospital some years ago. They are 
wooden edifices and at the time they were 
erected were considered ample for the needs 
of the hospital, but since that time the insti- 
tution has grown so rapidly and so much that 
additional facilities are now needed. The 
homes are now filled up and many attendants 
and nurses are sleeping in the wards. The 
expenditure of the sum named would be a 
great and much appreciated benefit. 

+ 

At the annual meeting of the corporation 
of the Massachusetts Homceopathic Hospital, 
in January, reports were submitted which in- 
dicated an extensive year's work. The num- 
ber of patients treated in the hospital proper, 
as well as in its out-patient department, was 
larger than during any previous year. It is 
at this hospital that the Brookline Homoeo- 
pathic Aid Association maintains a free 
bed 

Two important departures on the part of 
the hospital have been made during the year. 
It has taken over the direction of the Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Dispensary on Harrison Ave- 
nue, which was formerly operated as a separ- 
ate corporation, and has expended over $4,000 
in renovating the dispensary, which now be- 
comes the chief out-patient department of the 
hospital. 

■ The second departure is the establishing of 
a'' separate children's hospital on East Brook- 
line Street, which will be run in connection 
with the main hospital. 

Dr. J. Herbert Moore, of Beacon Street, 
will have charge of the medical department 



of the new children's hospital in the capacity 
of visiting physician, having been appointed, 
during the past year, specialist in diseases of 
children at the Massachusetts Homoeopathic 
Hospital, as well as professor of diseases of 
children at the Boston University School of 
Medicine. 

The trustees of the Watertown, Illinois, 
hospital have asked the legislature for an 
appropriation of nearly $500,000. It is pro- 
posed to erect a new ward building at a cost 
of $100,000, and a residence for the superin- 
tendent at a cost of $15,000. An addition of 
a tract of land for farming purposes is de- 
sired. 

Superintendent Taylor in his report says : 

"July 1, 1904, there were 766 patients pres- 
ent, 420 of whom were men and 346 women; 
on parole forty-three; twenty-two men and 
twenty-one women. Since then 983 patients 
have been admitted, 540 were men, 443 
women. Forty-nine patients have been re- 
admitted, twenty-five men and twenty-four 
women, making a total of 1,841, 1,097 men 
and 834 women. 

"We have discharged 360 patients since 
June 30, 1904, 201 men and 159 women. Of 
those discharged 139 (seventy- four men and 
sixty-five women) were transferred to the 
asylum for incurable insane; 152 patients have 
died during the two years, ninety-eight men 
and fifty-four women. We had on parole 
June 30, 1906, 100 patients, fifty-five men and 
forty-five women. June 30, 1906, there were 
present 1,229 patients, 653 men and forty-five 
women; 806 of the patients admitted were 
suffering from their first attack, 166 from the 
second attack, twenty-three from the third, 
seven from the fourth, three from the fifth, 
one from the seventh, one from the eighth 
and twenty-five unknown. 

"We have constructed an amusement hall, 
approximately 200 feet long and 100 feet wide. 
This hall has a seating capacity of 1,500; is 
equipped with three bowling alleys, billiard 
and pool tables, has a stage for theatrical 
performance, and a main floor, where weekly 
dances are held. This building has proven a 
source of great comfort and recreation to 
both patients and employes. Two cottages 
for consumptive patients, each with a capacity 
for twenty people, have been erected. Each 
cottage has a wide porch around it, where the 
patients can sleep when thought advisable, 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




HE use of plastic, antiseptic, hy- 
droscopic dressings in the treat- 
ment of inflammatory conditions 
is well established. Believing that their 
valuable properties are enhanced by the use 
of a superior base, we have always made 
Antithermoline from the 
finest quality of import- 
ed Kaolin, and clinical 
evidence has justified us 
in so doing. 




ANTITHERMOLINE! I 



A!?'! 



^«r?»cc;t Dressing 




Believing that the high quality of Anti- 
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ideals, permit of perfect resealing after 
they have once been opened and eliminate 
those dangers of oxidation which attend 
the use of metal containers. 



FORMULA 

Each pound of Anti- 
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4.0OO grs. of imported 
kaolin washed and pur- 
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acid, 14 grs. oil of Eu- 
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Thymol, combined : 4 
9-10 fluid OS. glycerine. 



INDICATIONS 

Burns 

Bee Stififs 

Bites of Poisonous 
Insects 



Antithermoline 



(G. W. CARNRICK) 



is a most effective appli- 
cation in all conditions 
of irritation, congestion 
and inflammation; it con- 
tains no poisonous in- 
gredients (hence may be 
applied to raw sufaces 
without discomfort), is 
not greasy, is miscible in 
water, is antiseptic and 
mildly astringent. It 
forms an elastic covering, 
preventing access of air and bacteria, and 
is therefore an ideal dressing for wounds, 
burns, ulcers, etc. 



G. 



W. CARNRICK CO. 

42 Sullivan Street 
NEW YORK 



Infected Wounds 

Eczema 

Pmritus 

Intertrigo 

Congestions of 
Organs and Tissues 
of the Pelvis 

Pneumonia and all 
Inflammatory Con- 
ditions of Respira- 
tory Tract. 



ANTITHERMOLINE 

is for sale by the Drug 
Trade only in 10 oz. 
50c. size. iK lb. fi.oo 
size. Also in s. 10 and 
as lbs. for hospital use. 
A package sent to any 
nurse on request. 



When you write Advertisers, please mention Ths Tbaimbb Nubm. 



206 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



during not only the warm weather but the 
cold weather. Between the two cottages a 
violet glass house 16x24 feet has been built, 
where the patients are placed several hours 
each day. The eflfect of the violet ray has 
been beneficial, far beyond our expectations. 

"A camp in the grove was established last 
spring, where we have kept approximately 100 
untidy and violent patients during the sum- 
mer. This camp is equipped wtih thirteen 
tents, a large dining-room, screened on all 
sides, closet, bathrooms, sitting-rooms, and 
cooking tent. The experiment has proven 
successful, and I heartily recommend that it 
not only be continued, but carried on to a 
greater extent. Approximately one mile of 
cement sidewalk has been laid, and consider- 
able hard road built. Many shade trees and 
shrubs have been set out, and the grounds 
beautified in many ways. 

"Civil service is a success in this institution. 
The board has exercised discretion and good 
judgment in making the rules and construct- 
ing the law. 

"New blood has been infused in the ranks 
of the employees. Hospital tramps are 
ignored; migration from one institution to 
another is prohibited : rational rules made by 
ouperintendents have been adopted by the 



civil service commission, and employees, dis- 
charged for cause, find no consolation in ap- 
peal." 



At the Hotel Chamberlain, Des Moines, 
Iowa, January 22d , a group of prominent 
Iowa surgeons headed by Dr. Wilton Mc- 
Carthy, of Des Moines, met and organized 
into an association to be known as the Iowa 
State Clinical and Surgical Society, for the 
purpose of holding clinics at which curious or 
difficult operations shall be performed. The 
clinics to be held throughout the State 
wherever such cases appear. The member- 
ship of the society will be limited to twenty- 
five memberSj twenty surg-eons from over the 
State attended the organization and were 
present at the first clinic held at Mercy Hos- 
pital where several very difficult operations for 
hernia were performed by Drs. McCarthy and 
Fairchild. Officers elected were : President, 
A. M. Pond, Dubuque; vice-president, Wilton 
McCarthy, Des Moines ; secretary and treas- 
urer, Dr. D. S. Fairchild, Jr., of Clinton. The 
visiting surgeons were entertained while in 
the city by Dr. McParlty at "The Chamber- 
lain" where a sumptous dinner was served, 
covers being laid for twenty-five. 



The Editor's Letter-Box 

(Continued from page 196.) 



The Two-Years Course 

Dear Editor : — I hope all grateful patients 
and true nurses will second B. V. D. Steven- 
son's plea for the two-years' course. Let me 
say that I believe in the hosfiital graduate, 
and prefer to employ her, but two of my 
friends have had model nurses ^his year who 
have not had the three-years* course. 

In our own family we have had two gradu- 
ates of a fourteen-months' course of hospital 
training and our doctor agrees with us in 
saying that there can be no better nurses. 
On the other hand, I know personally, four 
bright girls who left good Christian homes 
and took a three-years' course of hospital 
training. I do not claim that the length of 
term had anything to do with the change in 
their character. Their mothers bewail the loss 
pf the maidenly character, and think the hos- 



pital atmosphere is to blame. I do not think 
so, but to young women who must earn their 
own living even two years' is a long time, 
while three years is entirely out of the ques- 
tion, and "A Patient" in November issue ob- 
serves that "training school life is narrow and 
circumscribed." Do not train our nurses till 
they lose the power of clear, unbiased judg- 
ment. Three years may be better for the 
hospital, but the vast majority of patients and 
nurses who intend to follow private practice, 
will be satisfied with a two-years' diploma. 
Let others take post-graduate courses if they 
wish, and charge their wealthy patients for 
the extra time spent in extra training, but 
length of time spent in hospital training does 
not always make a good nurse. She is born, 
not made. 

Another Patient. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



tailcnburtjs Foods. 



The 



Provide nourishment suited to the needs and digestive powers of the child from birth 
onward, according to the development of the digestive organs. 

THe ••AUenburys" MilK Food ''No. 1 '* 

Designed for use from birth to three months of age, is identical in chemical composition with 
maternal milk, and is as easy of assimilation. It can therefore be given alternately with the 
breast, if required, without fear of upsetting the infant. 

THe ••Allenburys" MilK Food ''No. 2" 

Designed for use from three to six months of age, is similar to "No. 1," but contains in 
addition a small proportion of maltose, dextrine and the soluble phosphates and albuminoids. 

THe ••Allenburys" Malted Food ''No. 3" 

Designed for use after the fifth or sixth month, is a partially predigested farinaceous food need- 
ing the addition of cows' milk to prepare it for use. 

Physicians familiar with the "AUenburys" Series of Infant Foods pronounce this to be the 
most rational system of artificial feeding yet devised. Their use saves the troublesome and fre- 
quently inaccurate modification of milk and is less expensive. Experience proves that children 
thrive on these Foods better than on any other artificial nourishment. 

SAMPLE AND CLINICAL REPORTS SENT ON APPLICATION 



THE ALLEN 

TORONTO, CAN. 



<a HANBURYS CO., Limited 

LOND?N. ENC- NIAGARA FALL.S. N. Y. 



©VPSMEAF 

\^ THE MODERN 

J SAFETY PIN 

by TRAINED 

Nurses 




Made 
moll 
Sizes 



5TIFr 
sSTRONfi 

C0ILLES5 

THE ONLY SAFETY PIN 
MADE THAT CANNOT CA1Q\ 
IN THE FABRIC. 

lUDSON PIN CO.MFGRS 

ROCHESTER.M.Y. . 
'5vnd Postnl lo lol FronklmStHYCity 

FOV fRCC&AMPUE*. 



LISTER'S NAPKINS 

Compressed 



Sanitary ^^SS^w Necessity 




FOR WOMEN 



This is the most modern sanitary napkin, in 
the best possible form. It is a pad of absorbent 
cotton and gauze that will absorb half a pint of 
fluid without becoming soggy, and yet is put uo 
in such a small package that several may be 
carried in a lady's hand bag without showing 
signs of bulkiness. 

They are comfortable, are to be burned after 
use. They save time, space and energy; are just 
the thing when traveling. 

Lister's Compressed Napkins are packed 
separately in a foil covered, dust and dirt proof 
container. 

Price, 5 Cents each; 60 Cents a dozen. 
Sold by the dozen only 

JOHNSON & JOHNSON, Manufacturers 
NEW BRUNSWICK. NEW JERSEY 



When you write Advertisers, please mention Th« TaAiUKD Nubsb. 



i^eto B^emeDtes ant. ^Ipplmnces 



Very Satisfactory Results 

Have used and prescribed Resinol Ointment 
and Soap with very satisfactory results. Last 
case was one of eczema on face and shoulders, 
and of several years standing. The trouble has 
entirely disappeared with the use of one jar 
of ointment and one cake of soap. — Chas. 
HuBLEY, M. D., New York City. 

+ 
Peacock's Bromides 
Peacock's Bromides is made to meet every 
possible and exact requirement of the bro- 
mides. It is a combination of the five 
bromides of the alkalies and alkaline earths, 
potassium, sodium, calcium, ammonium and 
lithium. The salts employed in its manufac- 
ture are made especially for Peacock's Bro- 
mides and are purer and better than the com- 
mercial salts. The preparation will give the 
best possible results with the least danger of 
bromism disturbances. 

+ 
Unsolicited. Testimonial 

The Norwich Pharmacal Co., 

Dear Sirs: — The large size sample tube of 
"Unguentine" was received, and my experience 
with it has been more than satisfactory. 

My patient, who is bedridden for a shock 
of paralysis, had worn the skin from the sides 
of his feet and heels, so that in spite of con- 
stant care, he soon had bad sores, but the oint- 
ment has nearly healed the sores, although I 
have not used all of the sample tube. I can 
recommend it most highly to those who have 
the care of bad sores. — Louise E. Bacon, W. 
Somerville, Mass. 

Lysol in Obstetrics 

Lysol is of inestimable value in obstetric 
practice, both to the medical attendant and the 
nurse, because it is a reliable antiseptic, con- 
venient, and not poisonous or irritating. The 
hands of the attendant and nurse should be 
scrubbed with a nail brush in a two per cent, 
solution of Lysol before touching the patient 



for examination or otherwise. All instruments 
should be boiled in a one per cent, solution 
for five minutes before they are used. In an 
emergency, when there is not sufficient time 
to permit boiling, they should be immersed in 
a three per cent, solution in boiling water for 
as long a time as possible. 
+ 
Examine It I Sample Free 

In this issue of The Trained Nurse there 
appears an advertisement of Manoline, a 
wonderful preparation which every trained 
nurse should find of immense benefit. 
Trained nurses' hands are constantly being 
irritated by the use of antiseptics and solu- 
tions, necessary in their work. 

Manoline , relieves all sorts of irritations 
of the skin, even scalds and burns, which it 
heals without leaving scars. We believe 
trained nurses would do well to examine into 
its qualities. 

A full-sized tube free to every nurse send- 
ing her professional card. See advertisement 
in this issue. 

+ 
"Lubrizone" 

Is a sterilized, neutral, antiseptic lubricant. 
It is non-irritatjng to the most sensitive mu- 
cous membranes, is healing, soothing and 
germicidal. It is thus a definite protection 
against infection. It does not stain clothing 
or bandages and is soluble in either hot or 
cold water. Composed of the essential ele- 
ments of carrageen in combination with 
eucalyptus and formaldehyde, it also contains 
an oxygen librator, the oxygen being held in 
suspension until coming in contact with the 
secretions, the oxygen is then liberated and 
becomes therapeutically effective. 

Each tube being packed in a separate tin 
box is thereby protected and will not mash 
and besmear the contents of your satchel or 
pocket. 

See advertisement in this issue. Sample to 
nurses free. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



FOR OVER MALFA-CEAiTURY THE STANDARD 
Aqua Hamamelidia 

GUARANTEED UNDER THE FOOD AND DKUGS 
ACT. JUNE 30,1906- SERIAL NUMBER 693. 

ONDS 

EXTRACT 

OF HAMAMELIS VIRCINICA 

and pure glycerin — mixed in the 
proportion of one part to two, 
and used as a lavement, gargle 
or spray, as the case may re- 
quire-~is a valuable remedy in 

CATARRHAL AFFECTIONS 
OF THE AIR PASSAGES 

CAVriOVI: 



5y prescribing POND'S EXTRACT excta- 
siVelp, the profession rmy entirely oinixte 
the poison perils of substitutes zdultemted 
•with Wood Alcohol or Formaldehyde SLnd 
•which— unidentified-offer no guirnniee of 
purity, quaJiiy a.nd strength <a>hen dispensed. 

PONDS EXTRACT CO. 

NEW YORK AND LONDON 




MURSES were among the first to recognize the benefits al 
^ ' rubber heels. The first rubber heeb that they recognized 
were the pioneers, CSuUi van's. Tbeae beeb rendered them the 
benefits that they expected. In the coarse of time the popular- 
ity of the O'Sullivan heel caused substitutes to be put oo the 
market, and then to be attached to nurses' Oxfords and Juliets. 
Tbese substitutes proved to be a disappointment to the nurses 
who wanted a noiseless, rcsihent and durable heel of new rubber, 
such as the O'Sullivan Rubber Co. make, and such as you can 
buy from reputable dealers attached to nurses' Oxfords and Jul- 
iets already ready made. You can avoid disappointment by 
insisting when you buy the heels separate, or shoes with heels 
attached, that the heels be O'Sullivan's, and obtain the noise- 
less tread. the resiliency, the economy and the comfort that you 
expect will be yours. From the makers unattached they are 35 
cents by maiL 

O'SULLIVAN RUBBER CO., '•S^fi:^ 



/s \^o\iJ^ JS^jbx M^ar'tK 



The turning point in the lives of thou- 

^* sands of sick children was reached 

when their parents wrote for a sample of 

ESKAY'S 

FOOD 

If your baby is poorly nourished, do not ^ 

let a postage stamp stand between him 
and health. Write to-day for a gener- 
ous free sample of Eskay's and our 
book "How to Care for the Baby." 

2-year-old Herbert Byerly, of Sunbury. Pa., was raised on 
Elskay's Food from birth. His mother writes: "People from 
all over the city have called to inquire what we feed him.' 



Smith. Kline a Frencm Co 



456 ARCH ST. PHILADELPHIA 



Herbert Scott Bye:rl.y 

Sunbury, ^a 



210 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Let the Water Be Pure 

Water that is chemically pure, i. e., distilled, 
except for experimentation, etc., is not so 
good for general use as the natural water, 
which is bacteriologically pure. Of course it 
is but seldom found, but if procurable it is an 
unpardonable folly to use any other. Fre- 
quent analysis has proved that the Great Bear 
Spring Water is bacteriologically pure, and 
the hygienic and sanitary methods adopted for 
its bottling, shipment and delivery prevent 
the possibility of deterioration or contamina- 
tion from any source. Its cost is so trifling, 
considering the safety its use insures that it 
should be in every hospital, sick-rOom, home 
and office. 

+ 

An Ideal Malt Preparation 

The effects of Goldbeck's Malt Extract are 
to rapidly restore physical tone, create a 
natural appetite for wholesome food and to 
leave the patient in a condition where there 
will be no physical re-action whenever it 
seems expedient to discontinue its use. 

Goldbeck's Malt Extract can be recom- 
mended with particular emphasis for nursing 
mothers. While its sale is not promoted with 
a view to making it popular as a stimulant, 
and while no patient is likely to acquire such 
a fondness for it as to produce in any sense 
a habit, it is peculiarly palatable and refresh- 
ing, and the proportion of nutritive elements 
contained is very high. 

No wry faces are associated with the use 
of Goldbeck's Malt Extract. 
+ 
Perfectly Satisfied 

I have satisfied myself that Glyco-Heroin 
(Smith) is the best respiratory sedative and 
expectorant I have used so far. It is well 
worthy a trial. Glyco-Heroin (Smith) sooner 
or later will be indispensable, and will be a 
welcome addition to the "Armamentarium" of 
every physician. A case may not be amiss : 

Mrs. H., age 39, operated on for large 
ovarian cyst. Tenth day after operation, had a 
chill and temperature rose to 103.2° F. The 
wound was immediately examined and found 
in good condition, free from pus. Three hours 
later patient complained of pain in left side 
of chest and coughed considerably. Pulse 108. 
She was put on Glyco-Heroin (Smith) at once, 
drachm doses every two hours, A few rales 



had been discovered at base of left lung. The 
following morning pain had ceased and there 
was no more cough. Lungs negative. She 
made an uninterrupted recovery. I believe 
this to be an aborted pneumonia. — Chas. L. 
Ashley, M. D., in Medical "Review of Re- 
views," November, 1901. 



Daniel's Conct. Tr. Passlflora Incarnata 

It is unequaled as a calmative. For every 
trouble of a purely nervous character, or de- 
veloped from nerve derangements, as drawn 
and jerking tendons in the limbs, it invariably 
proves most beneficial. Passiflora does not 
produce constipation, and in this virtue, 
recommends itself strongly to the medical pro- 
fession. 

Being prepared from the fresh green fruit, 
vine and leaf of the May-pop, it is a delightful, 
reliable and valuable nervine. The physicians 
of the South prescribe Passiflora for nervous 
women, teething babies, neuralgia, hysteria, 
acute nervousness from excitement, fevers, etc. 

Preceding and during childbirth, during the 
menstrual period, pregnancy and the meno- 
pause, it is indispensable to tranquilize the 
nerves of women. 

+ 
Learn to Discriminate 

In selecting the form of iron to be adminis- 
tered to pregnant women, the utmost discrim- 
ination should be exercised. That form of 
the drug Avhich is most easily assimilated and 
proves most acceptable to the palate is the 
one which should be employed. This injunc- 
tion is made for the reason that the nausea 
which is incident to the pregnant state must 
not be increased, and for further reason that 
constipation must not be induced by the drug. 
Again, the nutritive processes must be held at 
the proper standard, and this cannot be done 
in the absence of a painstaking selection of the 
iron to be administered. 

Pepto-Mangan (Gude) is the ideal form of 
iron for these cases. This contention has the 
support . of logic. The hemogoblin-imparting 
properties and the nutritive potency of the 
preparation are confessedly greater than those 
of any other form of iron. Then, too, Pepto- 
Mangan (Gude) is more readily absorbed and 
more completely assimilated than any other 
preparation of iron Still further, Pepto- 
Mangan (Gude) produces no untoward effect 



ADVERTISEMENtS 




In substitute feeding of infants food value is a most 
important consideration. The "vital element*' is produced 
by the elaboration of food having the proper and uniform 
consistency. Children who do not show vitality are poorly 
nourished. Dairy milk is seldom uniform in composition 
and it is difficult to secure an approximately uniform aver- 
age up to the minimum requirements. 

Highland 
Evaporated Milk 

offers the following uniform analysis: 

Water Fat Milk Sugar Protein Ash 
68.75 8.75 11.85 9 1.65 

It is simply full-cream cow's milk obtained from many 
herds and is of uniform and excellent composition. It is 
reduced in volume nearly two and one-half times through 
a peculiar sterilizing process. This is based on scientific 
principles and is safe, exact and beneficial to the diges- 
tibility of the protein. 

Sufficient quantity for clinical tests sent on request. 

HELVETIA MILK CONDENSING CO.. 
Highland m. 



When Tou write Adyertiier*, pleaie menUon Th« Tiajiibb Nueo. 



212 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW/ 



upon the mucous surfaces of the alimentary 
tract, nor does it encourage constipation or in- 
crease nausea. 

+ 

Convincing Words for Anusol 

I am free to say that I believe I owe my life 
to Anusol. For twenty-five years I had no 
movement without a protusion of haemor- 
rhoids. The tumor increased to the size of a 
turkey's egg, and about a dozen cones ap- 
peared around it. After a movement the pain 
was often so intense that I would lose con- 
sciousness, which was a blessing to me. As- 
tringents had nearly killed me on three occa- 
sions. I refused, operation, as I felt it would 
afford but temporary relief. 

When I received Anusol, I had just got 
through a fearful seizure. I inserted one, 
which was very soothing. Aft^r eleven weeks 
I had a painless evacuation. It is possible that 
their continued use for a year may effect a 
cure; but I shall be satisfied if I keep as I 
am.— E. J. Harrison, M. D., Chicago, 111. Let- 
ter, August 14, 1900. 

+ 

The Almost Impossible Accomplished 

Every up-to-date trained nurse knows that 
Lister's Towels are, and always have been the 
most convenient and useful pad for absorbing 
issue from gynecologic, obstetric, cancer, and 
like cases. Because, they are small and yet 
have a great capacity for absorbing fluids 
without becoming soggy. They are light, com- 
pact, comfortable and hygienic, and many 
have said they could be improved on. That 
may be so of the towel ; but the form of pack- 
age has been improved. Johnson & Johnson 
are now compressing these towels into such a 
very tiny package, that two of them will not 
take the space of a cake of toilet soap; yet, 
when the towel is opened out it is a full- 
sized sanitary napkin and will absorb half a 
pint of fluid. 

These are called Lister's Napkins, Com- 
pressed. See advertisement on another page 
of this magazine. 

+ 

A Special Offer to Trained Nurses 

The J. H. Taylor Company, who make the 
Royal Waist and Skirt Supporter, have 
offered to sell to trained nurses six of these 
supporters for $1.00. 

The present uniform of the trained nurse 



is more often made in two pieces than in one, 
because it is easier to wash and iron than 
a one-piece uniform, and half the women at 
present engaged in this work, find it next to 
impossible to keep trim and neat at the waist 
line. 

The Royal Shirtwaist Company make this 
special offer to trained nurses in this issue of 
The Trained Nurse, so that anyone can se- 
cure six for $1.00, or six nurses can cltib 
together, and get for $1.00 what usually costs 
$1.50, 

It is a liberal offer and one which trained 
nurses in the past have taken advantage of. 

You will find their advertisement on page 
227. 

• + 

Nerves 

From the very nature of her occupation, 
the trained nurse has always a "case of 
nerves" on hand, either her own, or of some 
of her patients. Were she a man she 
would doubtless be "driven to drink," but 
being morally stronger, if physically weaker, 
she simply endures, having, perchance, read 
that "patient endurance is godlike." Yet she 
should know, and through her, her patients 
should know, that the tired, overwrought 
nerves will respond if properly treated, and 
proper treatment means the administration of. 
that food-tonic, Phospho-Lecithin (Wampole) 
— Lechithin, Averine, Strychnine and the Gly- 
cerophosphates. The results are wonderful 
if the treatment is reasonably persistent. Any 
nurse can have a sample (without expense to 
herself) by dropping a card to Henry K. 
Wampole & Co., Philadelphia, who are always 
glad to do anything to widen the range of 
information of the physician's best ally, the 
trained nurse. 

+ 

Do You Want to Specialize ? 

Nurses quite frequently entertain the idea 
of giving up general nursing and intend to 
specialize in such work which will allow them 
more time to themselves and greater inde- 
pendence in general. The recent adaptation 
of more mechanical treatments into the pro- 
gram of therapeutics offers a wide and 
remunerative field which by no means is over- 
crowded. The demand for competent gradu- 
ates in medical massage, gymnastics, electro- 
and hydro-therapy to take charge of such 
departments in hospitals and sanitariums or 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



food Value of Burnham's Clam Bouillon 




Booklet for Physicians 
sent on request. 



Q Clam (indiscriminately) is 9 per cent, proteid 
(Leach). TTie hard clam, from which Bum- 
ham's lam Bouil Ion is made, is more solid than 
the soil clam, and richer in nitrogenous matter. 
The juice or bouiUon is obtained by a highly 
scientific process and consists of an extract or 
concentrate of the clam, which possesses a food 
value of 1 2 per cent, proteid. As compared with 
milk, Bumham's Clam Bouillon contains 50 per 
cent, more of nitrogenous matter. 



Bottled in Glass and sold in Pints 
and Half Pints. All the 
Leading Apothecaries 
and Grocers Sell iL 



BURNHAM'S 

CLAM 
BOUILLON. 



EC Dl IDIVII-I A Itil ^ f\ Manufacturers and Packers 
• 3. DUKIinAIVI \AJ» 53 TO 61 GANSEVOORT STREET, NEW YORK 



All Ncstlc's Food 



sold in Europe for the 
past three years and in 
America since January 1st, 1906, has been prepared on a 
modification of the original formula. The changes are 
improvements suggested by advanced research of modern 
pediatrists. The result is less starch and a higher percentage 
of fats, greater nutritive value and a lessened tendency to 
constipate. Nestle' s Food is now, more than ever, the most 
safe and satisfactory food for infants, easily prepared and 
readily modified to suit individual cases. 



''Recent Work in Infant Feeding," our new pamphlet, 
contains valuable and authentic matter. We are mailing 
you a copy. Extra copies sent on request. 

HENRI NESTLE, 72 Warren Street, NEW YORK 



When you write Advertisers, please mention Thk Tsaimid NoiO. 



214 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



as instructors in these branches, is greater 
than the supply. All the renowned European 
physicians who have recently visited this 
country upon the invitation of their Ameri- 
can colleagues such as Professors Drs. Lorenz 
(Vienna), Hoffa (Berlin), Schott (Nauheim), 
etc., have strongly advocated the use of me- 



chanical treatments. The Pennsylvania Ortho- 
paedic Institute and School of Mechano- 
Therapy, Philadelphia, gives complete courses 
in all forms of mechano-tlierapy, qualifying 
the graduates to practice as well as to teach 
the same. Particulars will be furnished upon 
request. 



In the Nursing World 

(Continued from page 191.) 



The Alumnae Association's Reception 

The reception given by the Alumnae Asso- 
ciations of the Training Schools for Nurses 
of New York City at the Hotel Manhattan, 
February 6th, proved to be a greater success 
than had been hoped for even by the most 
sanguine. About 400 were present. 

The affair was informal. The spacious 
second floor of the hotel was the scene of 
the gathering. Here a table was spread that 
made the guests wish they had forgotten 
their lunches, while the hurrying waiters 
did all they could to impair the digestion of 
those present. 

The general consensus of opinion was that 
we will have another reception next year." 

Women met who had almost forgotten each 
other and nurses could be seen in corners 
chatting to classmates whom they had not 
seen for perhaps ten years. 

The Reception Committee of the Alumnae 
Associations was as follows : 

Bellevue, Miss Mary L. Stevens; German, 
Misses Susan Bishop, H. Crockett, Eva 
Campbell; Lebanon, Misses Mary Burns, M. 
J. Clancy, Schmidling; Metropolitan, Misses 
Hunter, Lawrence and MacDevitt; Mt. Sinai, 
Misses Bertha Kruner and Alice MacEwen ; 
New York City, Misses Jane M. Pindell, Mrs. 
David B. Ingersoll; New York Hospital, 
Misses M. A. Samuel and M. M. Russell; 
New York Post Graduate, Misses Margaret 
Anderson and Eva G. Campbell; Presby- 
terian, Miss Margaret A. Bewley; Roosevelt, 
Miss Grace A. Knight; Hahnemann, Miss 
McClay and Miss Grace Pringee; Flower, 
Misses Carolyn B. Towner, Helen H. Pren- 
tiss; Manhattan and Bronx, Miss Annie 
Stuart Bussell ; New York Infirmary, Miss 
Katie de Friez; Mills Training School, 
Messrs. T. B. Swennes and Owen C. Sang- 
ster; St. Luke's, Misses Mabel Wilson and 
Jennie S. Roberts. 

The programme was as follows : 

Mr. Enos Johnson, violinist; piano accom- 
paniment. Mr. Jacob Feigenbaum, violinist; 
piano accompaniment. Miss Marjorie M. 
Moore, readings, selected. Mr. W. G. Stewart, 
songs; selected. Mrs. Gabrielle Stewart Mul- 



liner, accompanist. Mrs. Ernest K. Coulter, 
songs; selected. Miss Gardner, songs; 
selected. 



Miss L. L. Dock's Meeting 

At the reception of the Alumnae Associa- 
tions held at the Hotel Manhattan on Feb- 
ruary 6, a handbill was in evidence issued in 
the name of Miss Dock begging every nurse 
to attend a meeting to be held at the Belle- 
vue Nurses' Club, Monday, February 11, to 
discuss the change which had already been 
made by some of the leading hospitals from 
the three years back to the two-years' course 
of training for nurses. 

The purpose of the meeting being well 
known and the invitation having been issued 
in the name of Miss L. L. Dock one naturally 
supposed that the meeting would be conducted 
with the ordinary rules of parliamentary pro- 
cedure and debate. Thus we were prepared 
to find that the work of the meeting had been 
well arranged beforehand. Also it would 
have been entirely in accordance with estab- 
lished rules, for the resolution expressing the 
sense of the meeting with the " good reasons " 
that were to be advanced in support of it, to 
have been drafted and written out beforehand. 

Miss Dock ommitted these preliminaries 
possibly because she wanted the proceedings to 
appear as an expression of the entire body of 
the nurses of New York City. Only a very small 
party of nurses assembled. The treatment given 
the opposition, that is the supporters of the 
two-years' course, when it attempted to an- 
swer Miss Dock's address and state its side 
of the case, was such that it was decided that 
it would be only a waste of time and courtesy 
to address any remarks to such a gathering. 
As a foregone conclusion at the close of the 
meeting, a committee of five was appointed, 
to draft a resolution protesting in the name of 
the graduate nurses of Neiu i'ork (only about 
6o of whom were present) against the return to 
the two-years' course. This committee was 
instructed to give "good reasons" for its 
opinions. 



Cable of Contents 



Paob 

The Nurse in Domestic Life Samuel Wolfe, A. Af., M. D. 217 

The Present Curriculum from the Point of View of the Nurse.. .. 221 

A Food Fact or Two A. P. Reed, M. D. 227 

The Nursing of Diseases of the Kidneys Annie E. Hutchinson 228 

Notes on the Nursing of Aural and Ophthalmic Diseases 

Mary H. Tufts 233 

Nursing the Nursing Mother '. . . .A. P. Reed, M. D. 235 

An Alaskan Hospital Emily Harrison Bance 236 

Signs of the Times, Newspaper Comments on Nursing Subjects 238 

One of Many J. Evans Scheehle, M. D. 240 

Practical Suggestions Marie B. Vandergon 2*2 

Department of Army Nursing Dita H. Kinney 244 

Editorially Speaking r 247 

In the Nursing World 25 1 

The Editor's Letter-Box 262 

Book Reviews 268 

The Hospital Review 272 

New Remedies and Appliances 278 

The Publisher's Desk 286 



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€1)0 Craineij Jturse anlr 
hospital B^etoieto 



VOL. XXXVIII. 



NEW YORK. APRIL, 1907 



NO 4. 



C|)e JBturse in JBomefitic iLife' 

SAMUEL WOLFE, A.M., M.D. 



THE training school is for the ac- 
quisition of the art of nursing. 
When the opportunities for this purpose 
have been adequately provided, its mis- 
sion may be said to have ended. But it 
begins by a selection of its pupils, re- 
quiring certain standards of health, cul- 
ture and character. Young women who 
enter here must have qualities which 
give promise of a good and useful life, 
in any career they may choose. 

When, therefore, these are committed 
to the influence of those who have to do 
with the inculcation of their professional 
knowledge, it is not more than an equit- 
ablcf demand, that such qualities as are 
required for eligibility shall not be 
weakened or lost, but rather strengthened 
and developed. 

It may be admitted that the tendencies 
of life in an institution like a hospital, 
with duties and responsibilities crowding 
hard and fast on the student, are rather 
to beget mechanical and routine methods 
both in the physical and mental sphere. 
This does not make for the development 
of woman's character in the direction of 
refinement and versatility, as does a good 

♦The Terminal lecture to the Nurses, Samaritan Hosp 
1906. Contributed to The Trained Nurse. 



home life. It can then hardly be out of 
place, that now when that portion of our 
contract which relates to technique and 
drill has been mutually fulfilled, if a 
little time is taken to consider a few de- 
sirable, if not essential, qualities in the 
professional nurse. 

Though a nurse, and a thoroughly 
capable one, she must remain a woman, 
and as such, always competent of taking 
a prominent position in the make-up of 
that combination of conditions which we 
call home. Home is not a country, not 
a city, not a house, though the term is 
often applied in this way. To conceive 
of a home, that in the mind of even the 
most prosaic fulfills the essential require- 
ments, there must always be the central 
figure of a good woman. Wife, mother, 
sister, aunt, or housekeeper — always a 
good woman must be there — and that es- 
sential present, place, house, or environ- 
ment, sink into negative significance. 

In pursuing her calling, the nurse is 
bound to be rather prominently asso- 
ciated with domestic conditions. She is 
admitted to the family for the time being 
as one of its members. Routine life as it 

ital Training School, Philadelphia, Pa., delivered May 11, 



218 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



exists in that home is laid b^re to her, 
and her obligations become delicate and 
sacred. Without any necessary sacrifice 
of true dignity, or proper reserve, she 
must adapt herself to established condi- 
tions and customs; to prevailing senti- 
ment, and to physical and material con- 
ditions. 

In passing through the wide range of 
circumstances which will be encountered, 
in going from the homes of the humble, 
the poor, and the frugal, to those of the 
exalted, the rich and the luxurious, she 
will indeed have need of fine adaptabil- 
ities and strength of character. 

To the thoroughly practical, what are 
some of the requirements toward the at- 
tainment of such an ideal? Let it be un- 
derstood from the outset, that they are 
not difficult of attainment; that they de- 
pend after all on very simple rather than 
on complicated methods. 

The maintenance of neatness in per- 
son and manner. Gaudiness and gaiety 
can hardly be defended, but conformity 
with good style in dress, and manners 
that are pleasing and assurmg. can hard- 
ly be too highly commended. 

Evidences of true culture revealed by 
thoughtfulness, but not by abstraction or 
reverie, shine forth as bright lights in 
the galaxy of accomplishments, and need 
not rest on great profundity of learning 
or higher education, but rather on good 
sense and simplicity of conduct. 

Broad and generous sympathy with 
the every day problems of life, with the 
decision in the dispatch of duty, or the 
solution of situations as they arise, in- 
spire confidence and respect. 

Interest in the domestic surroundings 
without objectionable curiosity, requires 
for its desirable fulfillment, nice adjust- 
ment and balance, and often reveals a 
fine judgment that inspires the most 
healthful sentiment and trust in the ca- 
pacity for professional direction. 



The circumstances often require more 
than mere interest here, however true 
that may be. The full superintendence 
of these matters, in the absence of their 
usual control by the person who is 
now the patient, may have to be assumed. 
The household servants in the wealthy 
family must be kept fully and completely 
in the pursuit of their duties, so that the 
usual order may not be subverted. If 
more than direction has been the usual 
function of the patient, some of the main 
offices of the household may have to be 
actually filled. The government and 
management of younger children, the 
determination of the needs, and the selec- 
tion and purchase and disposition of sup- 
plies, and many other capacities of the 
housekeeper may be necessary. 

In poorer families, what some, might 
consider menial duties, must be done. 
Nothing that will replace the absent sick 
one's duties in the material order of the 
house dare be considered as beneath the 
dignity nor should it be beyond the ca- 
pacity of the nurse. If a crisis, or an 
emergency, or even the maintenance of 
a good average order of things, calls for 
it, she should cook the food, make the 
meals, feed and dress the children, clean 
the rooms; possibly even weed the 
garden and milk the cow. She should 
do these things so well, and so cheerfully, 
that no one would suspect that they be- 
longed outside of the category of her 
usual duties. 

Many a sufl^ering and nervous mother 
could be more successfully soothed to 
rest and resignation by a few fitting 
words of assurance that these things had 
been carefully done, than by any sedative 
which the nurse could administer, after 
long hours of idle and irksome watching, 
which she had given her; she could be 
more invigorated in physical and mental 
strength, thus, than by the most scientific 
elixir of the medical pharmacopoeia. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



219 



The orderly system, whereby the nurse 
establishes her periods of rest and recrea- 
tion, which are not only her right, but 
upon which depends that faithful per- 
formance of duty that can only be main- 
tained when the highest degree of health 
and vigor are conserved, tend to allay all 
dangers of panic and excitement, and 
not only serve in giving without undue 
officiousness the reins of command into 
the proper hands, but convince the 
household that the morale of the occasion 
is of the most perfect kind. 

Compare the picture of a nurse thus 
actuated, with that of one which needs 
not be fanciful, but, sorry to relate, can 
be readily drawn from actual life, from 
all too frequent experience. Proud of 
her professional acquirements, which 
may in a technical sense be of the highest 
order, she establishes herself in her posi- 
tion by stern and unrelenting command, 
shapes all things to her indomitable will 
by the terror and fear which her tone 
and action beget, ruling as an abject 
tyrant, so that no mortal dare cross her 
path, or oppose her desire. Admitting 
as we may, that positions may arise, 
though very rarely, in which the assump- 
tion of such a manner may be necessary, 
and that our former ideal is enhanced, 
if we can add to her qualities, when the 
occasion demands them, such as these, let 
me present a few absolutely adverse 
types. 

Let us assume that in the direct ex- 
ercise of her art, she is not lacking. We 
may have a woman who is narrow, and 
sets herself against the religious or 
moral sentiments of the family; who is 
prejudiced against some member of the 
household and takes every possible op- 
portunity of revealing such feeling, who 
is morbidly curious, and artfully extracts 
confidences which play no part in her 
function, and probably still worse be- 



trays these; who is gossipy and enter- 
tains those around her with all the store 
which she has gathered; or who takes 
advantage of her situation to objection- 
ately ingratiate herself into the emotions 
of a member of the domestic circle. 

I leave it to you, as to which of these 
types you prefer to emulate. As to that 
which I have presented as my own 
choice, I may repeat, that while it com- 
bines qualities that are of a high and 
noble order, it should not be regarded as 
difficult of acquisition. The native pos- 
session of a reasonably attractive phy- 
sique, with mental and moral endow- 
ments, amongst which good judgment, 
tact, industry, kindness and common 
sense abound, will, if patiently brought 
into play, assure realization of an ideal, 
far higher than my words can convey. 

Every successful professional career, 
contemplates as an essential portion of 
it, periods of rest and vacation. No life 
is well regulated unless it admits mo- 
ments, hours and seasons of relaxation 
from routine pursuits. And it is in these 
phases of the career that we are often 
best able to ascertain the real worth of 
the man or woman. At these times the 
domestic tastes and accomplishments of 
the nurse will serve well herself and 
those with whom her lot is cast. Then 
obtrusiveness of professional knowledge, 
to say the least, is not calculated to make 
one popular, and inability to enter into 
the social spirit which pervades the home 
circle, the reception, the picnic, or the 
vacation tour, is sure to bring feelings of 
loneliness and regret. 

And here let us pause a moment to 
ask whether the pride we take in the 
trained nurse, as a produce of our mod- 
em institutions, is fully justified? We 
need not disparage her technical skill, 
nor her superiority over the nurse of 
former times, when opportunities for her 



220 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



training were not systematized nor util- 
ized. But we may admit that in the 
eagerness of the prosecution of these 
modern aims we have possibly some- 
what lost sight of the importance, 
throughout the course, of inculcating the 
principles and art that I have to-night 
advocated as essential. If time will not 
admit of all, might we not cut out, ex- 
cept from the training of a small class 
for specialized purposes, some of the 
anatomy, physiology, chemistry and 
practical medicine and surgery, in order 
to admit methodical training in house- 
keeping, cooking and sewing, and above 
all, in awaking to the full, the moral 
sentiments and social instincts? Then 
that necessary technical ministration, 
which our modern nurses are so highly 
qualified to give, will come softened by a 
humanity, a sympathy, a helpfulness, 
never before fully realized. There are 
signs that indicate that this need is 
recognized by those who have to do with 
this line of education. I submit to the 
directress and corps of instructors of 
this institution the desirability of prac- 
tical steps in this direction, so that our 
school may retain its proud prestige, of 
a most thorough curriculum. 

After all, as a woman, if she is true to 
the nature which God has implanted in 
her; faithful to the design of a benevo- 
lent universe, the nurse must sooner or 
later wrestle with, and decide for her- 
self, the question of marriage. Whether 
she shall make the sacrifice, which a 
negative decision will here entail, in 
order that she may devote her life to 
what must be considered a noble pur- 
pose? 

You need but convince me, that the 
essential education of the professional 
nurse involves to the slightest degree a 
disqualification for marriage, and you 
have made of me a champion for the 



abolition of every training school in ex- 
istence. Nothing that deals with woman 
in the formative period of her character, 
or during the full maturity of her wo- 
manhood, may ever, without meriting 
the strongest condemnation, impede her 
aspiration to this, her holy estate, nor 
place in her way any impediment to its 
divine fulfillment. 

That some of you will take this course, 
is certainly a safe prediction. In my 
somewhat intimate acquaintance with 
annual classes of nurses, during a 
period of many years, I have been 
pleased to note the frequency with 
which they have been selected as life 
partners of professional men — clergy- 
men, lawyers, dentists, pharmacists and 
especially physicians. To revert once 
more to our special subject, how emi- 
nently important that when this end in 
her life is attained, that the nurse should 
possess in a large degree, domestic vir- 
tues. Bear this then alwas in mind, 
that, upon no other foundation will the 
maintenance and perpetuity of conjugal 
affection more securely rest. 

In conclusion, young ladies, now that 
we sever the former relations of pupil 
and teacher, let me say the time of learn- 
ing has not yet ceased. The influence of 
men, women, homes, institutions, will 
continue to act on you, and you on them. 
See that this shall be effective for good. 
That the splendid mental and manual 
training which you carry from this in- 
stitution will be so applied that it may 
expand and grow to even greater pro- 
portions. But more than all, let ten- 
derness, sympathy, humanity, charity, 
kindness, ever diffuse itself into your 
work, shine in your conduct, sanctify 
your lives. Let your heart guide your 
hand; let your womanhood illuminate 
your profession, and let God bless your 
work. 



%\)t present Curriculum from tfje ^omt of 

"ETieto of ti)e jBturiaie 



nr^ HE papers here appended were 
■*- read at the semi-annual meeting 
of the New England Association for the 
Education of Nurses. They represent 
an attempt on the part of the Association 
to obtain criticism of the present curricu- 
lum from those most immediately inter- 
ested. 

The point of view is one. of which too 
little account has been taken in the past, 
and it is to be hoped that further criti- 
cism may be obtained from similar 
sources. 

As most of the nurses who submit- 
ted papers were immediately "connected 
with some institution, or had recently 
been so, they were unwilling that their 
names should be used ; but a short note 
has been added at the beginning of each 
paper to show what experience the writer 
has had, and what reason the committee 
had for regarding her opinion as likely 
to be important. 

I. 

(Written by a graduate of several years' 
standing, of a small hospital, who has had ex- 
perience in the oversight of nurses and in the 
management of a Training School.) 

The three years' course is none too long 
— it is even, possible that six months 
might be added to that with profit. Cer- 
tainly too much time is not spent on 
science, for usually only the fundamental 
facts that are requisite to a thorough 
understanding of nursing are included. 
A preliminary training of from four to 
six months in the sciences and housekeep- 
ing (including cooking) is a distinct ad- 
vantage. There should be a very careful 
supervision of the work, however. Much 
gain would accrue to the nurse if some 



one kept track of all her lectures and 
studies and made sure she understood 
them all thoroughly, while more care- 
ful supervision of the practical work 
would result in habits of greater neat- 
ness and accuracy. 

After the preliminary course, two years 
should be spent in the hospital wards, 
for sufficient experience cannot be 
gained in less time. Two years is long 
enough, however, and the rest of the 
course — whether six months or a year — 
should be devoted to district and private 
nursing. This is especially necessary if 
the nurse intends to take up either of 
these branches after graduation, for 
though a tactful nurse with a wholly 
hospital training can do good work in 
these fields after she has had a little ex- 
perience, it would be greatly to the profit 
of every nurse and even more to the pa- 
tient's profit, for her to get that experi- 
ence during her training, before she re- 
gards her education as in a way com- 
plete. For an instructor should go with 
her to teach her and oversee her work, 
helping her out of her difficulties with 
advice and kindly criticism. As a gen- 
eral thing, if criticism is to bear fruit it 
must be kindly and must show a personal 
interest on the part of the criticisers. This 
personal, sympathetic contact with super- 
intendent and instructors should be one 
of the most potent elements in the nurse's 
training, for not only is example a very 
powerful influence, but kindly criticism 
and advice to the individual at the mo- 
ment when the need is felt is far more 
efficieacious than general advice to a 
class. The strictly professional and of- 
ficial attitude which the superintendent 



222 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



generally assumes, though to a certain 
extent necessary, is carried too far, and 
the nurses, instead of being drawn to her 
and feeling that she is their friend, are 
more apt to be conscious of a critical and 
remote aloofness. The humanitarian 
side of the nurse is not easily developed 
in such an atmosphere, for it takes sym- 
pathy to evoke sympathy. 

II. 

(The writer is a graduate of a small hos- 
pital. Has had experience in private practice 
and in the management of nurses.) 

Under the present system it seems to 
me that there is too much theoretical 
teaching in the early part of the course 
and consequently too little practical work'. 
The hours on duty are too long and as a 
result of this the pupils have insufficient 
time for study and recitation or for recre- 
ation and rest. 

The time is not well divided, thus a 
proper balance is not always maintained 
between duty, study, recreation and rest. 
The following is suggested as a wise ar- 
rangement of probationary courses of 
study : 

Lectures in Hygiene, including per- 
sonal hygiene. 

Anatomy and Physiology. 

Domestic Science, including Scientific 
Cookery and also minor details of the 
care of the home. 

Practical Lessons in Nursing. 

The Operating Room. 

Caring for the Home. 

English Literature and Reading Aloud. 

Note Taking. 

After six months' work In the above 
manner the pupils should be expected to 
pass strict examinations on all topics be- 
fore promotion to the Junior Class. 

I would advise compulsory study hours 
of five evenings per week and assign any 
spare time during the day to out of door 
exercise or recreation. 



One evening each week should be de- 
voted to a social function. Short hours 
should rule wherever possible; in ward 
duty, diet kitchen, operating room or in 
the making of dressings. 

After entering on the work of the 
Junior year the nurses in our school who 
are serving on the wards have too long, 
hard days to make possible a proper men- 
tal condition for study or recitations. For 
instance, they begin the day at 6 a. m. and 
are on duty continuously except for one 
or two hours in the afternoon, until 7.30 
at night. During the time off they are 
expected to write up lectures or study on 
free days, while several afternoons each 
week they must rush from their work 
directly to lecture or class for an hour 
of the closest attention. The consequence 
of all this is, of course, as anyone should 
see, that the pupils get practically no 
time to themselves and yet they are ex- 
pected to be always alert and at "atten- 
tion." 

In order to make the most of their 
training, work should be planned in such 
a manner as to allow free time enough so 
that each pupil should be at her best at 
all times. 

There should be not over eight hours' 
consecutive duty, regular hours for class 
work, for study and for recreation; in 
other words, the most careful system 
should rule at all times. 

During the Junior year ,the following 
lecture courses may be given in as prac- 
tical a manner as possible : 

Surgical Nursing. 

Medical Nursing, 

Obstetrical Nursing. 

The Care of Infants. 

Home Nursing. 

Massage. 

As far as possible the lectures should 
be given in groups, that Is, several lec- 
tures weekly on the sam« subject. If 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



223 



one subject can be finished before taking 
up another so much the better. To con- 
tinue, at the beginning of the second year 
there may be ward and private room duty, 
then regular hospital duty. 

Lectures may go on In the following 
sequence : 

Nursing in infectious and contagious 
diseases. 

Care of the nervous and insane. 

Anaesthesia; 

Materia medica. 

Urinalysis — bacteriology. 

Genito urinary diseases. 

After lectures are finished, opportunity 
should be afforded for Instruction in 
home nursing for a period of one year 
under competent supervision by a nurse 
instructor. There may then come an 
exchange with other hospitals and fur- 
ther duty in the home hospital in ad- 
vanced positions. 

In sending nurses out into families it is 
important that they work under strict 
rules and supervision, otherwise they are 
liable to be imposed upon. It is our duty 
to see that they are protected in their 
work and also that they understand the 
real value of all such training, which is, 
the development of the care-taking in- 
stinct. This is of the first importance in 
the success of the nurse. 

III. 

(Written by a graduate of a large hospital 
who has had experience in a private hospital, 
in private practice, and more recently in charge 
of wards in a large hospital.) 

The present curriculum shows a great 
advance in the right direction. The fact 
that criticism is invited is proof of the 
broadness of mind and liberality of 
thought of its originators. But like all 
healthy growths it requires attention and 
pruning to bring it to its highest per- 
fection. Not only should the needs of the 
nurses be considered but also the require- 



ments of the public to whom the nurses 
minister, and those of the profession 
"whose handmaid nursing is. 

The doctors ask an intelligent, con- 
scientious carrying out of their orders, 
a careful observation of the patient and 
an accurate report of these observations. 

A nurse should be "as wise as a ser- 
pent but harmless as a dove" and 
should come as a blessing to those whom* 
she serves, having constantly in mind the 
thought of "doing unto others as she 
would be done by." She should be wise- 
ly sympathetic, patient, tactfully firm in 
essentials. She should have adaptability 
and the power to practice self-effacement 
and economy. With these qualities she 
should have an exact, thorough, working 
knowledge of nursing. 

The question is : Does the present cur- 
riculum develop the above qualities and 
give the required knowledge in the best 
possible way, with the greatest economy 
of time? This question is of the utmost 
importance to the student nurse who 
wishes to fit herself for her chosen life- 
work by -which she must also earn her 
bread. 

Concentration leads to success. Charles 
Spurgeon says, "know your business and 
give your mind to it. One man will 
carry two pails of water for himself ; two 
men will carry one pail between them, 
and three will come home with never 
a drop at all." 

From the point of view of the nurse, is 
not too much crowded into the curric- 
ulum B 

Should not the preliminary course be 
more practical? It is the testimony of 
some who have taken the preliminary 
courses that so much is crowded into 
them that they cannot properly digest it. 

The preliminary instruction in the 
United States Hospital Corps covers a 
course of two months of forty hours — ap- 



224 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



patently not a minute but what is em- 
ployed profitably with work of practical 
importance. 

Cannot the curriculum of the training 
schools themselves be made more elastic? 

For those who wish to do private nurs- 
ing could not a shorter course be arranged 
which would include the essentials, and 
a supplementary course be provided for 
those who are willing and able to spend 
more time and those who elect to do in- 
stitutional work and to teach? 

Is there not danger in too long a course 
in hospital routine that the nurse will 
lose her sympathy, power of adaptability 
and individuality, that she will come to 
look upon the patient as clinical material 
only? 

Economy both of time and property is 
not always required, or if required, not 
sufficiently explained. Regular instruc- 
tion in the principles and practice of 
economy might be given with profit to 
the nurse, the hospital and the public. 

Last, but not least, the history of nurs- 
ing is sadly neglected in most curricu- 
lums. The name and life of Florence 
Nightingale should be as familiar to 
every nurse as her own, and a thorough 
study of her life should be required of 
every nurse in training. 

IV. 

(Written by a graduate of a large hospital 
who has been head nurse in a large hospital ; 
in charge of wards ; more recently Superin- 
tendent of Nurses in a small hospital.) 

The recent discussion in New York 
concerning the overtraining of nurses has 
incited a great many of those interested 
to come forward and say what they have 
been only thinking for some time. We 
have all heard grumblings and dark hints 
of a return to the comfortable, but ignor- 
ant sick nurse of the last generation as a 
relief from the infliction, as it appears to 
be, of the highly-finished product of to- 



day. Surely much good must come from 
a rational discussion of the matter, and 
perhaps we nurses, who can so seldom 
be made to talk in public, can help a little 
to make things harmonious between the 
physician and ourselves. We are neces- 
sarily inter-dependent, and we cannot ex- 
pect success if our relations are other 
than harmonious. We must make up our 
minds that doctors and the public are the 
best judges of what they need in a nurse. 
Frank criticism must not be resented. It 
may help us to see our faults, for we cer- 
tainly have them. While we vigorously 
condemned Dr. Monroe for his plain 
speaking last year, still his unvarnished 
statements have given us much food for 
thought. 

Our tendency to magnify trifles is il- 
lustrated in a letter by a nurse, appearing 
in a recent number of a nursing journal, 
in which she resents being classed by a 
physician as a poor, deserving young wo- 
man. Why should we have any affecta- 
tion about it? We are poor. Two-thirds 
of us envied the woman who had $5 per 
month outside the hospital allowance, 
which we were supposed to use only for 
tools with which to do our work. We 
cheerfully wore fifty-cent hats and nine- 
teen-cent stockings. Why should we be 
ashamed to own it? We did it because 
we wanted to do nursing more than any- 
thing else in the world. At its best, the 
work is not attractive to those who feel 
otherwise. 

The word "profession" as applied to 
nursing, had not occurred to most of us 
who humbly thought of our work as a 
vocation. There may be some who aspire 
to be "assistants" rather than servants of 
the physicians, but I cannot help thinking 
that they are few, and they will have lit- 
tle influence upon us if we hold fast to 
our ideals. 

There is another thing that we must 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



225 



acknowledge. Besides being poor, we 
are on the whole, of quite ordinary intel- 
ligence. Some of us have had a high 
school education, but many good nurses 
have had less ; and if the medical profes- 
sion would think for a moment it would 
see that we shall be very troublesome on 
account of excess of knowledge, if what 
we fail to take in be deducted from what 
we are taught. Perhaps most of the 
trouble lies in the fact that our little 
knowledge is a dangerous thing. It may 
sound ungrateful to those who have 
striven to provide such a feast for us, 
but it is nevertheless true that most of us 
went to lecture, and scribbled some notes, 
but understood only a small part of what 
was told us. These notes were joined 
together the night before they were to be 
handed in without rpuch logical connec- 
tion, and sometimes with but little idea of 
their meaning. We were supposed to do 
outside reading. We couldn't. It is a 
human impossibility, as only those who 
have tramped hospital wards from twelve 
to thirteen hours a day can know, to 
make the average brain receptive at night. 
And if we did study, did we know how to 
go about it ? Very few nurses appreciate 
the relative values of the many points 
that necessarily come into every lecture. 
Mental training has in many cases been 
limited, and as a result much time is 
wasted and essentials are often over- 
looked. This is particularly true in the 
study of anatomy and physiology. It is 
very difficult for a doctor to get down to 
the level of his audience, and the books 
are either too elaborate or too elementary. 
If nurses were allowed to say how much 
they really need of all they try to learn 
of these subjects, the lectures would be 
fewer and the outlines readily grasped 
because of their very bareness. Materia 
medica is another subject — the dread of 
nurses. Why should it be ? Why do we 



need to know more than the appearance, 
tast, dosage, method of administration 
and poisonous symptoms of a compara- 
tively few every-day drugs? Of what 
importance is it to us to know that opium 
comes from the poppy and digitalis 
from the purple foxglove, if we do not 
know the dose and the symptoms of an 
overdose? Bacteriology and urinalysis 
sound large in the curriculum, but for- 
tunately, as yet few schools expect of us 
more than the barest outline of either. 

What real stress do hospitals lay upon 
this elaborate curriculum? How many 
nurses are dropped for failure to pass 
their technical examinations ? It is tacitly 
acknowledged that theoretical work, after 
ail, means very little. The nurse who is 
at the top in her classes is admired for 
her mental superiority, but she is often 
suspected of doing poor practical work, 
because this combination is so common. 

Give us more practical teaching in or- 
der that we may do the best practical 
work. The time spent in laboriously 
committing to memory the distribution 
of the trigeminal nerve would be bet- 
ter spent in learning how to make our pa- 
tients more comfortable. The complaint 
of every graduating class in large hos- 
pitals is that they do not know how to 
do the little things that make for the 
greater comfort of their patients, knowl- 
edge which will be expected of them in 
private practice. 

The recent innovation of giving nurses 
the advantages of clinical instruction 
similar to that given to medical students 
is an important step in the right direc- 
tion since it gives the nurse a better 
knowledge of the reasons for what she 
is doing. Demonstrations in practical 
work would be most valuable. Why are 
they so few ? 

And now if we count out what we don't 
need from the curriculum would we have 



226 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



to spend so long a time in training? First 
of all we must remember that the greater 
number of trained nurses — the rank and 
file — go into private work and they 
should first of all be equipped for that 
work. But there are many other avenues 
of usefulness open. The trained nurse 
makes an admirable adjunct to the Board 
of Health by visiting their unsanitary 
tenements, and keeping an oversight of 
of the health of the children in the public 
schools. She also finds a place in settle- 
ment work, in army and in district nurs- 
ing. With these possibilities and many 
others in which we may extend our work, 
why shculJ we, in traimng, be all cut 
from the same stock pattern ? 

The first six months of a nurse's train- 
ing are more or less occupied in the pro- 
cess of adaptation to new conditions, and 
in a large hospital, especially, the sweep 
of hospital routine leaves little room for 
the average young woman to grasp the 
meaning of true nursing. She begins 
with the idea of patients' well-being up- 
permost in her mind, but this is sup- 
planted very soon by her desire to excel 
in making show beds. Everybody seems 
to be finding fault with everybody else, 
and before one thing is done there are 
innumerable other things awaiting her 
attention. The result is much mental 
confusion, but out of it all an idea of 
order, never before dreamed of, is being 
gradually unfolded. What wonder it 
some of us get mechanical under this 
strain? Some are never anything else 
but machines, but many are able to re- 
assert themselves, and I believe that many 
more could be saved if more thoughtful 
effort were made at this stage of their 
training. We should less often hear the 
"nurses who are awfully good to their 
patients" spoken of as though they were 
phenomenal. Theoretical teaching, there- 
fore, during these first six months seems 



to me practically useless. But at the end 
of that time, with a mind no longer em- 
barrassed by the hospital routine, I think 
the nurse would not only be found recep- 
tive, but eager to learn the whys of the 
things she was doing. It ought to be 
possible to teach the essentials of nursing 
in two years. 

If a third year is added, instead of 
making it a wearisome repetition of much 
that has gone before, might it not be 
made a period in which the nurse could 
do some elective work? If she has de- 
veloped a special aptitude for personal 
care of single patients why should she 
not be given an opportunity to learn this 
by actual experience in private families 
and not in a private hospital, where the 
conditions are similar to those in the 
general hospital? She would then learn 
how to adjust herself to the family of 
the patient, and to know that failure in 
this respect may mean disaster, even 
though her skill in the actual care of the 
sick was unquestioned. 

The few who have developed excep- 
tional executive ability could be given an 
opportunity to manage a ward, for this 
is, after all, not so very different from 
the care of a small hospital with an equal 
number of beds. If this could be done 
under a competent instructor in hospital 
management, and frequent conferences 
between head nurses who were meeting 
similar problems as our own could be had, 
it would be of immense advantage. In- 
cidentally, I believe that there are no 
teachers of pupil nurses so good as the 
interested head nurse who can be with 
her probationers constantly, following up 
all the little things that mean so much in 
the after career of the nurse. The art of 
teaching is a very real gift, and it must 
offer peculiar attraction to the woman 
who is herself a good nurse, because she 
can thus multiply her usefulness to the 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



227 



sick. It cannot be for the best interests 
of the hospital or the school to put this 
work, as is so often done, in the hands of 
Women who are not much more than 
pretty figure-heads, or women who want 
a rest, or those who are tiniid about 
launching out for themselves. 

With such a preparation it would not 
then be necessary for the nurse to go out 
to "learn" rather than to "do" private 



nursing, to learn to run a hospital, to 
experiment in district work, or to impose 
upon the surgeon her inefficient assist- 
ance ; but she would be equipped in such 
a way as to do credit to her hospital and 
to herself. 

Some of us blunder into a measure of 
success, but more of us fail of our high- 
est development because fearful to at- 
tempt the unknown. 



(Discussion to follow in next number.) 



31 Jfooli jfact or Ctoo 



A. P. REED, M.D. 



FOOD may lose much of its nutritive 
value as well as its palatability by 
recooking and serving, and, I may add, 
its wholesomeness. 

Osmazome is a name given to what 
may be understood as the vital or life 
giving principle of foods — a principle 
that may be destroyed or be<:ome inert 
by improper preparation of good food, or 
that is already absent from bad food. 

Over-cooking, re-cooking, or tardy 
serving, often destroy the flavor of the 
best foods, and it is safe to say that when 
the characteristic flavor of a food has 
departed its osmazome has gone also. 

The ripest fruits and vegetables as well 



as the most matured animals furnish the 
maximum of osmazome and hence the 
maximum of nourishment and whole- 
someness. 

Given a healthy person and the relish 
for a food is generally in line with its 
assimilation. To qualify this statement, 
a keen relish for a food product implies 
its perfect digestion as well as that it is a 
nourishment suited to the needs of the 
system. Not so with the perverted appe- 
tites of morbid conditions, when some 
things may be craved that would be posi- 
tively harmful. 

Relish as a faithful mentor is found 
most surely in the normal person. 




Cfje jBtursing of JBtstascs of t|)c littineps' 



ANNIE E. HUTCHINSON. 



THE kidneys are deeply seated in the 
lumbar region on either side of the 
spinal column. They are most important 
excretory organs, their function being to 
remove fluid and excrementitious sub- 
stances from the body. Any interference 
with this function is soon followed by 
impairment of the general health, owing 
to retention in the blood of the waste 
products that in the healthy individual 
arc eliminated in the urine. 

The kidneys are subject to a variety of 
<l'*seases, but probably the one that the 
average nurse most commonly meets 
with is some form of nephritis, which is 
a;30 known as Bright's disease, so named 
after an English physician. Dr. Richard 
Bright, who, about 1827, discovered that 
tl.c symptoms that characterized it were 
due to an inflammation of the kidneys. 
Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus 
are commonly thought of and classed as 
kidney diseases, but we are told that the 
real source of these troubles probably 
does not lie in the kidneys. Besides 
these, there are a number of diseases 
that may call for surgical operation. 
These include tumors and cysts of kid- 
ney, renal calculus or stone in the kid- 
ney, abscess or some suppurative pro- 
cess in the kidney, movable or floating 
kidney, tubercular kidney and dilatation 
of ^kidney. Sometimes, also, surgical 
treatment ij necessary because of mis- 
placement or malformation, or on ac- 
count of injuries to kidney. 

Regarding the nursing of patients suf- 
fering from diseases of the kidneys, but 
few positive rules that will always apply 
can safely be laid down, as different 



cases of the same disease may vary 
greatly, and the condition of any one 
patient also varies at different times and 
in different stages of the disease. Cer- 
tainly, very much must in each case de- 
pend directly upon the individual con- 
dition of the patient and upon the special 
orders the nurse may receive from the 
medical attendant. Although thus de- 
pendent upon special instructions from 
the doctor, the nurse will be but poorly 
equipped to care for her patient if she is 
unfamiliar with the most approved gen- 
eral management; while the possession 
of a fair knowledge regarding the nature 
of the disease and the symptoms that 
characterize it will enable her to carry 
out the doctor's orders all the more in- 
telligently. 

The nursing of cases that require a 
surgical operation upon the kidney de- 
mand, first, the same thorough aseptic 
precautions and careful preparation for 
operation that are given to other serious 
surgical operations. Later, the most ap- 
proved antiseptic treatment of external 
wound, watchful care regarding repose 
and diet (liquid diet until otherwise 
ordered), and particular attention to 
ordinary individual details; besides 
which it is essential in all such cases to 
pay very particular attention to the char- . 
acter of the urine, as this gives more or 
less evidence of the condition of the kid- 
neys. A chart should be kept and tem- 
perature, pulse and respirations taken 
and recorded about every four hours. 
Diet, all treatment, also evacuations of 
bowels and bladder and characteristics of 
these should be recorded. Specially note 



♦ First prize, in recent prize contest. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



229 



discharges from external wound, any 
tendency to perspiration, headache, 
vomiting, or diarrhoea as well as amount 
and character of urine. 

In healthy adults the average normal 
amount of urine is about fifty fluid 
ounces daily, but this is liable to con- 
siderable variation, according to quantity 
of fluid taken and tendency to perspira- 
tion. While every variation from the 
normal in amount and character of urine 
does not inevitably mean kidney disease, 
yet, as previously stated, it is not infre- 
quently upon the characteristics of the 
urine that the physician is forced to 
chiefly rely to ascertain patient's pro- 
gress in disease or for evidence as to cor- 
rect diagnosis ; consequently, some knowl- 
edge of the characteristics of the urine in 
health and in disease will be a material 
advantage to the nurse whose duty it 
is to make observations during physi- 
cian's absence. 

As a rule the doctor will desire to have 
urine saved for examination, and this 
should always be done in all cases of 
kidney diseases unless otherwise in- 
structed. The urine should be kept for 
24 hours, a sample (from 4 to 8 oz.) of 
mixed urine put in a bottle, corked well 
and saved for examination. If, as may 
be the case, the doctor desires a sample 
of urine passed at any particular time as 
well as, or instead of a sample of mixed 
urine, he will give instructions accord- 
ingly. The characteristic of the urine 
should be noted and recorded each time, 
and the urine for 24 hours should be 
measured and total amount recorded 
upon the chart each morning before the 
doctor's visit. It may sometimes be nec- 
essary to measure and record amount 
each time urine is voided. In some 
hospitals, nurses are frequently re- 
quired to test urine, but in private prac- 
tice the physician usually prefers to at- 



tend to this himself. A knowledge of 
the more elaborate chemical tests, while 
interesting and instructive, are not es- 
sential to the private nurse; but she 
should know how to u^e the urinometer 
to obtain specific gravity, how to obtain 
reaction by means of litmus paper, also 
how to make the ordinary rough bedside 
test for evidence of albumen. The spe- 
cific gravity of urine is desired because 
it gives the relative quantity of its fiuid 
and solid constituents. 

The normal specific gravity ought not 
to vary much from 1020. In order to 
obtain best practical information, spe- 
cific gravity should be taken of mixed 
urine for twenty-four hours. Specific 
gravity is increased in diabetes mellitus 
owing to presence of sugar, and is some- 
times increased in a certain form of ne- 
phritis. In nephritis, however, it is, as 
a rule, lower than normal ; lower, also, in 
diabetes insipidus. 

In order to ascertain whether urine is 
acid, alkaline or neutral, dip litmus pa- 
per in urine — acid urine reddens blue 
paper; alkaline urine turns red paper 
blue; paper is not affected if urine is 
neutral. To test for albumen, boil urine 
in an ordinary glass test-tube held near 
flame of spirit lamp — move tube back 
and forth occasionally to avoid breaking. 
Albumen, if present, coagulates in the 
boiling, and afterwards shows very dis- 
tinctly. The addition of a few drops of 
nitric acid will leave the urine clear if the 
deposit be not due to albumen but to 
phosphates. Albumen in the urine means 
that it has blood serum mixed with it, 
the capillaries of the kidneys having al- 
Towed the blood serum to transude 
through their walls. It is generally re- 
garded as good evidence of Bright's dis- 
ease, although albumen may be present 
without it and absent in this disease. 

Pus in the urine (pyuria) and blood in 



230 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



the urine (hematuria) are certainly con- 
ditions to be specially noted, but they are 
not always an evidence of kidney disease, 
as they may emanate from some other 
part of the urinary tract, or the pus may 
find its way into the urinary tract from 
an outside source and be discharged with 
the urine. Blood in the urine emanating 
from the kidneys sometimes gives it a 
smoky hue. In both forms of diabetes 
kidneys are excited to increased activity 
and amount of urine largely increased. 
Amount is usually much diminished in 
nephritis, also when temperature is high, 
Bright's disease or nephritis is usually 
designated as being simply either acute 
or chronic, but there are numerous sub- 
classifications and finer distinctions. 
Acute nephritis may occur after expos- 
ure to cold, frequently as a sequel to 
the infectious diseases, also sometimes in 
pregnancy. Generally speaking it is 
characterized by scant, highly colored 
urine of low specific gravity and contain- 
ing albumen. In severe cases urine 
may be almost or quite suppressed. 
Dropsy, due to transudation of blood 
serum from capillaries into tissues, is 
present, and may be very great. Patient 
may have considerable fever. Patient - 
should be kept in bed, kept quiet, and 
given fluid diet, preferably milk. If 
vomiting occurs, lime-water may be add- 
ed to mill^, or sometimes a little sod^ bi- 
carbonate is ordered instead. Milk may 
be peptonized, if necessary, or kumyss 
may be substituted. Patient must be 
carefully watched for symptoms of urae- 
mia (urea in the blood), which is the 
gravest danger, although death may also 
occur from oedema of lungs. The urea, 
one of the waste products of the body, 
formed in the liver, and in health elim- 
inated in the urine, accumulates in the 
blood when kidneys fail to excrete it, 
and this gives rise to urea poisoning, or 



uraemia. Besides symptoms mentioned 
(fever, diminished urine and dropsy), 
uraemic poisoning may be characterized 
by headache, sleeplessness, restlessness, 
vomiting, diarrhcea, sudden blindness, 
hemiplegia, delirium, stupor, coma, mus- 
cular twitchings, pulse of high tension, 
veinous congestion of skin, and general 
convulsions. Certainly all these symp- 
toms are not present in every case, and 
they vary in intensity, according to se- 
verity of uraemic poisoning. 

Marked uraemic symptoms occurring 
towards close of pregnancy are known 
as puerperal eclampsia ; are a very grave 
complication and may indicate the neces- 
sity of bringing on labor. Chloroform in- 
halations may be given to control or pre- 
vent convulsions ; if venous congestion is 
excessive, sometimes the physician re- 
sorts to general bloodletting. . The action 
of the heart must be watched to guard 
against cerebral symptoms, which are in- 
dicated by tense pulse due to contraction 
of arteries. To dilate the arteries hypo- 
dermic injections of morphine may be 
given. Other remedies are nitroglycerine, 
chloral hydrate, potassium iodide, also 
sweating. In this connection it may be 
here mentioned that although opium may 
sometimes be ordered, its use being in- 
dicated in certain conditions, it is never- 
theless a drug that must be used with ut- 
most caution in kidney disease as its use 
may be attended with dangerous, even 
fatal results. 

The chief point for the nurse in charge 
of a patient suffering from marked urae- 
mia is to remember to watch the char- 
acter of the pulse and the heart's action. 
A tense pulse indicates danger of cere- 
bral attack. Muscular twitchings or 
twitching of groups of muscles may be 
the forerunner of general convulsions 
artd indicate the necessity of resorting to 
preventive treatment. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



231 



The general treatment for ifraemic 
poisoning is to restore kidneys to natural 
activity and to excite skin and alimentary 
tract to increased temporary activity, for 
when the kidneys fail to perform their 
functions, this is to a certain extent as- 
sumed by the skin and intestines. Diur- 
etics are given to increase discharge of 
urine. Purgatives (frequently saline) 
are g^ven to increase activity of bowels. 
Increased perspiration is secured by 
means of heat and moisture. Warm water 
baths, hot air baths, or hot packs may be 
ordered. These measures are inclined to 
be -exhausting and the nurse must give 
them, not freely, but according to special 
orders. 

The hot pack is given much as the cold 
pack, but instead of a cold wet sheet be- 
ing used, the patient is wrapped up in a 
blanket wrung out of hot water. Hot 
pack may be prolonged for an hour and 
given twice a day, but length of time and 
frequency must depend upon condition of 
individual. Dropsy is diminished by 
sweating, diuresis and purging. The 
majority of patients recover from acute 
nephritis, but this certainly is not the in- 
variable issue. Though death may not 
occur the patient may not entirely re- 
cover as the disease may assume the 
chronic form. When nephritis occurs in 
such diseases as pneumonia and typhoid, 
the kidneys usually return to their normal 
condition when patient recovers from 
the primary disease. 

Oironic nephritis is developed insidu- 
ously and may last for years. Although 
there are some authentic records of re- 
covery, at least in earlier stages, it is 
commonly looked upon as a fatal affec- 
tion. Uraemia is likely to occur, espe- 
cially in latter stages, and the symptoms 
of acute nephritis may characterize it in 
greater or less degree. In one form of 
chronic nephritis urine is not diminished, 



but increased. The diet in chronic nephri- 
tis must vary according to patient's condi- 
tion, milk diet being sometimes indicated, 
at other times a liberal and varied diet 
being desirable. Indigestion must always 
be carefully guarded against. Much 
flesh food increases formation of urea. 

In the later stages this disease often 
entails great suffering upon its victims in 
consequence of excessive dropsy and 
dyspnoea. Dyspnoea may be due to fluid 
in pleural cavities, oedema of lungs, pres- 
sure on diaphragm by fluid in abdomen 
or disturbances of circulation, and, 
though probably occurring only at inter- 
vals when first manifested, often becomes 
a constant symptom in later stages, the 
difficulty of breathing being so great that 
the patient is sometimes unable to lie 
down at all. This most distressing condi- 
tion may last for a long time and certainly 
calls for utmost kindness and considera- 
tion on the part of the nurse, whose pa- 
tience, strength and ingenuity may be se- 
verely taxed in the endeavor to render 
the patient as comfortable as possible. To 
give drugs that will stupify the patient 
and render him in some degree insensi- 
ble to his sufferings is about all that med- 
ical science can do to give relief at this 
stage. 

In diabetes mellitus, the diet is a mat- 
ter of primary importance. All articles 
containing starch and sugar should, as 
far as possible, be avoided. Milk, the 
diet usually relied upon when ordinary 
food is contraindicated, is to be avoided 
in this. Diet may include meats (except- 
ing liver), eggs, butter, cream, cheese 
and such vegetables as spinach, cabbage, 
lettuce, celery, onions and any other non- 
starchy ones obtainable. Tea and coffee 
may be taken, without sugar, but sweet- 
ened with glycerine if desired. Variety 
of diet is an important point for the pa- 
tient, and the securing of it is sometimes 



232 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



a rather hard problem for the nurse. The 
great drawbacks is lack of bread that 
does not contain a great deal of starch. 
Breads made out of a variety of sub- 
stances are used, a bread made out of 
ground wheat bran being much favored 
by some. While it is necessary to know 
what may or may not be given, the nurse 
will in almost every instance receive spe- 
cial orders in respect to diet. Thirst is 
often a very annoying symptom of dia- 
betes. To relieve this, patient may be 
given lemonade without sugar, or per- 
haps some other drink, a few drops of 
diluted phosphoric acid or citric acid in 
water, for instance, — may be ordered. 

Diabetes insipidus is much less grave 
a disease. Diet need not be so greatly re- 
stricted. The general care of patients 



suffering from kidney diseases will gen- 
erally include a daily bath to keep skin 
clean and active. Room should be well 
ventilated and kept at temperature most 
agreeable to patient or desired by physi- 
cians. When urine is saved for twenty- 
four hours, the vessel containing it 
should most certainly never be left in pa- 
tient's room. The usual detailed daily 
record of treatment, diet, symptoms, etc., 
should be kept. 

In concluding, one may say that the 
most desirable qualifications a nurse can 
possess in any case — vigilance, careful- 
ness, promptness, devotion to duty, solici- 
tude for the patient's comfort, etc. — are 
certainly desirable in these cases, not only 
because they may be very critical but also 
because they are sometimes so hopeless. 




THE GOOD SAMARITAN HOSPITAL, VALDEZ, ALASKA. 



Jtotcs on tije Jlurstns of Plural atiD (!^pljti)almit 



MARY H. TUFTS 

{Continued from March.) 



DRESSINGS AFTER AURAL OPERATIONS 

The surgeon himself usually does the 
dressings after plastic operations upon 
the external ear, but the nurse must 
have the following supplies ready: 
Antiseptic soap and hot water, and bi- 
chloride solution, I :iooo, with which to 
cleanse the doctor's hands; any other 
antiseptic or irrigating solutions that he 
may designate; sterile absorbent cotton; 
dressing-pads of gauze and cotton; 
gauze bandage two and one-half inches 
wide, and a roll of zinc oxide adhesive 
plaster, one inch wide. 

After paracentesis operations, a 
douche is always used; and directions 
for giving these, as most surgeons de- 
sire, have been given in a previous paper. 
The irrigating fluid and irrigator should 
be sterile. 

After the douche, the canal of the 
ear should be dried with absorbent 
cotton, and a dressing used within the 
canal, if the surgeon so desires. Some- 
times sterile cotton is used. Sometimes 
sterile cotton, that has been dipped in 
lo per cent, boroglycerid, or ichthyol and 
glycerine, one drachm to the ounce. 
Packing the canal with plain sterile or 
boric acid or iodoform gauze is some- 
times employed. 

After paracentesis of the ear-drum, 
the entire ear may be covered with a 
pad of sterile cotton, held in place with 
gauze bandage. 

The dressings after mastoid opera- 
tions are the most particular of any. It 
is absilutely necessary to have every 



aseptic detail carried out, if the wound 
is to be kept from infection. 

The nurse should have ready for the 
doctor the following dressings: Hot 
water and antiseptic soap, bichloride 
solution, I :iooo, cold sterile water, ster- 
ile salt solution, and sterile nail-brush, 
sterile dressings of absorbent cotton in 
pledgets, loose cotton, gauze pads of 
about two and one-half inches square, 
iodoform or any other antiseptic gauze 
the surgeon may desire, a sterile pow- 
der blower containing iodoform or 
aristol, gauze bandages of about three 
inches in width, and a set of sterile 
dressing instruments. 

After the surgeon has disinfected his 
hands, the nurse cuts the bandages and 
removes the gauze dressing down to the 
last layer of gauze covering the wound, 
the surgeon exposing the wound with 
sterile hands. A bowl of antiseptic or 
sterile solution is now handed to him, 
with which to wash off the skin of the 
mastoid region before removing the 
packing. The external ear is cleansed, 
and the canal irrigated with sterile so- 
lution, also, before the packing is re- 
moved. 

After the canal of the ear has been ir- 
rigated and wiped dry with a sterile 
cotton-applicator, the gauze packing 
should be removed with sterile forceps, 
and the wound irrigated thoroughly with 
normal salt solution. While the irriga- 
tion is being done, the nurse should lift 
the external ear upward and forward, so 
as to open the wound. 



234 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



After the irrigation, the head should 
be turned to one side, so that the excess 
of fluid will drain from the mastoid 
wound. The surface is then dried with 
cotton-applicators; iodoform or aristol is 
usually dusted or blown upon the granu- 
lations, and the cavity again packed with 
antiseptic gauze. This packing is a 
delicate and particular piece of work ; as, 
if all parts of the cavity are not equally 
filled, a troublesome sinus will be formed, 
from the granulations having sprung up 
more luxuriantly in some places than in 
others. This is a very painful part of 
the dressing; at times during the first 
dressings, amounting to an exquisite 
torture. And the nurse should support 
the patient's head while it is being done. 
The first gauze is introduced upward 
and forward into the mastoid antrum, 
and the packing on this should be for- 
ward over the upper surface of the 
wound, to the region of the lateral sinus. 
The packing here must be very delicately 
done, or the sinus may be torn. 

After these regions have been filled, 
the gauze is packed in from above, 
straight inward, until the whole cavity is 
evenly filled. 

The incision through the skin must be 
packed more firmly, to keep it open as 
long as possible. 

Sterile gauze or cotton is packed 
lightly into the external ear or canal; 
folded sterile gauze, either plain or of 
iodoform, is laid over the wound; the 
remainder of the gauze is laid over the 
external ear; a pad of cotton, if the 
discharge is profuse, is placed over this. 



and the whole secured with gauze 
bandage. 

The nurse is usually required to ban- 
dage the dressing, and it should be done 
carefully, so as to lie smoothly and to 
retain the inner dressings close to the 
wound, and at the same time to be com- 
fortable. 

The dressings are done every day 
while the discharge is free and thereafter 
every two or three days, if there is lit- 
tle pus, decreasing the frequency of the 
dressings as the discharge ceases. 

If the wound is not healed from the 
bottom, pus-pockets or fistulas will form, 
which may continue to discharge for 
months, sometimes. 

If these fistulas become infected, it 
may be necessary to open up the wound 
again and curette the infected granula- 
tions out. 

The average duration of the heal- 
ing process, after the mastoid opera- 
tion, is from six to thirteen weeks; 
but, even with excellent surgical treat- 
ment and dressing, an open sinus and 
discharge have been known to persist 
for thirteen months. These cases were 
following second operations for acute 
mastoiditis ; and the mastoid cells had 
never filled in at all after the first opera- 
tion, in which they had been curetted 
away. 

All instruments for mastoid dressings 
should be as carefully sterilized, as be- 
fore a laparotomy operation; and if the 
first dressings are in any case given to 
a nurse to do she must observe, in every 
way, a rigid aseptic technique. 



{To be continued.) 



iiursiing tije J^ursins iEotJjer 



A. P. REED, M. D. 



THE problem of the uterus resum- 
ing its normal size after labor 
(involution) is largely influenced by 
feeding the infant from the breast — 
mothers who nurse their infants — 
having a more rapid and perfect invo- 
lution, there being an intimate connec- 
tion between the mammae and the uterus. 

As pertains to the child more bottle 
fed than breast fed babies die. 

These are two great arguments that 
should be brought to bear with force 
whenever the question of to nurse or 
not to nurse is raised. Armed with 
these arguments not only the physician 
but the nurse may have much influence 
in safeguarding both mother and child. 

Granted that the woman is to nurse, 
everything should become subservient 
to her doing it well — hence everything 
must be subservient to her health. 

Fatigue, worry., and emotional ex- 
citement, must be placed at the mini- 
mum, and eliminated altogether if pos- 
sible from her program, while the best 
of air and the maximum of sleep should 
be secured. 

That this latter may be had, one nurs- 
ing in the night is all that should be al- 
lowed from the start, even this being 
discontinued after six months or so. 

If these methods are instituted in the 
beginning good—habits will be as easily 
formed as bad ones. 

Incidentally I wish here to say, that 
regularity in feeding is a most import- 
ant factor in the care of these cases. 

If the infant fails to take hold of the 
nipple, or for any reason gets discourag- 
ed trying to nurse, drawing the nipple 
well o^ istening it with sugared 



barley water, if possible also, squeez- 
ing out a drop of milk, will be found to 
be an inducement for the child to re- 
sume its attempts. Repetitions of this 
process will often result in getting a re- 
fractory child to nurse. 

Knowledge of nursing in the case of 
the woman with her first baby, does 
not come instinctively and must be in- 
culcated, while if there is anyone need- 
ing regulation it is the nursing mother. 

The infant should nurse on its side, 
both breasts being used alternately. The 
position of the mother while nursing 
should be in a low chair, and be as 
comfortable as possible, while every 
care should be taken to preserve a hap- 
py and tranquil mind. 

It is very important that the mother 
should not nurse in an over-heated con- 
dition, or after any profound nervous 
irritation. After each nursing which, 
with a strong, healthy child may last 
about fifteen minutes, the nipples should 
be cleansed with a mild solution of boric 
acid. Where more milk is desired, it is 
a safe proposition to increase the liquids 
of the diet, and where less is wanted to 
diminish these. • 

Where from an over-secretion of milk 
or from other cause the breasts are too 
pendulous, a firm binder made of one 
or two thickneses of muslin passed 
around the lower portion of them and 
pinned upward from below, will add 
much to the woman's comfort. 

In addition to a dry diet for diminish- 
ing the milk flow, the local application 
of a lotion of laudanum and belladonna 
is a valuable adjunct. 

This should be greatly massaged in. 



an aiasfean flospital 



EMILY HARRISON BANCE. 



ABOUT five hundred miles west of 
Sitka, which little city, until the 
summer of nineteen hundred and six, pre- 
ceded Juneau as Alaska's capital, and 
eighteen hundred miles from Seattle, is 
the little town of Valdez. 

Valdez is prettily situated on Valdez 
Bay, an inlet of Prince William Sourd. 
and the coast scenery of this part of 
Alaska is considered most picturesquely 
beautiful. Hinckebrook Island is at the 
entrance of the sounti and the many isl- 
ands and inlets, the grandeur of the 
mountains, many of which are glacial, 
make the voyage ideal. 

In the year of nineteen hundred and 
two, the Rev. Jules Prevost visited Val- 
dez, then a small town four years old, and 
built a little Episcopal church, thus 
founding the Mission of the Epiphany. 

The hospital of the Mission was 
built in nineteen hundred and three and 
was then a very primeval affair, for the 
interior was unfinished, the walls and 
floors having no covering. Little by lit- 
tle improvements were made, as money 
and donations were sent from the East. 
During the summer of 1906, the final 
completions were made and at the pres- 
ent time, the little hospital of "The Good 
Samaritan," an important factor of the 
Mission of the Epiphany, can hold her 
own with many older hospitals in the 
United States. 

The little town of Valdez is wonder- 
fully situated. Snow-covered mountains, 
varying from four to six thousand feet 
in height, encircle the town and Valdez 
Bay which is almost landlocked. 

Town and bay are on sea-level and 
north of the town, and visible from every 
point is Valdez Glacier; icy, wonderful 



•and sublime. The magnificent grandeur 
of the glacier mountains and bay are a 
continual source of inspiration. From 
every window of the hospital the view is 
magnificent ; mountains on every side, the 
landlocked bay having the appearance of 
an inland lake. 

Steamers enter the bay through the 
narrows, a passage between the moun- 
tains, and although the bay is ten miles 
long and so deep that its true depth has 
never been ascertained, it looks quite 
small, owing to the high altitude of the 
mountains. Across the bay is Fort Sis- 
cum, a United States army post. 

A four-hundred-mile trail leads from 
Valdez to Fairbanks and' from this trail 
many of the patients are brought to The 
Good Samaritan, for there is no other 
hospital between Fairbanks and Valdez. 

This little institution has accommo- 
dations for ten patients, and in her ward, 
men from all over the world are cared 
for — Japanese, Swedes, Englishmen, 
Russians, aliens and natives — for Alaska 
if anything, is cosmopolitan. 

The new operating room is well equip- 
ped and well lighted, for the work is, in 
great part, surgical owing to accident and 
frost-bite. 

The hospital has the contract for nurs- 
ing those injured or taken sick while em- 
ployed on the railroad which is being 
built from the coast into the interior. 
The building is well appointed with elec- 
tric lights and telephone and on the first 
floor, besides the ward, two private 
rooms and the operating room, are a 
cosy dining-room and the large kitchen, 
a coal and wood room, bathroom, two 
lavatories and a large, well-supplied 
store-closet. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



237 



On the upper floor are four good-sized 
rooms and a large linen-closet. 

One room is for the servant, an Alue- 
tian girlj educated in Carlisle College, 
Pennsylvania, and the other three are 
used by the nurses. 

The milkman calls daily with fresh 
cow's milk, for the town boasts a good 
dairy and milk is only fifteen cents a 
quart, which is very reasonable, consider- 
ing our proximity to the Arctic Circle. 

All the laundry is done by a good 
steam laundry company who send for 
and deliver it. The delivery wagon con- 
sists of a good-sized sled and a dog-team. 
Dogs are .used to a great extent in 
Alaska, owing to their endurance and 
capability to go over a narrow trail. 

The food used in the hospital would 
be a surprise to many an eastern epi- 
cure. Easterners think that all we get to 
eat in Alaska is bacon and hard- 
tack. 

Steamers of two routes from Seattle 
(the inside passage and the outside pas-' 
sage) stop at Valdez, bringing all the 
best products, vegetables, fruit and 
meat from Washington State, whose 
wonderful food producing farms are un- 
excelled. 

Up until Christmas raw tomatoes are 
procurable. In summer we get all the 
California fruits, and grapes, oranges, 
lemons and bananas we have all winter. 
Then from Alaska itself, we get wild 
duck and rabbit, venison, ptarmigan, fish, 



mountain-sheep and bear, so there is no 
danger of starvation. 

All the sheets, blankets, rubber goods 
and patients' garments are sent to The 
Good Samaritan Hospital from New 
York City by the Episcopal church, and 
needless to say, they are of the best. 

Tall Cottonwood trees surround the 
hospital and owing to the pure atmos- 
phere, pure water and general climate, 
patients, especially surgical ones, do well 
and there are few deaths. 

The building like all Alaskan dwell- 
ings is built of wood, having no plaster. 
Between the outer and inner walls, thick 
waterproof paper is inserted and this 
keeps out the cold. 

In the spring when the thaw comes, 
the ground settles, so plaster in building 
is not feasible. 

The years will pass by and wild pic- 
turesque Alaska, with its weird and 
dreamlike scenery, which seems to the 
eastern world so mysterious and remote, 
will some day be a surprise to all. 

Civilization has made rapid strides 
during the past few years, and with the 
building of the railroads into interior 
Alaska, soon the church will grow and 
with its growth and the spreading influ- 
ence of Christianity, larger hospitals as 
well as other institutions will be built 
throughout the country. 

Let us all look forward to and re- 
joice in the coming possibilities in the 
future of Alaska, the great Northwest. 



digits of t|)e Cimes, JBietospaper Comments on 

JBtursing Subjects 



TRAINED NURSE PROBLEM. 

I "^HE recent ^ widespread epidemic of 
■*• grip, scarlet fever, diphtheria and 
pneumonia, which has prevailed in and 
around Boston, has set on a world of 
eager and anxious discussion of the prob- 
lem of an adequate supply of nurses to 
cope with such situations. If a bird in 
the hand is worth two in the bush, so, in 
the common judgment, is a trained nurse 
in the house worth two peripatetic or au- 
tomobiling doctors; in other words, the 
conviction that perpetual vigilance is far 
more the price of a patient's recovery 
than all the contents of the materia med- 
ica. 

Yes, very true, is the answer heard on 
all sides. But then, just as terrapin and 
canvasback ducks are for millionaires and 
promoters alone, so is it with trained 
nurses. On such terms, a millionaire can 
afford to be sick, as long as he enjoys it. 
Far from turning either his household or 
his income upside down, this does not 
start a ripple on the surface of his domes- 
tic ^cori'omy. Indeed, if a bachelor, he 
may find the experience so delightful as 
to decide to marry his nurse and so live 
in clover ever after. 

Not so, however, with the average 
family, closely put to it to make the two 
ends meet at the close of the year. After 
the sick husband or wife or school-teach- 
ing daughter has got well, something 
must be left in the locker to live on for 
the rest of the year. Not that the trained 
nurse is not a wonderful boon while in 
charge. She lifts a load of painful dis- 
tress from the hearts of the anxious 
household. She increases the chances of 
the patient's recovery. She enables the 
bread-winners of the family to go on 



earning their accustomed salaries. Only, 
it is a question how to raise the where- 
withal, if the case is a protracted one, 
without running into debt; the question 
of paying her well earned $20 a week, 
'along with the medical charges of the 
doctor and other inevitable extras. 

Here, then, emerges a weighty practi- 
cal problem which is engaging the minds 
of many thoughtful physicians who are 
to-day discussing it in the medical jour- 
jials. They seem unanimous in the opinion 
that the body of thoroughly trained 
nurses, who have spent three or four 
years in hospital service, in order to grad- 
uate with requisite diplomas, needs im- 
peratively to be supplemented with a 
'!body of less specialized attendants at the 
bedside who would yet prove of invalua- 
ble use in less critical cases, and entail far 
less expense. But they must not belong 
to an unintelligent, ignorant and unre- 
fined class of the community, and more- 
over must have gone through a certain 
amount of hygienic and physiological 
study. — Boston Evening Herald, Jan. 21. 

TRAINED NURSES. 

The bill prepared by the registered 
nurses of Pennsylvania and presented to 
the legislature for consideration, appears 
to have aroused a tempest of unexpected 
fury. Promoters of the measure contend 
that its intention is simply to protect the 
graduate nurse in the right to call herself 
such, and to prevent the inexperienced 
from assuming the title that belongs to 
the graduate who has earned the honor 
by hard work and study. If this is the 
only purpose of the bill, there can be lit- 
tle objection to legislative approval. 

But an organization known as the 
Pennsylvania State Committee on Nurs- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



239 



ing contends that there are many serpents 
concealed in the innocent looking bill, and 
they have attacked the proposed law with 
unusual vigor. In campaign literature 
which is being freely distributed about 
the State, the committee asserts that the 
real object of the nurse registration bill 
now before the legislature is to maintain 
high prices, and crush rivals. The State 
is asked to put a special mark of excel- 
lence on a few nurses, regardless of their 
qualifications. Three nurses, they say, are 
to be given the power to accept or reject 
any applicant for registry ; they can also 
revoke the certificate of registry after it 
is granted, according as it may suit their 
personal whims, spite or fancy. 

The fact that the bill calls for a board 
of examiners of five members, three of 
whom shall be trained nurses, who have 
power to frame such rules as they "deem 
advisable," would seem to bear out the 
contention of the Committee on Nursing. 

If such is the case, the measure would 
be modified to meet the requirements of 
the situation. Trained nurses, who have 
spent three or four years in hospitals, fit- 
ting themselves for the work, are certain- 
ly entitled to protection against the un- 
trained who often assume the title of 
"graduate nurse." But the lawmakers of 
the State will do well to frown upon any 
scheme that will create a monopoly or 
leave the regulation of the business of 
nurses in the hands of persons who would 
have power to* vent spite or indulge in 
favoritism. — Scranton, Pa., Tribune, Feb. 
26. 

UNTRAINED NURSES. 

Doctors are expected to work for noth- 
ing when the patient cannot pay, and for 
little when the patient can pay only a lit- 
tle. Practically all of them recognize an 
obligation as well as an expectation to do 
this, and practically all of them meet it — 
more or less — and even things up when 



they can, by making the rich patients pay 
for the poor ones, too. 

However, it may come to be in time, 
the trained nurse does not yet acknowl- 
edge any duty to serve except at a salary 
which, though only fairly proportioned to 
the years she must devote to the acquisi- 
tion of her skill, is, if not quite prohibi- 
tive to people of moderate means, an ap- 
proach to ruinous when the illness is pro- 
longed, and quite beyond the reach of the 
really poor, even when the malady is 
short. But trained nursing has come to 
be an essential and important part of 
medical and surgical practice, and thus a 
difficult problem has arisen for that great 
majority ivho, though unable to pay from 
$20 to $40 a week in addition to the doc- 
tor's bills, yet are well aware that they 
cannot safely depend on uninstructed 
care, no matter how tender. 

According to a writer in The New 
York Medical Journal, the way out of 
this difficulty lies in the creation and em- 
ployment of what he calls untrained 
nurses. By that term he means, not the 
stupid, superstitious, and surgically un- 
clean old women who infested sick rooms 
in other days, but women who, whik th y 
have not had two or three or four years 
of hospital experience, yet have prepared 
themselves for their work by the intelli- 
gent study of the excellent books now 
available, with or without the supervision 
of a "correspondence school." While 
these women will be without the ability of 
the regularly trained nurse and are not 
competent to take the most serious cases, 
they do more than fairly well, according 
to this authority, in the far greater num- 
ber of ordinary cases, are a vast improve- 
ment on the only alternative, arid can 
afford to work for much less than their 
better equipped sisters. 

So the writer of the article asks for 
formal recognition of this class, the mem- 



240 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



bers of which are real nurses with mod- 
erti ideas and information, though they 
cannot claim to be what are known as 
"trained" nurses. He rejoices that their 
number is growing rapidly, and there 
may be in his remarks just a hint that 



these women, self-trained rather than un- 
trained, are sometimes an improvement 
on the nurse who has been overtrained, 
who poses as half a doctor herself, and 
who often follows her own judgment in- 
stead of the real- doctor's orders. 

— Neiv York Times, Jan. i8. 



(Bnt of 



J. EVANS SCHEEHLE, M.D. 



THERE is no other class of individ- 
uals who are so closely brought in 
touch with the tragedies and joys of the 
genus hominis as is the medical 
profession, it being the privilege of the 
doctor to study human nature in all of 
its changing phases, and there is no 
place more conducive to such study than 
in the wards of a large hospital. 

While thousands of cases are annually 
treated in a large hospital, yet there are 
certain of those cases that are branded 
on the memory with the red-hot iron of 
association. 

One case in particular I shall never 
forget. I was sitting in my room en- 
joying my after-dinner cigar, with my 
feet stretched out before the cheering 
influence of an open fireplace, thinking 
of my distant home and wondering what 
was going on there ; in short, everything 
looked promising for a pleasant and 
peaceful evening — the patients in the 
wards were all doing fine and my rever- 
ies were of the pleasantest nature. 

While I was thus engaged there was 
a knock at my door, and the night or- 
derly came in with an ambulance sum- 
mons. 

The case was coming in on a special 



train, and we made a quick run to the 
depot. It was only a boy — same old 
story — riding a freight and fell between. 
The leg was so badly crushed that I was 
obliged to cut the hanging member loose 
with my scissors; and, after .checking 
the hemorrhage, the return trip to the 
hospital was begun. We did not spare 
our horses, and well was the need of 
urgent speed — a life was in the balance; 
already the lips were pale, the pulse 
thready, and that awful thirst which is 
always evident after severe hemorrhage 
was only too well marked. 

An immediate operation was out of 
the question, the shock following the 
injury being too great, and to have op- 
erated at such a time would only have 
hastened the coming of the "end." 

After the necessary means of com- 
bating shock had been instituted, the 
little lad was put to bed, closely wrapped 
in warm blankets. He was a dear little 
chap, scarce fourteen, but just as full 
of pluck and grit as one could ever hope 
to see, and while he was suffering the 
most agonizing pain, yet he never whim- 
pered. His whole concern seemed to be 
for his mother, who was kneeling beside 
the bed and weeping as though her heart 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



241 



would break. "Don't cry, mother," he 
said, "I will be all right; I know I have 
lost my leg, but I have got you, and 
when I get well I can get a cork leg, 
like Sam Winters has; can't I, doctor?" 
I assented, although I feared for the 
worst. 

The mother told me, with many sobs, 
the story of their home life. All well 
the first part ©f her married life, a good 
husband, whose whole pleasure was in 
his family, until he was induced to take 
part in the politics of their town — you 
know the story, "drink and the devil 
had done for the rest, and it had done 
the same to him." Matters had gone 
from bad to worse, until finally she was 
obliged to leave him and earn a scant 
living for herself and only boy, Freddy. 
Then Providence stepped in and en- 
acted the present tragedy. 

I knew the father, as he had been an 
inmate of the institution on several oc- 
casions with that dread terror of every 
drinking man, delirium tremens, or, as it 
was more commonly spoken of in the 
house, the D.Ts. I knew his haunts, and 
dispatched a messenger for him, and he 
was soon on the scene. 

There are some things which are al- 
most too sacred to record, and, hard- 
ened though I was to such scenes, yet 
my heart was wrung by the meeting be- 
tween that dying boy and his reprobate 
father. Strong man though he was and 
hardened and coarse, from his associa- 
tions and too-frequent indulgence in 
strong drink, yet he broke down and 
wept like a child when he saw the little 
lad, whom he had formerly cherished 
with so much pride and joy, so close to 
the other side. 

The boy's condition had rapidly grown 



worse, and, with that intuition which 
often comes to the dying, he recog- 
nized that he was beyond human aid. 
"Mother," he said, "it is getting dark; 
I am going to die, but I am not afraid, 
because papa is going to take care of 
you when I am gone ; won't you, papa ?" 
he said, feeling for his father's hand. 
Silently that wreck of a former gentle- 
man took his hand, and the little lad 
clasped it over that of his mother's, who 
had up to this time remained a silent, 
broken-hearted spectator. "Father, won't 
you promise me ?" he said. His father 
said : "Yes, Freddy, I am going to stay 
with mother and never leave her again; 
I have' wrecked and neglected the great- 
est treasure that God ever blessed man 
with, a good wife and a good son; but 
I will start over again and with His help 
will try and make amends." 

The little life was fast ebbing away, 
the little voice almost stilled; he was 
panting for breath, and that the end was 
near was evident to all. Suddenly he 
started up: "Oh, mother, father, it is so 
beautiful; don't you heac it; they are 
singing the Hallelujah chorus, the one 
we sing at Easter, Hallelu}ah — Halle- 
lujah, to the Lord," and the little voice 
broke and Freddy was no more. 

God had taken him to His own, and 
while He left an irreparable void in 
that mother's heart, yet he united two 
estranged lives, and as that mother and 
father slowly and sadly left the ward the 
words of that old familiar hymn coursed 
through my brain: 

"God moves in a mysterious way, 
His wonders to perform, 
He plants His footsteps on the sea. 
And rides upon the storm." 



practical ^uggesttotts 



MARIE B. VANDERGON. 



Graduate Nurse of Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, Minn. 



T SUBMIT a few suggestions which I 
■*■ think may be of some' help to the 
readers of your splendid journal, '*The 
Trained Nurse." I have gained con- 
siderable information as well as pleas- 
ure from reading its pages every month, 
although I am not a subscriber, but in- 
tend to be very soon. So far, a kind 
friend has given them to me to read 
after she was through with them. 

But now I must give a discription of 
the drawings I am sending — have found 
these little articles a great convenience. 
They are simple and therefore very 
easily made. The ice-bag cover is made 
of either unbleached muslin, outing 
flannel or flannel; the cloth mentioned 
first is nice where the ice-cap is used on 
the head and the flannel cover where the 
ice-bag is applied over the abdomen or 
chest. "In making it cut out two circular 
pieces of cloth to fit the bag, cut a small 
circular hole in the center of one of the 
pieces, also cut two small openings in 
the same piece on either side of the hole 
opposite each other. At each upper cor- 
ner of these openings sew tape (these are 
to be tied after the bag is slipped through 
the opening into the case). Sew the two 
circular pieces together. A good way to 



finish the cover nicely is to bind it with a 
strip of cloth on the bias, bind openings 
in the same way. No. i is upper part of 
cover, and No. 2, under part of same. 

Have found the little case for glass 
tubes, etc., very convenient in hospital 
us'j. This ca?e is made out of white oil- 
cloth. A piece of the oil-cloth is stitched 
on a larger piece of the same. And this 
smaller piece is stitched on so as to make 
pockets for the tubes, spoons, etc. This 
case is to be placed where it is most con- 
venient where nourishments are pre- 
pared. 

The next is a bed-pan or rather douche 
pan cover. No. i is the part which pro- 
tects the back of the patient from the 
cold pan ; this part is made out of cheese- 
cloth and cotton in between and then 
quilted. No. 2 fits half-way under the 
pan (this is simply a piece of cheese- 
cloth or muslin. No. 3 is sewed between 
these two pieces, tapes are sewed on 
either of this part where the little 
crosses (x) are made in the drawing, 
this little case is easily slipped over the 
part of the pan where it is needed and 
tied in front of the pan to keep the cover 
in place, the quilted pad without the 
other -parts can be used if preferred. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 243 



L%*cv^ 




T^ i^ ' 'hn'^^ LcfL 






Prayer-Perfect. 



Dear Lord, kind Lord, 

Gracious Lord, I pray 
Thou wilt look on all I love 

Tenderly to-day! 
Weed their hearts of weariness; 

Scatter every care 
Down a wake of angel-wings 

Winnowing the air. 



Bring unto the sorrowing 

All release from pain; 
Let the lips of laughter 

Overflow again. 
And with all the needy, 

O dinde, I pray. 
This vast treasure of content 

That is mine to-day! 

Jas££s Whttcomb Riley, The Reader. 



Bqjartmmt of ^rmp iftur0ing 



DITA H. KINNEY 

Superintendent Army Nurse Corps 



TRANSFERS among nurses in the 
Army Nurse Corps since last 
notes have been, Nurses Margaret Moore 
and Bert D. Brackett from the Division 
Hospital, Manila, to the Department of 
Mindanao; Edith M. Shaw from Zam- 
boanga to the Division Hospital and 
Bertha Purcell from Zamboanga to the 
United States. 

On January 15th, Nurses Delia Vir- 
ginia Knight and Nellie Moore reported 
from the Transport Logan from Manila 
to San Francisco. On February 13th, 
Cecilia McHugh reported from the Trans- 
port Thomas between the same pionts. 
Nurses Elizabeth D. Reid and Hannah 
A. Kallen have been transferred from the 
General Hospital, Presidio, to duty at 
the General Hospital, Fort Bayard. 

Nurse Grace Leonard, recently re- 
ported in the Philippine Islands, was as- 
signed to duty at the Division Hospital, 
and Nurse Alice Cecil White, another 
recent arrival in Manila, has been as- 
signed to duty at Fort William McKin- 
ley. 

Nurses Bertha M. Krotzer and Min- 
erva A. Sanders sailed to the Philippines 
on February 5th, and Iza Fisher and 
Minna C. Timme on March 5th. 

The discharges as noted from official 
records in the Office of the Surgeon 
General are nurses Annie M. Bartholo- 
mew, Ellen L. White, Minnie A. Win- 
slow, Louise Rohlfs and Margaret Boy- 
Ian. The four first named nurses have 
all had long and meritorious service in 
the Army Nurses Corps. All of these 



nurses had service in 1898 and have been 
on duty more or less continuously ever 
since. The superintendent of the corps 
wishes to take this opportunity to express 
her appreciation of all these nurses have 
done for the corps and the profession of 
nursing by their exemplary conduct and 
faithful service. 

It is extremely gratifying to note the 
number of re-applicants for army duty. 
Mrs, Mary B. Hall who, after many 
years of service, was discharged last 
August, was re-appointed January 24th 
and assigned to duty at the General 
Hospital Presidio. Nurse Sarah Brock, 
who has been in the service off and on 
since 1898, was honorably discharged at 
her own request in November, re-ap- 
pointed in February, and assigned to 
duty at the General Hospital, Presidio. 
Nurse Josephine F. Keliher, appointed in 
August, 1903, rendered valuable ser- 
vice until November, 1906, when she 
was honorably discharged, re-appointed 
in February and assigned to duty at the 
General Hospital, Presidio. The appli- 
cations for re-appointment of other 
nurses are now in the Surgeon General's 
Office and all of these would seem to 
refute in the strongest possible way any 
impression that conditions in the Army 
Nurse Corps are "intolerable". 

A recently appointed nurse, for sev- 
eral years superintendent of a well- 
known training school, writes from Gen- 
eral Hospital, Presidio: "The life here 
is pleasant, and the nurses have many 
privileges which they could not have in 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



245 



civil hospitals. I am very happy in my 
work, notwithstanding that it is different 
from my previous occupation, and I want 
to tell you that there are some very fine 
women in the Army Nurse Corps, but I 
can also say that there is as much need 
for good material here as anywhere." 

Another nurse recently re-appointed 
writes : "I must say I am very happy to 
be back, although I find many changes 
since I was on duty here. Apparently 
all are for the better." 

Another writes : "You know, we who 
know the nurse corps and have served in 
it, appreciate it, and open letters from 
those who are 'guessing' have but little 
weight." 

Appointments of new nurses include 
the names of Florence A. Houghland, 
UniverFity Hospital, Kansas City, Mo., 
1901 ; Mary Agnes Sweeney, Dear Island 
Hospital, Boston, Mass., 1903, Mass. 
Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary, 1904- 
'05. Miss Sweeney has also had much 
experience in contagious work; Val- 
eria Rittenhouse, graduate of Chicago 
Hospital, Chicago, 111., 1903, Superin- 
tendent of the 111. Hospital and T. S., Oct 
I, 1904, to Oct. I, 1906; Evelyn E. 
Mericle and Minnie E. Schreiber, gradu- 
ates of class of 1906, Trinity T. S., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. ; Mary Zimerle, St. Vin- 
cent's T. S., Toledo, Ohio, 1905; Made- 
line Margaret Pampel, Maryland General 
Hospital, Baltimore, 1905. 

It is our sad duty to note the deathof 
Nurse Rose Anna Tweed, who passed 
away at Seton Hospital ( for tuberculosis), 
Spuyten Duyvil, March 2nd. Of all the 
nurses who have ever served in the corps 
none leaves a more brilliant record than 
Miss Tweed. Her first contract for duty 
was dated June 20, 1898, and she was as- 
signed to Fort McPherson where she 
served until March ist, 1899. April- 8th 
she was g^ven a contract for duty in 



Manila and reported at the First Reserve 
Hospital May 25th. March 26, 1900, she 
was appointed Chief Nurse at Dagupan 
where she served until December 31st. 
She gave up her duty as Chief Nurse of 
her own will, and did heroic service, 
among smallpox patients who were quar- 
tered in tents near that station. She not 
only was a most accomplished and devot- 
ed nurse, but had great executive ability 
She was recalled from the Philippines in 
1901 to accept duty as Chief Nurse at the 
General Hospital, Presidio, San Fran- 
cisco. She kept this assignment only a 
short time and was discharged at her 
own request on account of ill health. In 
October that same year she took up the 
work in Cuba and remained there until 
the late summer of 1902, when she enter- 
ed the Nursery and Child's Hospital for a 
graduate course. From that time on un- 
til her collapse in October, 1906, she did 
private nursing — mostly obstetrical cases 
— and from time to time relieved in the 
district work, which has its center in 
Henry street on the Elast Side, New York 
City. Her work in this branch was often 
without pay. Her private patents sent 
for her again and again. She was a 
member of the Fifth Avenue Presby- 
terian Church of New York, and a 
most humble and beautiful Christian, Her 
generosity was only limited by her in- 
come. Many of her benefactions were 
only revealed to her most intimate assoc- 
iates on her death-bed, and then only 
through her correspondence which of nec- 
essity fell into other hands than her own. 
Her last fragment of strength was ex- 
pended in making the little crippled boys 
of Seton Hospital happy at Christmas 
time. Her last thoughts were for others, 
and when at last her tired brain could no 
longer direct her speech, her wishes were 
interpreted by the suggestions of a few 
words. One of her most intimate friends 



246 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



writes: "It is needless for me to tell 
you of the beauty and strength of her 
character. The records in the War De- 
partment must show this. I am sure 
n.^ne ever knew Miss Tweed without be- 
ing helped. Her everyday life was an 
inspiration. Miss Tweed was one of a 
family of thirteen children. She was 
Irish by birth, but a more patriotic lover 
of the Stars and Stripes could not be 
imagined. It was her desire to be buried 



in Arlington, and her body was brought 
to Washington by some members of her 
immediate family and some of her closest 
friends. There was a short service at the 
grave, conducted by the Chaplain at Fort 
Myer, and a bugler blew taps before the 
mortal remains of this noble women were 
covered from the sight of those who 
loved her in life, and in death revered 
her memory. 



"ittp ©agoes," 



Or, ''The Dream of a District Nurse in an Italian Quarter." 



I have a Dago paper mafi, 

A Dago ice man too, 
I eat Dago macaroni, 

And all kinds of Dago gue. 

There is a Dago tailor 
Who tailors up my suits, 

And a little, smiling Dago boy 
Who blackens up my boots. 

The fruit man on the corner, 
From whom I buy banans. 

Why he's a Dago Tony 
With dark skinned face and 



hands. 



A Dago organ grinder 

Plays at my door each day, 
And then a Dago damsel 

Asks me to "Pay, Pay, Pay!" 

I read the morning paper, 

The "Black Hand" so I see, 
Has been killing off some people 

^ith whom it didn't gee. 

# 

And when the day is over, 

And I try to go to sleep 
I dream that I'm a Dago 

And a peanut stand I keep. 

Mauel Jacques 




CDitoriallp ^peafeing 



The Training School Curriculum 

In our March number we presented 
the subject of the curriculum of the 
training school for nurses from the view- 
point of the physician, in an able paper by 
Dr. A. T. Bristow. We deern ourselves 
fortunate that we are, in this number, 
able to present the same subject from th« 
point of view of the nurse, as shown in 
a series of papers read before the New 
England Association for the Education 
of Nurses, and contributed to The 
Trained Nurse. We regret that we 
cannot give the names of the nurses 
who prepared these papers, but the in 
troductory paragraphs give good and 
sufficient reason why they are omitted. 

In view of the agitation now taking 
place in regard to the length of time nec- 
cessary to properly train a pupil for the 
duties of nursing, these papers are most 
opportune, and it is interestihg to note, 
that with two exceptions the opinion 
s'eems to be that the present course is too 
long, but even these admit that two 
years in the hospital is sufficient. 

Aside from the discussion of the length 
of the course, these papers are so full of 
pertinent suggestions, that we regret 
that space will not permit of extended 
comment, but we would note one or two 
points. 

In paper number three the question is 
asked "Cannot the curriculum of the 
training schools be made more elastic? 
Could not a shorter course be arranged 
for those who wish to do private nursing 
and a supplementary course for those 
who are willing and able to spend more 



time ?" This suggestion seems both sane 
and logical. No one wishes to restrict 
or limit a woman who has time and in- 
clination for study, but why should the 
vast majority of pupils carry an extra 
burden for the benefit of the few. 

In the same paper another question is 
asked, namely, "Is there not danger that 
in too long a course in hospital routine 
the nurse will lose her sympathy, power 
of adaptability and individuality?" If 
this danger exists then there can be no 
stronger argument for the shortening of 
the course, for upon this "power of 
adaptability" rests the success or failure 
of the private duty nurse. 

In paper number four we have the 
nurse's problem worked out in a few 
words as follows: We must make up 
our minds that doctors and the public are 
the best judges of what they need in a 
nurse." Instead of this, what we have 
had in the profession for some few years 
is a few persons determining in their 
own minds what they consider desirable 
in a nurse, and then proceeding to force 
doctors and the public to accept their 
selection. 



Why Alienate the Medical Profession? 

In response to a call from Miss L. L. 
Dock, a few nurses met at the Belle- 
vue Nurses' Club, February ii, for the 
purpose of discussing the contemplated 
change in the length of the training 
school course, namely, from three back to 
two years. 

Miss Dock opened the meeting with a 



248 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



very long address, so intricate and in- 
volved, that it demanded the closest at- 
tention from any of her hearers who 
wished to translate it intelligently into 
material for debate. 

Those present were informed that they 
were invited to take part in a discussion 
on this subject, not because there was any 
reason to believe it would l^ave any 
results advantageous to themselves, but 
simply for the "moral force," that their 
expressions of opinion might have. 

The speaker asserted that there were 
two points of view from which to con- 
sider the matter — one the educational 
side, the other the economic — although 
both were interdependent and neithei 
could be wholly dissociated from the 
other. She acknowledged that the pri- 
vate duty nurse could probably learn all 
that it was necessary for her to know in 
a two years' course, but that more and 
more avenues of employment were being 
opened for the benefit of the woman 
who was capable of being something 
more and better than a mere private duty 
nurse. Hence the necessity of the third 
year of training which was invaluable 
experience for those who wished to take 
it, or for those who were fitted for in- 
stitutional or executive work. 

The speaker denounced what she des- 
ignated as "petty, narrow, mean, small- 
minded, jealous men," the leaders of the 
medical profession who have put them- 
selves on record as being opposed to 
what they call the "over-trained nurse." 
She expressed horror at the sordid mer- 
cenary argument of Dr. A, T. Bristow 
that the education of a nurse should bear 
a reasonable proportion to the expecta- 
tion of income and the permanency of 
employment. 

Notwithstanding her condemnation of 
Dr. Bristow's argument, in almost the 
next moment she exhorted the graduates 



to stand shoulder to shoulder and fight 
the change to a two years' course, on the 
grounds that it was the outcome of a 
conspiracy on the part of the doctors 
to compel graduates to lower their prices. 
It may be lack of intelligence on our 
part which makes the argument of the 
speaker appear the "sordid and mercen- 
ary" one, and that of Dr. Bristow to 
which she referred an impartial state- 
ment of facts. The speaker explained 
her statement by saying that a two years' 
course would result in an over-supply 
of nurses, and therefore in order to ob- 
tain work the nurses would have to lower 
their prices or be left out in the cold, 
whereas the three years' course would 
restrict the output of nurses and so keep 
up the price. 

Later on, during the meeting, a nurse 
from the Memorial Hospital, Orange, N. 
J., stated that from her own experience 
she believed that the partially trained 
and the so-called practical nurse were 
already a serious menace in the gradu- 
uates' field of work. This nurse is not 
alone in her belief and experience, for 
many others have made the same ob- 
servations, and if any doubt this let them 
read the comments from the daily press 
given in this number, under the heading, 
"Signs of the Times." It will be seen 
therefore that if this condition exists 
the cause for it must be one of two 
things. Either that there are not enough 
graduate nurses to supply the demand, 
or else these practical nurses are doing 
work which the graduate nurses do not 
want and will not take themselves. If 
there are not at present enough graduate 
nurses to provide for the proper care of 
the sick, then to restrict the supply as 
suggested, would be the worst possible 
policy. If on the other hand there is 
work that must be done, cases that must 
be cared for, but which graduate nurses 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



249 



refuse and will not have, and at the 
same time object to any one else taking, 
then it would seem that the Pennsylvania 
doctors who, at a recent meeting, de- 
scribed the average trained nurse as a 
"dictatorial fee-grabbing nuisance," were 
not altogether unjustified in their asser- 
tions. 

When Miss Dock finally announced 
that she was willing for some one else 
to take the floor, another speaker rose to 
reply. Common courtesy, as well as all 
the established rules of debate, gave 
this speaker the right to finish what she 
had to say without interruption. It is a 
rule of order, that no member is to dis- 
turb another in his speech or do any- 
thing which will disturb or disconcert 
a member who is speaking, and further- 
more it is the duty of the chairman to 
preserve order. 

But the speaker was interrupted and 
contradicted so continuously that it was 
impossible for her to make any kind of 
a connected address. The partisans of 
the three years' course appeared anxious 
to discredit what this nurse had to 
say, and while others were present who 
fully sustained the speaker's argu- 
ment in favor of the two years' course, 
they saw that it would be quite useless 
to try to take part in a debate under such 
conditions. 

This nurse proposed that a two 
years' course might be universally 
adopted with an opportunity for taking 
a third years' training if the pupil nurse 
so desired; that is to have the third 
year elective for the benefit of those 
who wished to specialize or possibly 
those who felt the need of a post-grad- 
uate course to keep up with the times. 
The supporters of the three years' course 
failed to explain one very important 
point; why they admitted that a two 



years' course was all that was necessary 
for the private duty nurse and then 
wished to force her to take the third 
year. 

The foundation on which the future 
of the entire nursing profession rests is 
the support and interest of the medical 
profession throughout the country. 
Already a few women, under the guise 
of "keeping up the standard" and "ele- 
vating the profession," have done much 
to alienate that interest and support. 
The doctors control the situation. Pub- 
lic opinion will support them. If the 
private duty nurse must enter into the 
congest, she would do well to first ask 
"who gives me my work?" The doctor, 
either directly or indirectly, is her em- 
ployer. Witholut his indorsement she 
would be of no standing whatsoever, no 
matter how many years of training she 
had passed through. What have private- 
duty nurses, who make up the bulk of the 
profession, to gain by upholding a 
theory and policy which will sooner or 
later work to their great disadvantage ? 

+ 
Nursing Legislation 

Since our last number there has been 
much activity in nursing legislation, and 
as will be seen the record is one of suc- 
cess and failure. 

In our Nursing World department we 
give the bill which became a law in the 
District of Columbia, Feb. 9th, 1907. 
The note which accompanies this bill 
speaks for itself. 

From Illinois we learn that this bill 
has been introduced in the Senate, and 
the indications are that it will pass both 
houses. The Illinois nurses have shown 
such a splendid spirit in their repeated 
defeats that all mujt wish them success 
whether they approve or disapprove of 
this biU. 



250 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



The *Iowa bill was introduced in the 
Senate, Feb. 19th, and passed the House 
a few days later with some amendments. 
Was returned to Senate and repassed, 
and at present writing awaits the Gov- 
ernor's signature. There has been con- 
siderable doubt as to the fate of this 
bill, and there was some idea that it 
might be withdrawn, as there was opposi- 
tion in some quarters to the examining 
board. As it now stands the board is to 
be selected as follows: "At the annual 
meeting of the State Board of Health it 
shall select two physicians from its own 
membership, and two graduate nurses, 
residents of the state actively engaged in 
the practice of nursing, who shall to- 
gether with the secretary of the board, 
constitute the examining committee." 

The Minnesota bill, when last heard 
from, had passed the Senate and the sen- 
timent shown augurs well for its recep- 
tion by the House. The Michigan bill has 
not had a smooth progress. A substitute 
bill was introduced taking the matter out 
of the hands of the nurses and placing it 
in the hands of the present board of reg- 
istration in medicine. There is doubt 
felt that either bill will pass this Legis- 
lature. 

Perhaps no bill has been brought so 
prominently before the public as that of 
Pennsylvania. A committee, known as 



the State Committee on Nursing, made 
a violent attack on the bill, and circulated 
a quantity of literature which has caused 
the newspapers of Pennsylvania and 
other States to comment on the matter. 
This attack on the bill has occasioned 
much surprise, as the bill had been 
amended to meet the opposition that had 
defeated the previous bills, and it was 
believed that it would be perfectly satis- 
factory in its present form. 

We would call the attention of our 
readers to the fact that a considerable 
time must of necessity elapse before the 
writing of this comment and the mailing 
of the April number, consequently the 
conditions regarding the bills may be 
much changed before the magazine 
. reaches the subscriber. 
+ 

Prize Contest Announcement 

In this number we present the first 
paper in our prize contest. Nursing in 
Diseases of the Kidneys. The successful 
contestants were Miss Annie E. Hutchin- 
son, Miss Alice M. Nathie, Miss S. V. 
Levis and Miss Rose Wells. 

We regret that several very good pa- 
pers had to be rejected because they did 
not consider the subject of nursing, but 
consisted almost entirely of description 
of diseases of the kindeys and their 
treatment. 



Prize Picture Announcement 



On another page will be found a full page 
group of five pictures which were selected 
from among those submitted for our recent 
Prize Picture Contest, for honorable men- 
tion. 

"Beautiful Goldenrod," is by Miss Mattie 
F. Howard, St. Louis, Missouri. "The Bridge 
of Sighs," is by Miss (jrace Angell, Pittsfield, 



Massachusetts, as is also "St. Mark's Square." 
"The First Tooth," and "The Cattle Ranch," 
are by Miss Margaret Hughes, Helena, Moftt. 
It is a matter of great regret to the pub- 
lishers that we did not have room to enlarge 
the center picture, "The First Tooth," for 
the "tooth" itself will not be visible. Our 
readers will, therefore, have to imagine it. 



*The Iowa Bill passed.March ist. For Connecticut Bill troubles. See Nursing World Department. 



In tl)e iBtursms Wovin 

ARTICLES IN THIS DEPARTMENT, WHETHER BEARING SIGNATURE OR NOT, ARE CONTRIBUTED, AND DO 
NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT THE IDEAS OR POUCY OF THIS MAGAZINE. 



The District of Columbia 

The following bill, to provide for the regis- 
tration of nurses in the District of Columbia, 
passed the House of Representatives January 
28 ; the Senate February 1, and was signed by 
the President February 9. Since the passage 
of the bill its weak points are plainly notice- 
able but it is hoped they may be improved 
by amendments when Congress convenes for 
another term. The bill: 

AN ACT* 
To Define the Term of "Registered Nurse" 

AND TO provide FOR THE REGISTRATION OF 

Nurses in the District of Columbia. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Representatives of the -United States of 
America in Congress assembled, That from 
and after the expiration of the ninety days im- 
mediately following the passage of this Act 
no person shall, in the District of Columbia, in 
any manner whatsoever, represent herself to 
be a registered nurse, or allow herself to be 
so represented, unless she has been and is reg- 
istered by the nurses' examination board in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of this Act. 

Section 2. That upon the taking effect of 
this Act the Graduate Nurses' Association of 
the District of Columbia shall nominate ten 
of its members who have had not less than five 
years' experience in the profession. These 
nominations shall be submitted to the Com- 
missioners of the District of Columbia, 'who 
shall, from said nominations, appoint, within 
thirty days after said nominations are submit- 
ted to them, a nurses' examining board to be 
composed of five members. All appointments 
shall be made so that the term of one member 
shall expire on the thirtieth day of June of 
each year, and upon the expiration of the term 
of office of any examiner the said Commis- 
sioners shall likewise fill the vacancy for a 
term of five years from a list of three nominee.' 
submitted to them each year by the Graduate 
Nurses' Association of the District of Colum- 
bia. An unexpired term shall be filled by said 

• Became a law February g, 1907. 



Commissioners from three additional names 
furnished by the Graduate Nurses' Association 
upon request of the said Commissioners. No 
member of said board shall enter upon the dis- 
charge of her duties until she has taken oath 
to faithfully and impartially perform the same ; 
and the said Commissioners may remove any 
member of said board for neglect of duty or 
for any just cause. 

Section 3. That the nurses' examining 
board shall meet in the District of Columbia 
within ten days after their appointment and 
organize the board, and annually thereafter 
shall meet in the month of April and shall 
elect from its members a president, and also 
a secretary who shall be treasurer. It shall 
frame all such by-laws as it shall deem neces- 
sary for carrying into effect the provisions of 
this Act, and may amend such rules from time 
to time at discretion of said board. The sec- 
retary shall be required to keep a record of 
all meetings of the board, and also a register 
of the names of all nurses duly registered un- 
der this Act, and to furnish a certificate of 
registration to all such nurses. The said board 
shall hold examinations not less frequently 
than once a year, and the notice of each exam- 
ination shall be given in one daily newspaper 
published in Washington City and in one nurs- 
ing journal at least thirty days prior to said 
examination. 

Section 4. That every nurse desiring to 
style herself "a registered nurse" in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia shall make application to 
the nurses' examining board for registration, 
and at the time of making such application 
shall pay to the treasurer of said board five 
dollars. Said applicant must furnish satis- 
factory evidence that she is over twenty-three 
years of age, of good moral character, and 
free from habits liable to interfere with her 
services as a nurse, and, further, that she holds 
a diploma from a training school for nurses 
which has been registered by the nurses' ex- 
amining board of the District of Columbia. 
Profided, however. That no training school 



252 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



shall be registered which does not maintain 
proper educational standards and give not less 
than two years' training in a general hospital, 
or instruction of the same kind, and, to at 
least the same extent, as that given in the gen- 
eral hospital, all of which shall be deter- 
mined by the nurses' examining board. 

Section 5. That any person possessing the 
qualifications required in section four of this 
Act who has been engaged in nursing in the 
Dstrict of Columbia five years after graduation 
immediately preceding the passage of this Act 
or shall have graduated from any Training 
School in the District of Columbia within the 
five years immediately preceding the passage 
of this Act, or shall be entitled to registration 
without examination upon the payment of the 
registration fee. And, further, that any person 
who has been engaged in nursing in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia for four years immediately 
preceding the passage of this Act and shall 
have spent, in addition, one year in a hospital 
or sanatorium, shall be permitted to register 
after passing a practical examination. Pro- 
zided, That such certificate shall not declare 
that the persons holding them have fulfilled 
all the requirements expressed in section four. 

Section 6. That the registration of any 
person as a nurse in the District of Columbia 
may be revoked and the certificate of such per- 
son canceled if she be found to have obtained 
the same by fraud, or be found guilty by the 
nurses' examining board of any act deroga- 
tory to the standing and morals of the profes- 
sion of nursing. But before any certificate 
shall be revoked the holder thereof shall be 
entitled to thirty days' notice of the charges 
against her, and after a full and fair hearing 
the certificate can be revoked by a majority 
vote of the whole board. 

Section 7. That all expenses incident to 
the execution of the provisions of this Act 
shall be paid from the fees collected from 
applicants for registration as nurses, and if 
any balance remains on hand on the thirtieth 
day of June of any year the secretary and 
treasurer of the nurses' examining board shall 
receive of such balance the sum of one hun- 
dred dollars, and each other member of the 
said board shall receive five dollars for each 
day actually spent in the discharge of official 
duties. All moneys shall be paid to the treas- 
urer of the board and shall be paid out under 
the orders of the board. 

Section 8. That any person who shall 



violate any of the provisions of this Act shall 
be guilty of a misdemeanor, 'and upon con- 
viction thereof shall be punshed by a fine not 
exceeding two hundred dollars or by im- 
prisonment in the workhouse for a period not 
exceeding sixty days. 

Section 9. That the nurses' examining 
board shall have power to register, in like man- 
ner, without examination, any person who has 
been registered as a professional nurse in 
another State or Territory under laws which 
in the opinion of said board maintains a stand- 
ard substantially equivalent to that provided 
by this Act. 

Section 10. That nothing in this Act shall 
be construed to prevent any person from nurs- 
ing any other person in the District of Co- 
lufnbia either gratuitously or for hire, pro- 
vided that such person so nursing shall not 
represent herself as being a registered nurse. 
Nothing in this Act shall be construed as au- 
thorizing any person to practice medicine or 
surgery, or midwifery, in said District other- 
wise than in accordance with an Act entitled 
''An Act to regulate the practice of medicine 
and surgery, to license physicians and surgeons, 
and to punish persons violating the provisions 
thereof," approved June third, eighteen hun- 
dred and ninety-six. 

Section 11. That the word "she" and the 
derivatives thereof, wherever they occur in 
this Act, shall be construed so as to include 
the word "he" and derivatives. 



A special meeting of the Graduate Nurses' 
Association of the District of Columbia, was 
held Saturday, February 16, at Garfield Me- 
morial Hospital, to nominate ten members of 
the association, the nominations to be sub- 
mitted to the Commissioners of the District, 
who shall, from said nominations, appoint 
within thirty days after said nominations are 
submitted to them, a nurses' examining board 
to be composed of five members. 
+ 
Texas State Association 

The graduate nurses residing in the State of 
Texas, met at Fort Worth, Feb. 22d, for the 
purpose of forming a State Society. There 
were in attendance about twenty-three. Owing 
to the absence of the Chairman of Fort Worth 
Association at the evening session, Miss Cottle, 
of Houston, presided. After much discussion 
and very little business the meeting adjourned 
to accept the hospitality of a very nice dinner 
at Hotel Lorraine, the guest of honor being 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



253 



Mrs. Swain, President of the Woman Feder- 
ation of Texas. Miss Howard, Chairman of 
the Association of Fort Worth, was hostess. 
In the afternoon Miss Howard occupied the 
chair, assisted by Mrs. Swain. In Miss How- 
ard's opening words she said she had asked 
Mrs. Swain to preside owing to her personal 
ignorance of parliamentary law. By-Laws and 
Constitution were finally adopted, officers for 
the ensuing year elected as follows: Mrs. J. 
S. Cottle, Houston, President; Miss Mildred 
Bridges, Ft. Worth, First Vice-President ; Miss 
Moore, Gainesville, Second Vice-President; 
Miss Mullett, Austin, Third Vice-President; 
Miss Van Doran, Fort Worth, Corresponding 
Secretary; Miss M. McKnight, San Antonio, 
Treasurer; Mrs. Paris, Fort Worth, Secretary. 
The meeting adjourned to meet in Houston 
on the 1st of June. 

The committee appointed by the President 
to draw up bill for registration consisted of 
Misses Bridges, McKnight, Mullett, Van 
Doran. A copy of the Colorado bill was read, 
and after a few changes, was agreed, as the 
one to present after it had been approved by 
some good lawyer. 



Connecticut Legislative Affairs 

Three bills have been introduced into the 
Connecticut Legislature for the amendment of 
the law providing for the registration of grad- 
uate nurses. One bill provides that the Board 
of Examination and Registration shall include 
"at least two male members," also that the 
whole provision of the bill for registration 
"shall not apply to any persons who are prac- 
ticing nursing at the time the act becomes 
effective." 

So far as can be ascertained this bill has 
been introduced to offset the rejection by the 
Board of Examination and Registration of an 
applicant whose qualifications were insuffi- 
cient to answer the requirements of the bill, 
and who on the ground that the qualifications 
for registration with or without examination 
were the same, was also refused a request for 
examination. 

The interpretation that the applicant was 
therefore debarred from practising nursing, 
evidently gives rise to the second clause of the 
amendment which would seemingly be inert 
from its superfluity, as no provision in any 
State bill debars any one, trained or untrained, 



from practising nursing. It only debars the 
use of the title "R. N." 

Another act amending the present law is a 
sweeping proviso for the eradication of the en- 
tire Board of Registration and Examination, 
and the vesting of its powers and duties in 
the State Board of Health. 

The third measure introduced, provides that 
the Board of Registration be composed of phy- 
sicians or practical nurses — "two of its mem- 
bers shall be men." Section II of this measure 
provides for quarterly meetings of the Examin- 
ing Board at stated dates, and Section III, pro- 
vides that appHcations for examination or reg- 
istration shall be decided at the quarterly meet- 
ing at which they are presented or at the next 
regular quarterly meeting. In case of rejected 
application it provides for an appeal to The 
State Board of Health, which shall give a pub- 
lic hearing to all concerned and decide by con- 
firming the board's decision or order it to grant 
the certificate. 

This last measure seems like the first one of 
the three to have emanated from a purely per- 
sonal source. An applicant has been kept wait- 
ing while investigations as to eligibility were 
being made, and therefore stated times for the 
meeting; limited time for investigations, and 
the State Board of Health as arbitrator is 
asked for to govern and control the -work of 
the Examining Board. 

So far as known there has been only one 
complaining rejected applicant. So far as 
known there has been but one case of consid- 
erable delay in the granting of a certificate and 
this quite likely unavoidable, and yet here are 
politicians ready to change the whole import of 
the law, to eradicate the whole board of nurses 
for the registration of nurses because of these 
purely personal, minor reasons. 

We have no doubt the nurses of Connecticut 
who successfully passed their bill two years 
ago will rally to its defense and the support of 
the Board of Registration created by it That 
the bill needs amendments is no doubt recog- 
nized by them, but that the amendments should 
emanate from the nursing profession and im- 
prove rather than destroy, as do these present 
measures, the existing law, is likewise recog- 
nized. 

The three measures are before the Commit- 
tee on Public Health and Safety. The date of 
the hearings thereon has not been scheduled at 
the present writing. 



254 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Los Angeles, Cal. 

The Los Angeles County Nurses' Associa- 
tion held its regular monthly meeting on 
Tuesday afternoon, February 12, at St. Paul's 
Guild Hall. Miss Kelly, the president, having 
been called East to be assistant superintendent 
of the Illinois Training School, where Miss 
Hay, whom we all know, is superintendent, 
Miss Barnard was called to the chair pro-tem. 
Several interesting papers on "Tuberculosis — 
Its Prevention and Cure" were read. Miss 
Bentley who has charge of the Barlon Sanitar- 
ium told us about the grand work done there 
and the help given to indigent patients for 
whom alone the institution exists. No pay 
patients being accepted. The discussion as to 
what position the nurses should take in further- 
ing this anti-tuberculosis crusade was very 
interesting. It is of great importance to us 
in Southern California, as this is a dumping 
ground for the consumptives from all over the 
world, mostly incurables. The people should 
be taught how to take care of their own con- 
sumptives and that hygienic living even with- 
out our beautiful climate will do more for 
them than climate alone without nutritious 
food or other perfect .conditions. 

Miss Gertrude Ward, of the Pacific Hospital, 
who has been taking a post-graduate course in 
New York City and visiting other hospitals in 
the East, has returned to her old position as 
superintendent of the hospital. She was ex- 
tended a cordial welcome by all the old Pacific 
nurses. 

Miss Minnie Rehwoldt, one of the Pacific 
Hospital graduates, is taking a much needed 
rest at her beach cottage at Bay City, Cal. 
+ 
Denver, Colorado 

The Trained Nurses' Association of Den- 
ver, Colo., held its annual meeting in the Y. 
W. C. A. Building on March 4, 1907. The 
election of officers resulted as follows : Presi- 
dent, R. Crittenden; vice-president, H. L. Co- 
rey; secretary E. A. Shich; assistant secre- 
tary, E. Anderson; treasurer, D. M. Lebo; 
assistant treasurer, E. Quackenbush. The an- 
nual reports showed the Association to be 
in a prosperous condition. 
+ 
New Orleans, La. 

The Louisiana State Nurses' Association 
held its annual meeting on February 23d. 
When the re-election of officers and other 
business was transacted. After which the an- 



nual reception was given at the home of Miss 
Goodwin from seven to ten p. m. It was a 
grand reunion for the nurses, and a thoroughly 
enjoyable affair. Delightful refreshments 
were served, music and dancing indulged in. 
** **♦♦** 

Miss B. Southworth Buell, of Charity Hos- 
pital was called home suddenly* to Quincy, 111., 
by the illness of her mother. 

Miss Ella Comford is taking a trip through 
Mexico for her health. 

Miss Melancon has just returned from a de- 
lightful trip through Texas and Mexico. 

+ 
Des Moines, Iowa 

February 14 the nurses of the Methodist 
Hospital gave one of the prettiest valentine 
parties of the season; about 100 guests being 
in attendance at the Nurses' Home, which was 
appropriately decorated for the occasion. The 
entertainment being music and games. Light 
refreshments were served during the evening. 
Those present voted the nurses capital enter- 
tainers. 



OM'ensboro, Ky. 

The graduates of the City Hospital Training 
School for Nurses met in the reception room 
of the hospital Tuesday, Feb. 25, 1907, and 
organized an Alumnae Association. 

The meeting was called to order by Miss 
Eliza Johnson, superintendent of the Hospital, 
and Miss Rece, president of the Alumnae As- 
sociation of the Infirmery of Louisville, Ky., 
was called to the chair and presided at the 
meeting. 

Constitution and By-Laws were adopted. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, 
Miss Clara Fisher; Vice-President, Miss 
Willie Arvin; Secretary and Treasurer, Miss 
Mary Joe Thompson; Chairman of Member- 
ship Committee, Miss Katherine Hayden; 
Chairman of Entertainment Committee, Miss 
Delia Cooper. Miss Johnson and Miss Crouse 
were elected honorary members. 

All except two of the graduates were pres- 
ent and all expressed unusual interest. 

Adjourned to meet second Tuesday in 
March. 

+ 

University of Michigan Nurses Married in 
1906 

Louise Law, class of '98, to Mr. R. E. Har- 
ris, Seattle, Washington. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



255 



Rose Flynn, class of '97, to Mr. Norman 
Fitzgerald, Toledo, Ohio. 

Myrtle Campbell, class of '00, to Dr. E. N, 
Chauncey, Albion, Michigan. 

Adda Wood, class of '02, to Mr. L. B. 
Leonard, Forest Hill, Michigan. 

Grace Eislee, class of '03, to Mr. Jordan, 
Columbus, Indiana. 

Katherine Scott, class of '99, to Dr. Geo. 
Richards, Gaylord, Michigan. 

Zada Chase, class of '02, to Mr. Lenne, Butte, 
Mont. 

Elsie Calkins, class of '02, to Mr. Martin 
Blair, Allegan, Michigan. 

Katherine Johnston, class '03, to Dr. Crane. 

Edna Ashmun, class of '00, to Mr. R. A. Rae, 
W. Bay City, Michigan. 
■ + 
Toredo, Ohio 

The regular monthly meeting of The Toledo 
Graduate Nurses' Association, was held Feb- 
ruary 26, at their rooms in the "Zenobia," the 
President, Miss Mapes, in the chair. 

After roll call, the usual routine business 
was set aside, and, as previously arranged. 
Miss Greenwood, of Cincinnati, President of 
Ohio State Association of Graduate Nurses, 
delivered an address on "State Registration," 
giving a most interesting account of the efforts 
and repeated failure of the Committee (of 
which she was chairman) to secure the pas- 
sage of a desirable nursing bill, the failure be- 
ing largely due, she says, to the monied in- 
fluence of opponents to higher standards of 
hospitals. As a consequence, they are going 
to try another route to the legislature, viz.:. 
raise the standard of hospitals first, and then 
present a bill — a very sensible idea. Mrs. 
Hunter Rbbb is its promoter, and is devoting 
herself, Miss Greenwood tells us, to the car- 
rying out of this work in Ohio. 

Any hospital superintendent in the State 
of Ohio, who is desirous of raising the stand- 
ard of her Training School suitable for reg- 
istration, should write to Mrs. Hunter Robb, of 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

As a guest at the meeting, we were pleased 
to welcome Miss Keran, Superintendent of 
Findlay Hospital. There were, also, many 
other guests from the city, the attendance num- 
bering about sixty nurses. Our association is 
now incorporated and we have recently had 
printed new constitution and by-laws, also ap- 
plication blanks. 

Isabel Hassison. 



Scranton, Pa. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Scran- 
ton Training School for Nurses was held at 
the State Hospital '6n Thursday, February 21, 
1907. 

The meeting was called to order by Presi- 
dent Mrs. Coppinger, at 3.30 P. M. Nine 
members were present. 

Minutes of December meeting were read and 
approved. Next, Miss Alice M. Brice, our 
delegate who represented the association at 
special meeting, held at Harrisburg, in De- 
cember, 1906, in reference to Registration Bill 
read a most interesting report. Next reports 
of retiring officers were read, officers being 
President, Mrs. Coppinger; Vice-President, 
Miss E. Hutton; Treasurer, Miss Elizabeth 
Saul; Secretary, Miss Harriet B. Gibson. 

We have at the present time forty-one mem- 
bers in good standing. Next, the election of 
new officers as follows : 

President, Miss Alice M. Brice; Vice-Presi- 
dent, Miss Charlotte Williams ; Secretary, Miss 
Harriet B. Gibson; Treasurer, Miss Elizabeth 
Saul. The two latter were re-elected. Sick 
Committee consists of Miss Charlotte Wil- 
liams, chairman, who elected Miss E. Graham 
as her assistant. Entertainment Committee, 
Miss Alice M. Brice and Miss Harriet B. 
Gibson. 

There were two new members received into 
the association, being Misses Carrie M. Lup- 
pert and Lucretia Gourley, both graduates of 
class '06. 

A note of thanks was given to retiring of- 
ficers and also to Miss Brice for her interest- 
ing report in reference to Registration Bill. 

There was no further business. Meeting 
adjourned to meet in March, at State Hospital. 
Harriet B. Gibson, Sec. 
+ 
Montclair, N. J. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Moun- 
tainside Hospital Alumnae Association met at 
the Nurses' Home, February 28, 1907. The 
B}--Laws and Constitution of the association 
had been revised. They were read, discussed, 
approved and adopted. 

-Afterward some other matters of business 
was gone over, it was decided to hold the 
meetings earlier in the afternoon so that nurses 
at private case could attend more regularly. 

After the business meeting refreshments 
were served and the nurses had a social time 
together. 



256 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Fall River, Mass. 

The Nurses' Alumnae Association, of the 
Union Hospital, of Fall River, held its monthly 
meeting on March 6th. Fourteen members 
were present. A demonstration of the prin- 
ciples of pathology was g^iven by Dr. Annie 
McCrae. 

+ 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

The graduates of Vassar Brothers' Hospital 
Training School for Nurses, Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., held a meeting last November in the 
nurses' parlor at the hospital to organize an 
Alumnae Association. 

The attendance was most satisfactory and 
great interest was shown. A committee on 
Constitution and By-Laws was appointed, 
which were adopted at the next meeting and 
at which officers were elected. The associa- 
tion is in a flourishing condition and we hope 
soon to join the State Association. 

Mary B. Ebert, R. N., 
Cor. Sec. 



Miss Emma Duvaldt, class '00, who located 
in Minneapolis, Minn., about four years ago, 
is spending a few weeks with friends in 
Poughkeepsie, and vicinity. We are glad to 
welcome Miss Duvaldt to her old haunts. 

Miss Minnie H. West, class '00, who has re- 
cently submitted to an operation for mastoi- 
ditis is convalescing rapidly. 

Miss Josephine Montgomery, class '93, will 
soon return to this city and take up nursing 
again. She has been spending the winter in 
Beverly, Mass. 

Miss Emily K. Shaw, class '96, has re- 
turned from Lakehurst, N. J. 

Miss Mary F. GriflFen, class '94, and Miss 
Helen M. Bodden, class '01, have recently 
finished a postgraduate course at Sloane Ma- 
ternity Hospital, New York City. The many 
friends of Miss Griffen will regret to learn she 
met with an accident to her knee and has been 
disabled for some time. We wish her a speedy 
recovery. 

We are glad to hear that Miss Myrtle Aus- 
tin, class of '04, is recovering from a serious 
illness. She is at her home, near Wilkes- 
Barre, Penn. 

+ 

Troy, N. Y. 

A sleigh ride was ^given to the nurses of the 
Troy Hospital Training School on the after- 



noon of February 13, by one of the doctors of 
the staff. After a two-hours' ride, Miss Dum- 
phy, member of the senior class, entertained 
the nurses at her home in Mechanicsville. 
Refreshments were served, after which Miss 
Gleason, a nurse in the intermediate class, 
rendered some fine piano selections. Supper 
was served at 5.30, and, after a social hour 
the nurses returned to their school, delighted 
with their trip and with renewed courage to 
work. 

Owing to the very busy season in the hos- 
pital some of the nurses had to remain at home 
to help the Sisters. Consequently the super- 
intendent, Sister M. Rose, had to arrange for 
another sleigh ride for those who could not 
participate in the first. This was given two 
days after. This was also a very enjoyable 
affair. The Sisters awaited the return of the 
party and served the nurses with hot coffee and 
cake. 



Buffalo, N. Y. 

Seumas McManus delivered an address re- 
cently in the clinic of the Sisters' Hospital on 
"Folk Lore in Ireland." A goodly audience 
of doctors, patients, sisters and nurses listened 
to the talk, which was filled with a rich humor. 

Mr. McManus, who has been severely af- 
flicted with acute rheumatism, is able to walk 
for the first time in several weeks. While con- 
fined at the Sisters' Hospital he has been vis- 
ited by numerous prominent Irish people of 
Buffalo. Mr. McManus leaves this evening for 
■New York City. 



The regular meeting of the Alumnae, Buf- 
falo Hospital Sisters of Charity, was held on 
March 12th, at the hospital. Miss Ten Eyck, 
the President, presiding. Ten members an- 
swered present to the roll call, and the regular 
routine business was transacted. Miss Cather- 
ine O'Connor, Miss Rosa and Mrs. George 
Becker were appointed as the nominating com- 
mittee. Miss Alt, Chairman of the Alumnae 
Pin Committee presented a design which was 
accepted as the graduate's badge. Miss Len- 
nertz, of Dunkirk, one of our out-of-town 
members, was present, and during the meeting 
Sister Geneveive, Sister Superior of the hos- 
pital came in. Meeting adjourned at 4.30. 
Rachel Ten Eyck, Pres. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



257 




'honorable mention" pictures from our recent prize picture contest, see page 250. 



258 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Rhode Island State Association 

The. Rhode Island State Asociation of Grad- 
uate Nurses held its second annual meeting 
March 6, at Providence. 

The feature of the meeting was an address 
by Miss Mary M. Riddle, President of the 
Massachusetts State Nurses Association, who 
advocated State registration of nurses, to se- 
cure which the nurses' associations were orig- 
inally formed. 

Miss Lucy C. Ayres, President of the as- 
sociation, presided, and made an address, stat- 
ing the object of the association and the value 
of such an organization for closer union among 
members of the nursing profession. Miss Ayres 
also emphasized the necessity of State legisla- 
tion for the registration of nurses. 

The Treasurer's report, presented by Miss 
Fitzpatrick, showed receipts for the year ended 
of $141.31, and expenditures of $62.77, leaving 
a balance in the treasury of $78.54. 

The election of officers resulted as follows : 
President — Miss Lucy C. Ayres; First Vice- 
President — Miss Abbie E. Johnson ; Second 
Vice-President — Miss Marietta C. Gardiner; 
Recording Secretary — Miss Frances E. Shel- 
don ; Corresponding Secretary — Miss Alice E. 
Dexter; Treasurer — Miss* Mary S. Gardiner; 
Directors — Miss Mary Murray, Miss Winifred 
L. Fitzpatriclc, Miss Rhoda G. Packard and 
Miss Sara T. Lowden. 



Visiting Nurses of New Jersey 

On Friday, March 1st, a meeting was held 
at the call of Miss Farnsworth, South Orange 
Visiting Nurse. 

This call was issued to as many of the* New 
Jersey District Nurses as Miss Farnsworth 
could reach, and was with a view to organ- 
izing, more or less formally, a little association 
of all the District Nurs'es of the State. 

The meeting was held at Miss Farnsworth's 
cozy little apartment at South Orange, and was 
attended by Miss M. M. Anderson, head 
worker of the Orange Valley Settlement, Miss 
A. Knapp, anti-tuberculosis nurse of same 
settlement; Miss Hausekneck, of Lakewood, 
Miss H. M. Allen, of Summit; Miss C. M. 
Hollister, of Millburn, and two other nurses 
not actively engaged at present in district 
work, but interested. 

Various parts of district work was discus- 
sed with interest, principal of which was the 



subject of a uniform dress for all district 
nurses. 

No steps were taken toward organizing, but 
all seemed to enjoy the opportunity of exchang- 
ing views. 

At the close Miss Farnsworth invited all out 
to a cup of tea and we enjoyed examining her 
supply-room where she keeps various articles 
to loan the sick. 

It was agreed to meet on the first Friday in 
April, at the Orange Visiting Nurses Settle- 
ment, 24 Valley Street. 

Any district nurses of the State of New 
Jersey, who may have failed to receive a notice 
and who would like to attend the meeting will 
please send their names to Miss M. M. Ander- 
son, 24 Valley Street, Orange, who is to be 
hostess for the next meeting. 

+ 
North Carolina Registration Bill 

The following is the amendment to the Act 
to Provide for the Registration of Trained 
.Nurses in the State of North Carolina, as 
passed March 1st : 

That after January 1, 1904, it shall be the 
duty of said Board of Examiners to meet not 
less frequently than once in every year, notice 
of which meeting shall be given in the public 
press. At such meetings, it shall be their duty 
to examine all applicants for license as regis- 
tered nurse, of good moral character, who can 
prove to the board that he or she is more than 
twenty-one years of age, has received the 
equivalent of a High School education, and 
has graduated from a training school connected 
with a general hospital or sanitarium, where 
three years of training, with a systematic 
course of instruction, is given in the hospital. 

Examinations will be held in the elements 
of anatomy, physiology, materia medica, in 
medical, surgical, obstetrical, and practical 
nursing, invalid cookery, and household hy- 
giene, and, if on such examination they be 
found competent, to grant each applicant a 
license, authorizing her or him to register as 
hereinafter provided, and to use the title "Reg- 
istered Nurse," signified by the letters "R. N." 

The said Board of Examiners may, in its 
discretion, issue license without examination 
to such applicants as shall furnish evidence of 
competency entirely satisfactory to them. Each 
applicant, before receiving license, shall pay a 
fee of five dollars, which shall be used for de-, 
fraying the expenses of the board. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



259 



Minneapolis, Minn. 

Following the regular monthly business meet- 
ing of the Hennepin County Graduate Nurses' 
Association, held Thursday, March 14, at Dr. 
Mead's residence, 1502 Third Ave. S., Mrs. 
Alex R. Colvin, of St. Paul, President of the 
Minnesota State Nurses' Association, ad- 
dressed the nurses in a most interesting and 
edifying talk on the State registration includ- 
ing the progress of the bill now before the 
State Legislature of Minnesota. 

The appreciation of the nurses was shown 
Mrs. Colvin by the presentation of a bouquet 
of beautiful green carnations which were in 
keeping with the decorations throughout the 
rooms, suggestive of St. Patrick's Day. A 
most enjoyable social hour was spent while 
refreshments were served. Special St. Pat- 
rick souvenirs were placed at the table for 
Mrs. Colvin, president of the State Association, 
and Miss Edith Rommel, president of the Hen- 
nepin County Association, also souvenirs were 
distributed to the 50 nurses present by Misses 
Marion Young and Cecelia Prinzing and Mrs. 
Mathilda Setnan. In time for distribution at 
this meeting the Association received a compli- 
mentary box of samples from Horlick's Malted 
Milk Co., containing 100 bottles of tablets and 
powder, souvenir booklets and pocket mirrors. 
A vote of thanks was extended the company 
for its generosity. 

L. Louise Christensen, Sec. 
+ 
Vicksburg, Miss. 

The graduating exercises of the class of 1907 
from the Vicksburg Sanitarium Training 
School for Nurses, Vicksburg, Miss., took 
place at the Sanitarium on Wednesday even- 
ing, February 20th. After a brief address by 
Dr. Hillhouse, Dr. Weeks reviewed the work 
of the institution, from the establishment in 
1901 to the present time, which was followed 
by an interesting address. In conclusion. Dr. 
^ Street presented diplomas to Miss Jessie 
Nance, Miss Olive Beaumont, Miss Pauline 
Zwickle, and Mrs. Farrior. An informal 
luncheon, reception and dance brought to a 
close the first public exercises in the history of 
the institution. 

The Vicksburg Sanitarium, founded by Dr. 
Street in 1901, is delightfully situated about the 
heart of the city. The structure is one of the 
finest and most complete hospital buildings of 
tlie kind in the country. The original building 
was able to accommodate only twelve patients, 



but as this was wholly inadequate with the de- 
mand. Dr. Street was obliged in 1903 to build an 
additional story and wing, which included a 
new operating room, Turkish bath and swim- 
ming pool, and roof garden, where the con- 
valesents have now a one hundred and thirty- 
seven foot promenade and where they arc also 
able to enjoy the sun-parlor and have a de- 
lightful view of the Mississippi river and 
surrounding country. The capacity of the 
Sanitarium at present time is sixty beds, which 
include both medical and surgical. 

The building is located on a plot of two and 
one-half acres of ground, to the side and rear 
are well sodded lawns and flower beds, which 
make it very attractive for those who are able 
to enjoy them. One of the great attractions of 
the place is where the Turkish and Russian 
baths are given, and it is here that the pa- 
tients and outsiders avail themselves of the 
pleasure and advantage of the large swimming 
pool. 

One of the recent additions is* a new phar- 
macy and clinical and pathalogical laboratory. 
Dr. C. L. Jones, of Columbus, Ohio, Johns 
Hopkins, 1903, in charge. The establishment 
of this laboratory is of great service to physi- 
cians of the city and surrounding country. 

In connection with the Sanitarium is a Train- 
ing School for Nurses, where exceptional ad- 
vantages are offered for a two years' course of 
study including obstetrics. The facilities and 
equipment of the building offer every induce- 
ment for young women desiring the course. 
+ 
Nasiiville, Tenn. 

Thursday evening, January 31 the gradu- 
ating exercises of the St Thomas Hospital 
Training School took place. Dr. William 
Bailey, president of the staff, addressed the 
class and presented diplomas and medals. Af- 
ter the exercises dinner was served to the 
school. The young ladies who received di- 
plomas are the following: Misses Alma Hanna, 
Earlington, Ky. ; Sadie B. Armstrong, Birm- 
ingham, Ala. ; Emma Kellar, Nashville, Tenn., 
and Mayme Crabtree, Mobile, Ala. 



Spanish-American War Nurses 

Though the official announcement is not yet 
ready for publication, we feel at liberty to state 
that the annual meeting of the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War Nurses will be held at Norfolk, Octo- 
ber 8th. 



260 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Announcements 

The Annual Convention of the Nurses' As- 
sociated Alumnae will be held in Richmond, 
Virginia, May 14, 15 and 16. 

The Thirteenth Annual Convention of The 
American Society of Superintendents of Train- 
ing Schools for Nurses will be held at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., May 8, 9, and 10. The head- 
quarters is at "The Rittenhouse," Twenty- 
second and Chestnut Streets. 

+ 
Married 

The many friends of Miss Nellie Palen, 
class 1905, Vassar Hospital, will be pleased 
to hear she has become Mrs. Snyder, and now 
resides in Baltimore, Md. 



Edith Hawkins, a graduate of Prospect 
Heights Hospital, class 1903. 



February 16, 1907. — Miss Cornelia B. Lock- 
wood, class '02, Vassar Hospital, to Dr. James 
Oliver. Mrs. Oliver was superintendent of Dr. 
Poucher's Sanitarium, Poughkeepsie, for the 
past four yejirs, and has always been a faith- 
ful and conscientious nurse and very popular 
both in the hospital and private work. The 
good wishes of the entire community will fol- 
low her to her new home. Dr. and Mrs. 
Oliver will reside in Stone Ridge, N. Y. 



Announcement is made of the marriage of 
Miss Mary D. Dolson, class 1906, Vassar Hos- 
pital, of New Platz, N. Y., to Mr. Thomas 
Foster, of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Mr. and Mrs. 
Foster will reside in Pittsburg, Pa. 



In Kansas City, Mo., February 27, occurred 
the marriage of Helen Ayers Younkin and 
Mr. C. C. Miles, of Des Moines. Mrs. Miles 
is a daughter of the late Judge Ayers of Des 
Moines, and is a trained nurse well known 
in the city. Mr. and Mrs. Miles will reside 
in Des Moines. 



At Carleton Place, Ontario, Can., February 
12, 1907, Mrs. Edna Cram, of Carleton Place, 
and Mr. James Lawson, a well-known lawyer 
of Brooklyn, N. Y. Miss Cram is a gradu- 
ate of the Williamsburg Hospital, Brooklyn, 
class of 1905. Mr. and Mrs. Lawson are en 
route for Italy, where the honeymoon will be 
spent. 

+ 
Births 

Mrs. George Chinnock, Jr., announces the 
birth of a son February 20, 1907, in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Mrs. Chinnock was formerly Miss 



Born to Mr. and Mrs. Carl Ebendick, of 
8 West Ninety-third street. New York City, 
a son, February 6, 1907. Mrs. Ebendick was 
formerly Miss Eismann, graduate of Memphis 
General Hospital, and a post-graduate nurse 
of the New York Polyclinic. 

+ 
Personal 

Miss Esther Pearson, superintendent of the 
Iowa Methodist Hospital, Des Moines, left the 
city March 1st for a three months' vacation, to 
be spent in Pasadena and other points in Cal- 
ifornia. Miss Pearson will resume her posi- 
tion upon her return to Des Moines. 



Miss Lillian B. Stuff has resigned her posi- 
tion as superintendent of nurses at Pennoyer 
Sanitarium, Kenosha, Wis., and will take a 
much-needed vacation, which she will spend in 
traveling in Nebraska, Colorado, Washington 
and California. 



Miss E. Underbill, R. N., has been appointed 
superintendent of the Mills Training School for 
men nurses connected with Bellevue Hospital. 



Miss Harriet L. Gerhard has resigned her 
position as superintendent of the More Hos- 
pital, Eveleth, Minn., to accept a like position 
at the Washington Park Hospital, Chicago, 111. 



Miss Mary Boling has been appointed nurse 
in charge of the Alva Sanitarium, Alva, Okla. 



Mr. Harry B. Sherred, a trained nurse, has 
resigned his position in the Keeley Institute of 
Grand Rapids, Mich., and will take up private 
nursing in that city. 



Miss Elizabeth Borham, a graduate of the 
Chicago Policlinic Hospital Training School, 
has been appointed chief nurse at the State 
Insane Asylum for Incurables, at Peoria. Miss 
Borham obtained the place as the result of high 
standing in civil service examination. 



The Philadelphia Methodist Episcopal Hos- 
pital has opened a Massage Department for 
its dispensary patients. Miss E. Katherine 
Bookhamer, a graduate in Massage and Gym- 
nastics from the Pennsylvania Orthopaedic In- 
stitute and School of Mechano-Therapy, Phil- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



261 



adelphia, has been placed in charge of this 
department. The latter has also been placed 
in charge of the same department connected 
with the Orthopaedic Clinic of the Medico- 
Chirurgical Hospital 



Miss Jennie Sanders, recent graduate 
Nicholas Hospital, Battle Creek, Mich., has 
gone to Lansing, Mich., with a patient. 



Mr. and Mrs. Sands sailed for London, 
England, Feb. 23 rd, to be absent about ten 
weeks. Mrs. Sands will be remembered as 
Miss Elizabeth Millspaugh, graduate of the 
Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, and for- 
mer principal of Nicholas Memorial Training 
School, Battle Creek, Mich. 



Mrs. E. and Miss Elizabeth Bromley have 
severed there connection with the Woman's 
Hospital, Battle Creek, and moved to their 
home in the same city. Miss Bromley will 
take up private nursing. The Woman's Hos- 
pital will be under the supervision of Miss 
Gourlay. 



Mrs. Amelia McLaughlan, of Nicholas Hos- 
pital, Battle Creek, has been ill with an attack 
of measles. 



Miss Lena Briegel, who has been ill at her 
home in East Leroy, Mich., is convalescing. 



Miss Mary Beaton, of Battle Creek, has 
gone to Hammond, Indiana, to remain a num- 
ber of weeks. 



Miss Anna E. Curtis, a graduate of theOIean 
General Hospital ('05), Olean, N. Y., and also 
a graduate in the Swedish system of massage, 
gymnastics, electro and hydro-therapy of the 
Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Institute and School 
of Mechano-Therapy, Philadelphia, has been 
placed in charge of the mechanical department 
at the Loomis Sanitarium, Liberty Heights, 
Liberty, Sullivan County, New York, to suc- 
ceed Miss Frances M. Hunt, also a graduate of 
the Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Institute and 
School of Mechano-Therapy, who is on a 
leave of absence for several months. 



graduate in massage, electro and hydro-ther- 
apy of the Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Institute 
and School of Mechano-Therapy, inc., Philadel- 
phia, has been placed in charge of the newly 
opened hydriatic department at the Hotel Al- 
cazar, St. Augustine, Florida. 



Miss Emily Traiforos (Crumpsall Infirm- 
ary, Manchester, England), and Mrs. Anne 
Goebell (New York Infant Asylum), have 
gone to Philadelphia, to take a course in mas- 
sage, gymnastics, electro and hydro-therapy at 
the Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Institute and 
School of Mechano-Therapy. 



Obituary 

It is with sorrow that we announce the death 
of Gertrude Deyo, wife of Rev. Addison P. 
Foster, on February 16, 1907, at her home, 
"Hillcroft Farms," New Paltz, N. Y. 

She had been ill for many months, and bore 
her sufferings with great fortitude. Her kind 
and gentle spirit made her a favorite, and she 
will be missed by her many friends. 

Mrs. Foster was a graduate of the Orange 
Memorial Hospital, Orange, N. J., and pre- 
vious to her marriage was superintendent of 
nurses at Vassar Brothers Hospital, Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., about ten years, and also held 
a similar position at the Orange Hospital She 
was an efficient and capable official 



It is with deep regret we record the sud- 
den death of Miss Elsie D. Warren, class of 
1900, New York Infirmary for Women and 
Children Training School for Nurses. Miss 
Warren was one of the victims of the dreadful 
accident which occurred on the New York Cen- 
tral Railroad on the evening of February 16, 
1907. Miss Warren's pleasing disposition and 
conscientious work has won hosts of friends 
among her schoolmates and associates, and the 
news of her untimely death has come as a 
great shock to all 



Died on March 2, 1907, in Kingsbridge, N. 
Y., of pulmonary tuberculosis, Rose Anna 
Tweed, late chief nurse Army Nurse Corps, 
U. S. A. General Hospital Presidio of San 
Francisco, Cal, and member of the S. A. 
W. N. Association. Miss Tweed was buried 
in the National Cemetery at Arlington, Va. 



Miss Josephine Todd, of Scranton, Pa., a 



THE EDITOR IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE VIEWS OF CONTRIBUTORS 



The Red Cross of 1898 

To the Editor of The Trained Nurse: 

In the March number of The Trained 
Nurse I notice a letter from Dr. Anita New- 
comb McGee, making two comments ("in 
order that readers may not draw erroneous 
conclusions") on my article, entitled "The 
Red Cross Nurses' Corps," which appeared 
in the February number. 

If any one interested in the matter will 
kindly refer to my article they will see that 
Dr. McGee does not quote me correctly in 
saying that, "at the outset it is stated that, 'It 
is now two years since the organisation of the 
American National Red Cross was effected.' " 
What I did say was, "It is now two years 
since the RE-organization of the American 
National Red Cross was effected." This is an 
important point, for the reason that Dr. Mc- 
Gee's misstatement may cause readers to 
draw erroneous conclusions concerning the 
official status and membership of Auxuliary 
No. 3, of the Red Cross Relief Committee in 
1898, and the relationship of that auxiliary to 
the RE-organised New Yojk State Branch of 
the Red Cross. Also, Dr. McGee's assertion 
that "the present Red Cross, with its official 
organization and its membership, was totally 
non-existent in 1898," seems to me a mere 
quibble, for the Red Cross has been in official 
existence in this country since March, 1882, 
when the United States signed the Treaty of 
Geneva, and many persons who were prom- 
inent in Auxiliary No. 3 in 1898 are now 
closely identified with the work of the re- 
organized Red Cross. 

My article was written principally because 
I believed that many of the nursing profes- 
sion were misinformed as to the attitude of 
the Red Cross in 1898 in regard to the em- 
ployment of "properly indorsed trained 
nurses," and of their "official recognition by 
the Government," and to this misapprehen- 
sion could be traced some of the reluctance 
of the nurses to come forward and identify 
themselves with the Red Cross to-day. Also, 
I think that the Red Cross has never received 



the thanks and appteciation that it should 
have for the part it took in helping to obtain 
permanent official recognition for the graduate 
nurses in the army nursing service. 

Dr. McGee states that "the first' party of 
nurses sent out by the surgeon-general had 
been at work about two and a half months 
before the visit mentioned," referring to the 
visit of Mrs. Whitelaw Reid and Mrs. Cow- 
din to the President, July 15, 1898. This 
fixes the date at which Dr. McGee says this 
first party of nurses commenced work as about 
May 1st. The Declaration of War was made 
April 25th. The Fifth Army Corps did not 
reach Santiago before the latter part of June, 
and the typhoid epidemics which devastated 
the United States Gamps of Instructions did 
not break out until after July 1st. According- 
ly that first party of nurses was assuredly 
not overworked during those two and a half 
months, and as the second call for volunteers 
was not issued by the President until May 
25th, it would appear that these nurses ar- 
rived at the front before the army. 

As to "the number of other parties of nurses 
sent to various places including the field hos- 
pital at Santiago," I would say, the first party 
of nurses sent to Santiago, was sent by 
Auxiliary No. 3 of the Red Cross Relief Com- 
mittee. 

The first party of nurses sent to the front 
by Auxiliary No. 3 went in response to a tele- 
gram asking for nurses, and dated "Before 
Santiago, June 30th, 1898." They left New 
York July 2d, in charge of Miss L. D. Gill, 
who accompanied them as far as Tampa. They 
were followed by two other parties of nurses, 
also sent by Auxiliary No. 3 that same week. 
Shortly after the first detachment of these 
nurses had sailed for Santiago a telegram was 
received telling of the outbreak of yellow fever 
at Santiago, and of the consequent strict quar- 
antine and the decision of the Government to 
send none but immune nurses to the front. 
It was in Tampa, while these Red Cross nurses 
in charge of Miss Gill were impatiently await- 
ing transportation to the front, that the sudden 
outbreak of typhoid fever in the camp there 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



263 



gave the first important occasion for their ser- 
vices. Some of these nurses were assigned 
to the Division Hospital on Picnic Island, go- 
ing later to the new military hospital in West 
Tampa July 30th. Others from this party were 
assigned to Leiter Hospital, near Chattanooga. 

Dr. McGee states that "it was, therefore, of 
the utmost importance to the nurses that they 
should have the official right to be with and 
work for the army, and that this right could 
be given by the contract with the surgeon-gen- 
eral and in no other way." The last part of 
this statement is surely an erroneous conclu- 
sion, for the tender of the services of the 
American National Red Cross to the War 
and Navy Departments, made May 25th, 1898, 
was accepted, and the President of the United 
States, in his message to the two Houses of 
• Congress, at the beginning of the Third Ses- 
sion of the Fifty-fifth Congress, December 
5th, 1898, says : "In this connection it is a 
pleasure for me to mention in terms of cor- 
dial appreciation the timely and useful work 
of the American National Red Cross, both in 
relief measures preparatory to the campaigns, 
and in sanitary assistance at several of the 
camps of assemblage. Working in conjunc- 
tion with the governmental authorities, and un- 
der the sanction and approval, and with the 
enthusiastic co-operation of many patriotic 
women and societies in the various States, the 
Red Cross has fully maintained its already 
high reputation for intense earnestness and 
ability to exercise the noble purposes of its 
international organization, thus justifying the 
confidence and support which it has received 
at the hands of the American people. To the 
members and officers of this society and all 
who aided them in their philanthropic work 
the sincere and lasting gratitude of the soldiers 
and the public is due and is freely accorded." 

This proves conclusively that those whom 
Dr. McGee designates as "some unfortunate 
nurses," meaning, evidently, those nurses who, 
at the outbreak of the war, and, in some in- 
stances, before the actual Declaration of War 
had been announced, had volunteered their 
services unconditionally and zvithout salary 
for the benefit of the soldiers, and who worked 
under the direction of Auxiliary No. 3, and, 
therefore, had no contracts, did have an official 
right to be with and work for the army, which 
right was granted them by an even higher 
authority than the surgeon-general. 

Dr. McGee's statement that the Auxiliary 



had accepted as nurses women without train- 
ing or the other qualifications required for the 
army, is also erroneous, for the persons en- 
rolled in 1898 for Red Cross work who were 
not "properly indorsed trained nurses" were 
enrolled for executive work that was either 
out of the province of the trained nurse en- 
tirely and had no connection whatever with 
actual nursing, or, in a few instances, were 
enrolled as assistants to the trained nurses. If 
at any time they temporarily filled the place 
of the trained nurse it was because the need 
was urgent and the nurse was not in evidence 
to supply it. I speak from personal experience, 
for I came in direct contact in 1898 with some 
of these assistants and had reason to fully 
appreciate their offer of co-operation, and, in 
some instances, knew that they were doing a 
share of the work and filling a place which the 
average trained nurse would be totally unfitted 
for. 

Dr. McGee's statement that her efforts 
throughout the whole work were directed 
toward the employment of none but "properly 
endorsed nurses" is most interesting, judged 
from the experience of the Red Cross nurses 
with the Order of Spanish-American War 
Nurses. I refer to the fact that "properly en- 
dorsed trained nurses," who worked for Auxil- 
iary No. 3 in 1898, applied and were received as 
associate members before the annual meeting 
of the Order in 1900, but after that meeting, 
they were requested to return their associats 
membership badges, as the Order had voted 
not to admit them to membership, and instead 
had voted to admit in place of them as asso- 
ciate members MO«-graduate nurses who held 
army contracts. 

In conclusion, I would say that the entire 
work of Auxiliary No. 3, Red Cross, 1898, was 
actuated, impelled and inspired by but one 
motive, that of aiding and alleviating the suf- 
ferings of those "who," as Dr. Louis L. Sea- 
.men says in the dedication of his book, "The 
Real Triumph of Japan," had gladly offered 
their lives for the honor and integrity of their 
beloved country, many of whose lives were be- 
ing needlessly sacrificed through preventable 
diseases, ignorance and incompetence." The 
sole aim and object of the Auxiliary was to 
find out what was needed, nurses, supplies, or 
the where-with-all to procure them, and to 
secure and provide it in the quickest possible 
manner. Those who had the privilege of 
even the smallest share of Red Cross work 



264 



THE TRAINED NU^SE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



in 1898 look back on it as the opportunity of 
a life-time for disinterested service for others. 
I have written of the Red Cross in 1898 
knowing that it will be of interest to many 
of the nurses, and also knowing that their 
co-operation and support is heartily desired by 
the Red Cross of 1907. 

Beatrice Stevenson. 

+ 
Responsibility of "R. N." 

I'o the Editor of The Trained Nurse : 

Far more frequently than is pleasant, and 
almost more frequently than seems warranted, 
either by word of mouth, by letter or in the 
pages of a contemporary journal comes some 
report of the doings of a trained nurse which 
reflects discredit on the profession. It has been 
and is a matter of deprecation that the mis- 
deeds of the one must redound to the discredit 
of the many. The woman of ethical perception, 
when these tales are related to her, feels a 
sense of responsibility for the whole profes- 
sion; she is not in a position to deny, or even 
to question the accuracy of the report ll;at 
some one has employed a trained nurse who did 
thus or so, and which usually completes itself 
with "Is that the way trained nurses do?" and 
yet she is being held responsible by her inter- 
locutor. She takes refuge in generalities, say- 
ing perhaps, "There are nurses and nurses, 
ihe whole profession can not be judged fairly 
by the indiscretions of one member of it. While 
the profession deprecates, it is not in a posi- 
tion to control the acts of its individual mem- 
bers," or other palliatory remarks which occur 
to her. 

No doubt in many cases there is a misunder- 
standing of the nurse's action; in others, the 
story is exaggerated; in others, she may not 
have been a trained nurse, and yet our profes- 
sion must take the blame . Complaints recently 
heard are the^e. A nurse called to a confine- 
ment case showed the prospective parent many 
pictures of abnormal labor presentations. A 
nurse called btxause hypodermic injections 
must be given did nothing for the patient for 
the week she was with him except give the 
hypodermics, allowing a sister who had been 
carir.g for the patient to continue to do all the 
work. A nurse "sat all day with her feet up in 
a chair and made the patient's mother run 
errands for her because her feet were sore, and 
so on ad :mitum. 

What shall we do regarding these complaints ? 
Say we are sorry and drop the matter? That 



hardly will suffice. In every state where the 
law of State Registration has been passed the 
reply to such questions should be an inquiry if 
the nurse is an "R. N.," and a request that if 
she is, the complainant should go before the 
State Board of Registration and prove these 
charges and request that the nqrse be dealt 
with according to the law provided. 

If State Registration is to be of any value, 
its value is in discriminating. If the nurse 
against whom complaints are made is not an 
"R. N." the profession of nursing may feel 
itself absolved from responsibility for her ac- 
tions. If she ts an "R. N." and charges of 
unprofessional conduct or other misdemeanor 
are brought and proved, the Board of Regis- 
tration is in duty bound to deal with her as by 
its law is provided. 

A large percentage of these tales are with- ' 
out question of a gossipy nature and the com- 
plainant would be unwilling to attempt their 
proof, and every such case a member of the 
profession is justified in dismissing as un- 
worthy of consideration. Our profession is too 
much in the critical eye of a misunderstand- 
ing public not to avail itself of every legitimate 
means of self-protection and justification. 
The profession is not responsible for the act of 
every one who wears a uniform and calls her- 
self a nurse, but it is responsible for the acts 
of every "R. N." 

Signed, A R. N. 

+ 
Some Pertinent Questions 

To the Editor of The Trained Nurse : 

The writer ventures a few remarks apropos 
of X's letters in the February Letter Box. 

Question No. 1 — "Is it best that training 
schools be conducted without control by physi- 
cians?" suggests to a Yankee another question, 
"where is there such a school?" 

Question No. 2. — As to whether nurses 
should establish exclusively their own 
registration requirements and legal standing, 
without help from medical men seems to me to 
be quite well answered by the working of the 
present New York State Law, This law is by 
no means satisfactory to the entire nursing 
profession, and some nurses have gone so far 
as to declare that they would rather trust to 
the impartiality of a board of physicians than 
of nurses. Morever, the present law excludes 
from registration many competent nurses, 
it has some very curious retroactive qualifica- 
tions and, in general, many physicians, in- 



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266 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



eluding the present writer, absolutely ignore 
the registration of a nurse in judging of her 
capability and professional standing. How- 
ever, it is only fair to state that this is riot en- 
tirely due to the source of control. 

In discussing Question 3, the writer of the 
letter referred to, seems to imply a disregard 
for education aside from technical training, 
both in the case of physicians and nurses. In 
a sense, the practical need of education in the 
two professions is entirely different. Every 
physician is, theoretically, a student and an in- 
vestigator and, if not educated to a certain 
degree, he fails of his mission in life, how- 
ever successfully he opens boils, delivers in- 
fants and treats coughs. The nurse is, even in 
theory, simply a practitioner of certain medi- 
cal details. Again, the medical profession is so 
terribly overcrowded that any reasonable re- 
striction of the right to practice is laudable, 
while the supply of nurses rather lags behind 
the demand. Another difference of practical 
moment is that the physician can, to a large de- 
gree, charge in proportion to his education, 
while the nurse cannot. Thus, the present 
writer would differ most emphatically with 
the implication that education for the physician 
is anything but essential. 

Now, as to education for nurses, the case is 
somewhat different. There is not the vital ne- 
cessity for a trained intellect to discover new 
things or to grasp and apply abtruse scientific 
principles. Still, the writer confesses to a love 
of education for its own sake. He has every 
sympathy -for the patient whose wife asked 
him "What did the doctor pronounce your 
case to be?" "He pronounced it paresis," re- 
plied the patient, "and I discharged him im- 
mediately," There are patients who would 
not sleep so well if they knew that the nurse 
was entering on the chart, the memorandum, 
"Patient slept good." This sentiment may be 
mere literary snobbishness but there are a 
great many persons who would discriminate 
against a thoroughly practical and good physi- 
cian, nurse, clergyman, lawyer, or any one else 
with whom they had to come into close asso- 
ciation simply on account of lack of education. 



It seems to the present writer that X fails to 
discriminate between the nurse overtrained in 
medical and surgical matters and the one who 
is well educated. The former is an unmiti- 
gated nuisance, like every other thing that is 
neither hay nor grass. Fortunately, she ex- 
ists more frequently in fiction than in real life 
and, so far as the writer's rather limited ex- 
perience goes, the nurse that officiously as- 
sumes responsibilities belonging to the physi- 
cian, is more apt to be a half-baked, ignorant, 
badly-bred woman than one who has entered 
the training school after securing a good edu- 
cation and reaching a maturity of intellect. 

Question 4, as the expediency of fighting 
training by private service, is a difficult one to 
deal with fairly, and briefly. But the writer 
will say this : that he believes the ideal train- 
ing of physicians demands somewhat of a re- 
turn to the old fashioned system of private pre- 
ceptorship and that so far as actual experi- 
ence in caring for private patients can be 
subject to supervision and proper state control, 
it should be favored. 

A great many discusions as regards nurs- 
ing would be simplified if we would candidly 
admit there are instances, both in hospital and 
in private practice, in which we want a cheap, 
menial assistant, who can be treated with lit- 
tle consideration and who can be utilized for a 
great variety of services, including the actual 
nursing of patients. This is not to be taken as 
sarcasm but as a bona fide expression of a 
condition. But, with certain rare exceptions, 
the kind of woman who is fitted to do in- 
telligent, conscientious nursing in critical cases, 
must be well paid and respectfully treated. 
The writer believes that, on the one hand, it 
is folly to attempt any legislation against the 
employment of the former kind of nurses and, 
on the other hand, not only folly but a degra- 
dation, to relax the educational, moral and, if 
you please, social, standards of the training 
school, registration bureau, and of the exist- 
ing nursing profession, so as to allow the ad- 
mission of members tending toward the old- 
fashioned type of menial nurse. 

EULOGETUS. 



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Plaster of Paris and How to Use It, by 
Martin W. Ware, M. D., Adjunct Attending 
Surgeon, Mount Sinai Hospital; Surgeon to 
the Good Samaritan Dispensary; Instructor in 
Surgery, N. Y., Post Graduate Medical School. 
12mo. ; 72 illustrations. About 100 pages. 
Cloth; $1, postpaid. For sale by the Lakeside 
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We welcome the arrival of this book because 
it fills a certain void in surgical literature and 
in nursing literature as well. Before its ap- 
pearance it was impossible to obtain such ex- 
plicit, practical and comprehensive informa- 
tion on the use of plaster of Paris in surgery 
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perience. True, by reading many and diver- 
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time ! 

In this book the whole subject is presented. 
The many uses to which plaster of Paris is 
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The making of all the usual kinds of ban- 
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splint, corset or dressing — all are included, as 
well as the use of plaster of Paris in dental 
surgery. 

+ 

Materia Medica for Nurses. — By Emily M. 
A. Stoney, Superintendent of the Training 
School for Nurses at the Carney Hospital, 
South Boston. Mass. Beautiful 12mo of 300 
pages. Third edition, thoroughly revised. 
1906. Cloth, $1.50 net. 

This book is well known to the majority of 
our readers. Therefore it is unnecessary to 
do more than announce that this, the third edi- 
tion, has been carefully revised and adapted 
to the Eighth Deceminal Revision of The 
United States Pharmacopoeia. Many additions 
and corrections have been made to increase 
the value of the work and bring it strictly 
up-to-date. 

It is exceptionally complete, containing val- 
uable tables and a glossary in which is found 
the principal terms used in Materia Medica and 



Therapeutics, together with a miscellaneous list 
of the newest drugs. 

The large, clear type is a feature we admire. 

We always recommended the earlier editions 
of this book, and it now gives us pleasure to 
assure our readers that the new edition is 
equally worthy of their confidence. 
+ 

Medical Diagnosis, A Manual for Students 
and Practitioners, by Charles Lyman Greene, 
M. D., Professor of the Theory and Practice 
of Medicine in the University of Minnesota, 
Attending Physician St. Luke's Hospital, the 
City Hospital and the St. Paul Free Dispen- 
sary, etc. Author of the Examination for Life 
Insurance and Its Associated Clinical Methods. 
With 'Seven colored plates and 230 other illus- 
trations; 12mo., 683 pages. Full limp moroc- 
co, rounded corners, gilt edges; just published; 
price, $3.50, postpaid. For sale by the Lakeside 
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In issuing this work the author desired to 
present the medical profession with that type 
of book which he conceived would be the most 
generally useful to the overtaxed student and 
to the general practitioner. It is not intend- 
ed to supplant the more elaborate works, many 
of them of the greatest value, nor, on the other 
hand, is it a mere compend. It occupies the 
middle ground, and is a compact, pithy and 
useful handbook, convenient in size, shape and 
arrangement, thoroughly a book of the present. 
Its compactness is made possible by direct 
statements tersely put, a well-ordered arrange- 
ment, the omission of unestablished theories 
and disused methods and the free use of mar- 
ginal notes and running page headlines. It 
cannot fail to win a respected place in medical 
literature. 

+ 
Diseases of the Lungs. Designed to be a 
practical presentation of the subject for the 
use of students and practitioners of medicine, 
by Robert H. Babcock, A. M., M. D., until 
recently Professor of Clinical Medicine and 
Diseases of the Chest, College of Physicians 
and Surgeons (Medical Department of the 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



**Science is a first rate piece of furniture for a man's upper chamber, 
if he has common sense on the ground floor, — Dr.O. W. Holmes 

"Common sense' tlierapy, while emoracing ^*<ery 
possible scientific am, also includes rational empi- 
ricism and clinical experience as reliaole guides in 
prescribing. Tbe crucial tests or time and trial bave 
demonstrated tbe merits or 

LACTOPEPTINE 

as an efficient aid in conditions requiring a digest- 
ive assistant. 

THE NEW YORK PHARMACAL ASSN, Yonkers, N. Y. 

TKe value of tKe Elixir Lactopeptine as a vehicle resides not only 
in its palatatility, but also in its digestive efficiency. 



«>*^« * ^^ii' 



^ 



Nxv\\\v^\WYv\A vaxAeis 



FOR HEADACHES, NEURALGIAS, also 




AND ITS 



NO 

DRUG HABIT 
•INDUCED.- 



THE ANTIKAMNIA 

St. Lou 



SEQUELS 

CHEMICAL COMPANY ( 

is. U. S. A. / 



Whea yo« write Adrvtiaen, pleaM mention Th« Tkaimbd Nvbm. 



270 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



State University, Chicago) ; Consulting Physi- 
cian to Cook County Hospital, Consulting 
Physician to Mary Thompson Hospital, etc. 
With twelve beautifully colored plates and 
104 text illustrations. Price, cloth, $6.00. For 
sale by Lakeside Publishing Co. 

This work is a companion volume to that 
upon "Diseases of the Heart," published a 
short time ago. We believe this to be one of 
the most exhaustive and comprehensive works 
upon this subject which has ever been pub- 
lished. The author's individuality is shown 
throughout the work. His style is attractive. 

Dr. Babcock has in this work, as in his book 
upon "Diseases of the Heart," given many 
records of interesting cases which will be of 
great interest and very helpful in diagnosis 
for the general practitioner. 

"Differential Diagnosis and Treatment" are 
given the attention which their importance de- 
mands. Every physician in the land will be 
benefited by having this work for consultation. 
+ 

Syllabus of Lectures on Human Embry- 
ology's: an Introduction to the Study of Ob- 
stetrics and Gynecology for Medical Students 
and Practitioners; with a Glossary of Em- 
bryological Terms. By Walter Porter Man- 
ton, M. D., Professor of Clinical Gynecology 
and Professor Adjunct of Obstetrics in the 
Detroit College of Medicine; Fellow of the 
Zoological Society of London, of the Michi- 
gan Academy of Sciences, etc. Third Edition. 
Revised and Enlarged. Illustrated with a 
colored frontispiece and numerous outHne 
drawings. 12mo, 136 Pages; Interleaved 
throughout- for adding notes. Bound in Extra 
Cloth. Price, $1.25. Postpaid. For .sale bv 
Lakeside Publishing Company. 

While this work is specially designed for, 
and will be found particularly useful to stu- 
dents of medicine in their first and second 
j'ears at college; and is likewise a desirable 
manual for review and reference for the gen- 
eral practitioner, it is not intended to take the 
place of the exhaustive textbooks on Em- 
bryology, but is primarily for use in the class 
room supplementary to the lecture and for 
laboratory guidance. It can also be used for 
self-instruction and in laboratory work in con- 
nection with the usual textbooks. 

Therefore those nurses who desire knowl- 
edge on this subject, will find this book one of 
the best they could secure for home reading 
and self-instruction. 



We beg to acknowledge with thanks the fol- 
lowing: 

Sixth Annual Report of the New York State 
Hospital for the Care of Crippled and De- 
formed Children. 

Fifty-third Annual Report of St. Joseph's 
Hospital, St. Paul, Minn. 

The Cervix Uteri Before, During and After 
Labor, by A. Ernest Gallant, M.D., N. Y. 

Reprint from Annals of Gynecology and 
Pediatry. 

Success : The Surgical Desideratum, by A. 
Ernest Gallant, M.D. Reprint from the Jour- 
nal of the American Medical Association. 

Milk Delusions, by E. F. Brush, M. D., 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Addresses Relative to the Wallham Train- 
ing School for Nurses, by Dr. Alfred Wor- 
cester, President Charles W. Eliot. 

Fortieth Annual Report of St. John's Guild, 
for the year ending September 30, 1906. 

TThe Cure of Psoriasis, with the Study of 
500 cases of the disease, observed in private 
practice by L. Duncan Bulkley, A.M., M.D., 
Attending Physician to the New York Skin 
and Cancer Hospital ; Consulting Physician to 
New York Hospital, New York City. 
+ 
*We have received for review the following 
works, which it will give us great pleasure to 
review at the earliest opportunity. 

Skin Diseases, Their Nursing and General 
Management. By G. Norman Meachen, M.D., 
B. S., London, M. R. C. P., London and Edin- 
burgh, M. R. C. S., England. 

The Care and Nursing of the Insane. By 
Percy J. Baily, M.B., CM., Edinburgh, Medical 
Superintendent of Hanwell Asylurn. Part I, 
Anatomy and Physiology. 

A Manual for Nurses on Abdominal Sur- 
gery. By Harold Burrows, M.B., F.R.C.S.; 
Assistant Surgeon to The Seamen's Hospital, 
Greenwich, and to the Bolingbroke Hospital, 
Wandsworth Common. 

Paraffin in Surgery, A Critical and Clinical 
Study. By William H. Luckett, B.S., M.D., 
Attending Surgeon Harlem Hospital; Sur- 
geon, Mount Sinai Hospital Dispensary and 
Frank I. Horn, M.D., Assistant Surgeon, Mt. 
Sinai Hospital Dispensary, New York City, 
with thirty-eight illustrations. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




When you write Ai]ver:iicrs. please mention Tn« Trained Nukse. 



Ci)e hospital B^etatetu 



The Wingham General Hospital was form- 
ally opened on January 24, 1907, by a reception 
to the citizens, many of whom have taken an 
active interest in furnishing the new institu- 
tion. 

The building is of white brick and is pleas- 
antly located on a hill overlooking the pros- 
perous town of Wingham, Ontario, and com- 
manding an excellent view of the beautiful 
country beyond. 

Miss Katherine Stevenson, formerly of Buf- 
falo, N. Y., has been appointed superintendent 
and Miss Eva Kelly, of London, Ontario, as- 
sistant. Owing to the recent illness of Miss 
Kelly, from typhoid fever, her position is be- 
ing filled by Miss Annie Densmore, a gradu- 
ate of New York City. 

We anticipate a bright future for the new 
hospital. 

+ 

Dr. E. R. Walker, of Princton, Scott Co., 
Iowa, was chosen March 4th, as Assistant 
Surgeon of the Iowa Soldiers' Home and 
Hospital, succeeding Dr. W. G. Morton, lately 
resigned. Dr. Walker is a graduate of the 
State University Medical College, class of '05, 
nnd previously a graduate of Department of 
Sciences, I. A. C. College, Ames, Iowa. 

+ 
Dr. Nell Noble, lately connected with the 
Laboratory Department of the Iowa Meth- 
odist Hospital, Des Moines, who left the city 
accompanied by her father three weeks ago for 
a trip to the Orient, was on board the Great 
Northern Steamship "Dakota," which was 
wrecked off the coast of Japan at Sagami, near 
Tokio, Sunday night, March 3rd. Cablegrams 
were received in Des Moines Monday, stating 
that all the passengers were landed, and Dr. 
Noble and father were safe, which occasioned 
much rejoicing among their friends in the 
city and at the hospital where Miss Noble is 
quite popular. 

+ 
The Homeopathic Medical Society of Des 
Moines met March 6, and made formal plans 
for the purchase of the old Iowa Sanitarium 



buildings at East Des Moines, to be used as 
a Homeopathic Hospital. The money to be 
raised by subscription and the building to be 
remodeled and renamed. 

By the will of the late John R. Creighton, 
the wealthy Omaha philanthropist, St. Josephs 
(Creighton's Memorial Hospital) received 
$200,000. Six other benevolent institutions 
were willed large sums, as also was Creighton 
Medical College, Omaha. 

+ 

The play and charity ball given at Daven- 
port, Iowa, February 6, by the society people 
of that city. Rock Island and Moline, III, for 
the benefit of St. Luke's Hospital, was a bril- 
liant affair both socially and financially. The 
proceeds, amounting to several hundred dol- 
lars, will be expended on improvements in the 
hospital. 

+ 

The plans drawn by the State Architect and 
accepted by the Board of Control for the main 
building of the new State Tuberculosis Hos- 
pital to be built near Iowa City the coming 
summer are as follows: The building will be 
built three stories high with basement. The 
exterior material to be pressed brick and the 
interior finished with oak. The building is to 
be 64x70 feet. The first floor will contain a 
rest room 22x25 feet and a large hall for the 
patients. The dining, 30x40 feet, two physicians'" 
offices and treatment rooms and the kitchen to 
be on the first floor. The patients' and doctors* 
rooms to be on the second floor and the at- 
tendants' and servants' quarters on the third 
floor. The basement to be used for storage 
purposes. The interior arrangement will allow 
for 100 persons. Everything in the line of 
modern fixtures, appliances and comforts will 
be enstalled as far as posible. $50,000 was al- 
lowed by the State last year for the building of 
the hospital and $25,000 more has been asked 
for at the special session of the Legislature this 
year. Shacks and tents will be used to some 
extent for special out- door treatment 

+ 

We are in receipt of the Forty-Second An- 
nual Report of the S. ,R. Smith Infirmary, 



ADVERTISEMENTS 




Ix 



m DO liOV 



RECORD 
BOOKS 
and BLANKS? 



VAN PIPER'S 
are the best published 

Encforsed by all the 
leading Nurses in the U. S. 

Also Clinical Charts, Receipt Blanks, History 
Sheets, Operation Blanks, Bedside Notes, 
Temperature Charts, etc. 

Samples and Price Lists furnished free 
upon application. Estimates promptly 
furnished on Special Blanks of any kind 

CHARLES A. LAWES CO. 

(Successors lo Belden & Company) 
302 Dearborn Street, Chicago. III. 



g/t 



Like the 

Proverbial 

Pudding, 

the proof of which 

is " in the eating," is ~ 

"tha therapeutic value of which is proven "in the frying.*" 

That this pleasant tasting, neutral combination of orgfonic Iron and Manganese is an efficient 

"Blood-Builder" in cases of Anaemia, Chloro-Anaemia, Chlorosis, Rhachitis, etc. 

is shown in two ways : 

ist— By the obvious and rapid Improvement In the patient's color and jreneral appearance. 

ad— By the increased number of red blood cells and the greater percentage «f haemoglobin, 
a§ shown by Instruments of precision (haemocyclometer, haemoglobinometer, etc) 
Do you want to make these tests yourself ? If so. we will send you a sufficient quantity for the purpose. 

To assure proper filling of prescriptions, order Pepto-Mangan "Gude" lo original bottles ( 3 xi). 

IT'S NEVER SOLD IN BULK. 

M. J. BREITENBACH COMPANY, 



LABORATORY. 

LEIPZIG. SERMANV. 



New YORK. 



274 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Staten Island, from which we quote the fol- 
lowing : 

"It is the constant aim of the trustees to 
make the hospital self-supporting. This can 
iiardly be expected, however, so long as the 
City of New York pays less than one-half of 
the cost of caring for charity patients. Dur- 
ing this past year, the care of such free pa- 
tients has cost the hospital some $16,000 more 
than the amount received from the city. The 
generous subscriptions and donations for cur- 
rent expenses, together with the charity ball 
receipts and the interest on investments, have 
reduced the net deficit to $4,451.18, or about 
the same amount as the net deficit for the 
previous year. Even this is a rather serious 
inroad upon the invested funds of the institu- 
tion^ Fortunately, there is good reason to hope 
that the per capita payment by the city will 
be slightly increased, and it is quite possible 
that the deficit for the coming year may be 
somewhat reduced in this way. Until the city 
pays the full cost of caring for city charges, 
however, this hospital — like others — must ap- 
peal to its friends for subscriptions for cur- 
rent expenses and for donations to its endow- 
ment fund. 

" Our greatest need, that of a new and larger 
home for the nurses, has been most happily 
and generously met by Mrs. George Dow Far- 
rar, who has given the money for the erection 
of the "George Dow Farrar Home and School 
for Nurses" as a memorial to her late husband. 
The plans have been prepared by Mr. Charles 
F. Post, the architect who built the Harpster 
Home, and the work is being done by Messrs. 
Philip Wolff & Son, the builders of the hos- 
pital. The building will be three stories in 
height, with basement. On the first floor 
there will be the large entrance hall, a re- 
ception room, tea room, library, and large and 
completely equipped lecture room for the- 
oretical instruction of the nurses. The re- 
mainder of the first floor and all of the second 
floor will be rooms for the nurses (twenty- 
three in number), each room to have a closet, 
bookcase and writing desk, and both floors to 
be provided with ample lavatories and bathing 
facilities. The third floor will not be parti- 
tioned, but will be provided with cots and used 
as a quiet room where the nurses on night duty 
can take their rest in the day time. The build- 
ing will be connected with the Harpster Home 
by an enclosed bridge on the second floor. It 
will be heated from the boiler house by the 



same system as that now in use in the hospital 
wards. 

"The building is to be completed May 1, and 
when finished will be the most convenient, 
comfortable, and complete Nurses' Home pos- 
sessed by any hospital in the city." 
+ 

Raymond F. Almirall, as architect to the 
City of New York, has filed plans for the ' 
group of new administration buildings to be 
erected on Blackwell's Island as annexes to the 
present City Hospital. The group includes two 
one-story reception houses for patients to 
cost $25,000 each, an operating pavilion to 
cost $25,000, a three-story kitchen and service 
building to cost $12,000, a three-story and attic 
residence for the medical staff to cost $54,000 
and to be called Janeway Hall and a two-story 
and attic residence for the hospital superin- 
tendent to cost $20,000. 

The same architect has filed plans for two 
new recreation pavilions to be built on the is- 
land for the inmates of the City Home for the 
Aged and Infirm. 

+ 

A bill has been introduced into the Pennsyl- 
vania Legislature appropriating the sum of 
$600,000 for two years, and providing for the 
establishment and maintenance under the 
charge of the State Department of Public 
Health of one or more sanatoria for the free 
care of indigent persons suffering from tuber- 
culosis. 

+ 

Dr. W. A. Leach, of the Leach Chemical 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio, proposes to found a 
hospital for the poor children of Cincinnati 
where they can obtain free treatment from the 
best of the profession. 

The details of Dr. Leach's project are not 
yet fully determined. It is known, however, 
that he has practically completed a deal for 
the purchase of the handsome Boehm resi- 
dence, owned by the Boehm estate, which is 
located at the northwest corner of Auburn 
and Southern Avenues, Mt. Auburn, and 
originally cost $115,000. From a friend of 
the physician it was learned that Dr. Leach 
has agreed to purchase the realty providing 
the title is found to be satisfactory. 

Dr. Leach stated that his purpose is to give 
the property to a philanthropical organiza- 
tion and contribute a stipulated amount each 
year toward the maintainance of a hospital 
where the real poor children of the city could 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



TiHE use of plastic, antiseptic, hy- 
I droscopic dressings in the treat- 
SJEMail ment of inflammatory conditions 
is well established. Believing that their 
valuable properties are enhanced by the use 
of a superior base, we have always made 
Antithermoline from the 
finest quality of import- 
ed Kaolin, and clinical 
evidence has justified us 
in so doing. 





Believing that the high quality of Anti- 
thermoline justifies the best possible con- 
tainer, we now supply this well-known 
product in special glass jars, which, it will 
be apparent approach closer to surgical 
ideals, permit of perfect resealing after 
they have once been opened and eliminate 
those dangers of oxidation which attend 
the use of metal containers. 



FORMULA 

Each pound of Anti- 
thermoline contains 
4.000 grs. of imported 
kaolin washed and pur- 
ified, 14 grs. Roracic 
acid, 14 grs. oil of Eu- 
calyptus Menthol and 
Thymol, combined : 4 
9-10 fluid oz. glycerine. 



INDICATIONS 

Burns 

Bee Stiiifs 

Bites of Poisonous 
Insects 



Antithermoline 



(G. W. CARNRICK) 



is a most effective appli- 
cation in all conditions 
of irritation, congestion 
and inflammation; it con- 
tains no poisonous in- 
gredients (hence may be 
applied to raw sufaces 
without discomfort), is 
not greasy, is miscible in 
water, is antiseptic and 
mildly astringent. It 
forms an elastic covering, 
preventing access of air and bacteria, and 
is therefore an ideal dressing for wounds, 
burns, ulcers, etc. 



G. 



W. CARNRICK CO. 

42 Sullivan Street 
NEW YORK 



Infected Wounds 

Eczema 

Pruritus 

Intertri^fo 

Congestions of 
Organs and Tissues 
of the Pelvis 

Pneumonia and all 
Inflammatory Con- 
ditions of Respira- 
tory Tract. 



ANTITHERMOLINE 

is for sale by the Drug 
Trade only in 10 os. 
soc. size, lyi lb. fi.oo 
size. Also in s. 10 and 
35 lbs. for hospital use. 
A package sent to any 
nurse on request. 



When Tou write Advertisers, please mention Tbb TtAiMn Nvbsb. 



276 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



receive treatment without any charge. He 
estimates the running expenses annually at 
$10,000, and it is likely that he may give this 
or a part of that amount, leaving the rest to be 
contributed by other persons interested in the 
same movement. 

Contrary to the supposition of many per- 
sons, the new Naval Hospital at Annapolis will 
be for the service in general and not for offi- 
cers, midshipmen, and others connected with 
the Naval Academy alone. 

The hospital, together with its equipment, is 
thoroughly modern and up-to-date in every 
respect, and will accommodate about a hun- 
dred patients. It is located on the government 
farm opposite the Academy, and was erected 
at a cost of $200,000. Surg. Gen. Pickrell has 
been detailed by the Navy Department to man- 
age it.' In addition to Surg. Pickrell, the hos- 
pital staff will be composed of one and possibly 
more assistant surgeons, one pharmacist, three 
hospital stewards, and corps of fourteen 
nurses. 

The managers of the New York Throat, 
Nose, and Lung Hospital have issued a circular 
addressed to school principals in Manhattan 
and the Bronx announcing that the hospital 
will hereafter supply spectacles free to school 
children whose parents are too poor to buy 
then, and also callr'ng attention to :he dental 
clinic of the hospital, where the teeth of school 
children will be treated free of charge. The 
dental clinic was established in October, 1905. 

The Idaho Falls Hospital, Idaho, opened 
January 8, by the Village Improvement Asso- 
ciation, bids fair to be a success. Miss Effie 
Hutchinson, of Canada, has resumed charge. 

The governors of the New York Skin and 
Cancer Hospital announce that Dr, L. Duncan 



Bulkley will close his chnical course with four 
special lectures. 

March 27. — Practical Points in the Diagnosis 
and Treatment of Diseases of the Skin. 

April 3. — Errors in Diagnosis and Treat- 
ment; Don'ts in Dermatology. 

April 10. — Danger Signals from the Skin. 

April 17. — The Significance and Treatment 
of Itching. And also announce a lecture by 
Dr. William Seaman Bainbridge. 

April 24. — Some Phases of the Cancer Prob- 
lem. Illustrated by a series of cases. In the 
Out-Patient Hall of the Hospital, at 
4.15 o'clock. 

The lectures are free to the medical profes- 
sion. 

The Children's Hospital Society, of Chicago, 
has done a great work in the four years of its 
existence. The latest work of the society is to 
aid in getting the State Legislature to appro- 
priate money for the establishment of a State 
epileptic colony. For this purpose, under the 
auspices of the society, Dr. W. C. Spratling, 
superintendent of Craig Colony for Epileptics, 
New York, recently gave an illustrated lecture 
in the Senate Chamber at Springfield, before 
the members of the Legislature. It is claimed 
the colony as proposed will be almost self-sup- 
porting. The State Board of Charities has 
asked the Legislature for $365,000. 

The State Senate of New York has passed 
the hospital transfer bill introduced by Senator 
Sohmer, making it a misdemeanor to transfer 
patients in a critical condition from one hos- 
pital to another. The bill also compels superin- 
tendents of New York city hospitals to admit 
all patients brought to them if they have room 
and the patients are not. suffering from con- 
tagious diseases. 



Pennsylvania Raises the Requirements for Admission to Medical School 



Recognizing the advantages of a broader 
general education and the growing necessity of 
prospective student having in addition special 
preparation for the study of medicine, the 
Board of Trustees of the University of Penn- 
sylvania has decided recently to raise the re- 
quirements for admission to its medical school. 



These requirements include two years of gen- 
eral college training and in addition a cer- 
tain knowledge of biology, chemistry and 
physics. According to the plan which has 
been adopted, the standard will be raised grad- 
ually, beginning with the academic year 1908- 
1909 and reaching the maximum 1910-191L 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



The 



'Mllenhutgs Foods. 



Provide nourishment suited to the needs and digestive powers of the child from birth 
onward, according to the development of the digestive organs. 

TKe ••Allenburys" MilK Food ''No. 1" 

Designed for use from birth to three months of age, is identical in chemical composition with 
maternal milk, and is as easy of assimilation. It can therefore be given alternately with the 
breast, if required, without fear of upsetting the infant. 

TKe ••Allenburys" MilK Food ''No. 2*' 

Designed for use from three to six months of age, is similar to "No. 1,** but contains in 
addition a small proportion of maltose, dextrine and the soluble phosphates and albuminoids. 

TKe ••Allenburys" Malted Food ''No. 3" 

Designed for use after the fifth or sixth month, is a partially predigested farinaceous food need- 
ing the addition of cows* milk to prepare it for use. 

Physicians familiar with the "AUenburys" Series of Infant Foods pronounce this to be the 
most rational system of artificial feeding yet devised. Their use saves the troublesome and fre- 
quently inaccurate modification of milk and is less expensive. Experience proves that children 
thrive on these Foods better than on any other artificial nourishment. 

SAMPLE AND CLINICAL REPORTS SENT ON APPLICATION 



THE ALLEN (Si HANBURYS CO., Limited 

TORONTO. CAN. LONDON. ENG. NIAGARA FALLS. N. Y. 



©xpsheaf 

j^"^ THE MODERN 

j SAFETY PIN 

by TRAINED 

Nurses .^^*^2«^ //y^jH 

not 

Pull 

Out 

in. 

Use 

5TI FF 
STRONG 

C0ILLE55 

Ttie ONLY SAFETY PIN 
MADE THAT CANNOT aTOt 
IN THE FABRIC. 

^JUDSON PIN C0.MF6RS 

ROCMESTER.N.Y. l 

5wi Postul fo lol FTonklmS+.HY.City 




Mode 
mail 
Sizes 



LISTER'S NAPKINS 

Compressed 



Sanitary 



Necessity 




FOR WOMEN 



This is the most modern sanitary napkin, in 
the best possible form. It is a pad of absorbent 
cotton and gauze that will absorb half a pint of 
fluid without becoming soggy, and yet is put up 
in such a small package that several may be 
carried in a lady's hand bag without showing 
signs of bulkiness. 

They are comfortable, are to be burned after 
use. They save time, space and energy; are just 
the thing when traveling. 

Lister's Compressed Napkins are packed 
separately in a foil covered, dust and dirt proof 
container. 

Price, 5 Cents each; 60 Cents a dozen. 
SoM by the do2en only 

KJMNSON & JOHNSON, Manufacturers 
NEW BRUNSWICK. NEW JERSEY 



When 70U write Advertiters, please mention T«« Tbaiiied Nuaas. 



ileto B^emeties an^ applmncesi 



It Takes Out All the Dirt 

20 Mule Team Boraxaid Soap Powder 
cleans silver, pewter, metal and marble; re- 
moves stains, brightens paint, washes dishes; 
in fact does all cleaning, cheaper, quicker and 
with less labor than any other article; cleans 
equally well in hard, soft, hot or cold water. 
No lye or rosin to roughen and redden the 
hands — ^just pure 20 Mule Team Borax and 
Soap. "Boraxaid" trade-mark; 5 and 10 cent 
packages. All grocers. 
+ 
Some Uses of Lysol 
Recent wounds may be washed or irrigated 
with a 1 per cent, solution in hot water; for 
cleansing chronic sores a 2 per cent, solution 
may be used, and for irrigating abscess cav- 
ities the same strength solution will be satis- 
factory. In emergency cases in treating filthy 
wounds much time is saved by pouring a solu- 
tion of Lysol on the wound, thus using the 
antiseptic and at the same time cleaning the 
surface. In preparing aseptic surgical dress- 
ings they may be boiled in a 1 per cent, solu- 
tion for five or ten minutes. 
+ 
Qlad to Use More 
Louisville, Ky., Oct. 11, 1906. 
The Anascarcin Chemical Co. 
Winchester, Tenn. : 
Some time ago I received a sample of your 
tablets, and I am glad to inform you that they 
have proved very satisfactory to me. Have 
found several occasions to prescribe them, and 
recommend them very highly. I would appre- 
ciate another sample if you came to favor me. 
— Very truly yours, 

John D. Carpenter, M. D. 
+ 
Relief I 
Dr. C. A. Bryce, Editor of "The Southern 
Clinic" has found much benefit to result from 
Antikamnia and Codeine Tablets, adminis- 
tered for the relief of all neuroses of the 
larynx, bronchial as well as the deep-seated 



coughs, which are so often among the most 
prominent symptoms. In fact, for the trouble- 
some coughs which so frequently follow or 
hang on after an attack of influenza, and as a 
winter remedy in the troublesome conditions 
of the respiratory tract there is no better re- 
lief than one or two Antikamnia and Codeine 
Tablets slowly dissolved upon the tongfue, 
swallowing the saliva. 

+ 

Resinol Did It 

I have prescribed Resinol Ointment for four 
cases of pruritus ani recently and have obtained 
instant relief. I have completely cured one case 
of eczema with the ointment, and I have a 
number of families who keep it on hand as a 
family medicine. — G. W. Smith, M. D., Fort 
Smith, Ark. 

I am glad to state that Resinol Soap entirely 
cured a bad case of dandruflf. I used it in the 
following way : Two nights each week I made 
a lather, rubbing it dry and allowing it to 
remain all night, washing it out early in the 
morning with warm water. This was done to 
hasten a cure, and the result was perfect. — 
J. F. Jones, M. D., Neodesha, Kan 

+ 
Rhinalum Wafers— Unguentine Wafers 

Weight, 15 grs; length, 1% inches; width, 
^ of an inch. Formula: Alumen (non-irri- 
tating), 2 grs.; corrosive sublimate, 1-100 gr. ; 
hydrastine, 1-32 gr. ; formaldehyde, Q. S. ; lan- 
olin, Q. S. ; menthol, Q. S. ; cocoa butter, Q. S. 
Indicated in the treatment of rhinitis, coryza 
and all purulent diseases of the nose. Their 
pheasant odor and peculiar size and shape ad- 
mits of ready application and causes no incon- 
venience to the patient and their extensive 
surface furnishes an excellent means of direct 
and prolonged medication and ready absorp- 
tion. Twelve wafers are neatly wrapped in 
foil and packed in a beautiful box. Sample 
sent free on application. Price, per box, 25 
cents; per dozen boxes, $2.50. The Norwich 
Pharmacal Company, sole manufacturers. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



ONDS 

EXTRACT 

OF HAMAMELIS VIRCINICA 



FOR OVER MALFA-CEAiTURY THE STANDARD 
Aqua Hamamolidia 

GUARANTEED UNDER THE FOOD AND DRUGS 
ACT. JUNE 30.1906- SERIAL NUMBER 893. 

P 

^H and pure glycerin — mixed in the 
^H proportion of one part to two, 
^1 and used as a lavement, gargle 
^H or spray, as the case may re- 
^^^^ quire—is a valuable remedy in 

i CATARRHAL AFFECTIONS 
J OF THE AIR PASSAGES 

H CAVTIO'N: 

Wjr^ By prescribing POND'S EXTRACT •xcta- 
W^^% siVely, the profession may entirely obviate 
f lirf^ the poison perils of substitutes adulterated 
•with Wood Alcohol or Formaldehyde and 
fuhich— unidentified— offer no guarantee of 
purity, quality and strength 'when dispensed. 

PONDS EXTRACT CO. 

NEW YORK AND LONDON 





^URSES were among the first to recogmze the brnefits of 
■'•^ rubber heels. The first rubber heeis that they rrcognized 
were the pioaeers, O'Sullivan's. These heels rendered them the 
baefits that thev expected. In the course o( time the popular- 
ity of the 0*511111 van heel caused sut>stitutes to be put oa the 
market, and then to be attached to nurses' Oxfords and Juliets. 
These substitutes proved to be a disappointment to the nuraes 
who wanted a noiseless, resilient and durable heel of new rubber, 
such as the O "Sullivan Rubber Co. make, and such as you can 
buy from reputable dealers attached to nurses' Oxfords and Jul- 
iets already ready made. You can avoid disappcuntment by 
m^bting when you buy the heels separate, or shoes with heeb 
attached, that the heels be O'Sullivan's, and obtain the noise- 
less tread. the resiliency, the economy and the comfort that you 
expect will be yours. From the makers unattached they are 3S 
cents by maiL 

O'SULLIVAN RUBBER CO.. ^^fi'* 



ESKAYS FOOD 

was ordered by the family physician of Lillian 
McTigert, Brooklyn, N. Y., when she was four 
lonths old. 

previous to that time she had been given other 
' foods, but '* made no progress." 



With Eskay's the improvement was rapid. At twelve months she weighs 
28 lbs., and is in perfect health, as her picture shows. 

If your baby is not thriving, let us send you without charge a lib- 
eral sample, and our helpful book, " How to Care for the Baby. 

SMITH, KLINE & FRENCH CO., 436 Arch St.. Philadelphi, 



280 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



"Lubrizone" 

"Lubrizone" is a sterilized, neutral, antisep- 
tic lubricant. It is non-irritating to the most 
sensitive mucous membranes, is healing, sooth- 
ing and germicidal. It is thus a definite pro- 
tection against infection. It does not stain 
clothing or bandages, and is soluble in either 
hot or cold water. It is superior to all lubri- 
cants which have either an animal or mineral 
base. Composed of the essential elements of 
carrageen in combination with eucalyptus and 
formaldehyde, it also contains an oxygen lib- 
erator, the oxygen being held in suspension 
until coming in contact with the secretions; 
the oxygen is then liberated and becomes ther- 
apeutically effective. 

Lubrizone is manufactured with the same 
care that is given to every product which em- 
anates from the laboratory of the Parmele 
Pharmacal Company, New York. 
+ 
Increases Tone 

In addition to overcoming the anemia and 
the deficiencies of nutrition, Pepo-Mangan 
(Gude) adds tone to the blood vessels and 
reduces to a minimum the softening of the 
heart walls which always attends the pregnant 
state. 

Certainly one of the most gratifying effects 
of Pepto-Mangan (Gude) is the increase of 
physical strength and buoyancy of spirits which 
the prospective mother derives from its ad- 
ministration. That the unborn participate in 
the benefits derivable from Pepto-Mangan 
(Gude), there can be no doubt, for at birth 
they present unmistakable evidences of physi- 
cal robustness, and seem well fortified against 
those illnesses which are peculiar to infant- 
hood. 

+ 

Medicinal Treatment of Gallstones 

C. M. Bowcock, M. D., Fifth and Washing- 
ton Streets, Springfield, 111., wrote: 

I desire to mention the excellent results from 
Probilin in the case of Dr. Charles Compton. 
The doctor, to my personal knowledge, has 
been suffering with gall-bladder trouble for 
more than two years, and on several occasions 
has been compelled to give up practice for a 
week or two. His skin and eyes were very yel- 
low and the urine very dark during these two 
years. I advised the use of Probilin and the 
results have been marvelous. Only four days 
after commencing Probilin the improvement 



was more marked than the result of the con- 
tinuous treatment and visits at the springs for 
the previous two years. At this time the skin, 
eyes and urine are normal in appearance, appe- 
tite and digestion are good, and the soreness 
in the region of the gall-bladder is entirely re- 
lieved. 

+ 

A Valuable Resource 

Hundreds of trained nurses have found Hor- 
lick's Malted Milk a valuable addition to their 
resources in private homes as well as in the 
hospital ward when caring for an infant, invalid 
or convalescent. It will be of interest, there- 
fore, to many nurses to know there are imita- 
tions on the market, and when advising the use 
of Malted Milk, "Horhck's" should be specified, 
that the original and only genuine may be ob- 
tained. Horlick's Malted Milk Company pos- 
sesses the largest, the cleanest and the best 
equipped plant in the world for preparing 
Malted Milk, and being the originators of this 
unique food product, know what methods are 
best to apply in every detail of the prepara- 
tory process. Their milk supply is always un- 
der strict supervision, the grains are selected 
with care, and nothing is left undone to guar- 
antee a maintenance of those distinctive qual- 
ities that have made Horlick's Malted Milk 
so dependable in the past and so distinctly to- 
day the standard food of its type. 
+ 

Something You Have Been Looking For 

Mystic Cream is entirely different from any 
other preparation of its kind on the market. 

It is neither greasy nor sticky, but is quick- 
ly absorbed, leaving the skin soft, white and 
smooth. 

No matter how rough and sore your hands 
may get, this preparation will give instant re- 
lief, and, if faithfully used, keep your skin 
in perfect condition in any weather or at any 
time of year. 

As a toilet cream it has no equal for tan, 
sunburn, prickly heat or any irritation of the 
skin arising from any cause whatever. 

Free sample at our store or by mail on 
request. 

Full two ounce jars, 25 cents. 

If your druggist does not sell it we will 
send it by mail post paid on receipt of 25 
cents. — Ogden & Shimer, Pharmacists, corner 
West Main and South Streets, Middletown, 
N. Y. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



>■ 



■-^-s» 




^ure Milk for ihc 3aby 



^•::*.v 



can be secured only with great difficulty in moSt cities, and often the smaller 
communities are no better served. 

Milk once contaminated cannot be made suitable for infant feeding. No amount 
of paiteurization, Aerilization or modification can make poor milk a good mfant food. 
The fundamental que^on in infant feeding is one of pure milk — safe milk. 



Highland 
Evaporated Milk 

is obtained from finely bred cows living under the mo^ favorable conditions of model 
dairy farms. The pure full-cream milk is teiled, to ascertain if up to our ftandard, 
^erilized, evaporated (reduced two and one-half times), placed in ziseptic cans and 
again ^erilized. For infant feeding it possesses many advantages. The quality 
is uniform, the casein is more easily dige^ed than that of raw, paAeurized, or boiled 
milk; it can be modified as desired and is absolutely pure. 

As it is beyond human skill to secure absolute uniformity in the full output of our 
latfge fadtories, we are marketing our second grade at slightly lower prices as 

Pet Evaporated Milk 

It is but a trifle lighter and less conitant in consistency than our HIGHLAND 
')rand. It answers where scientifically exact feeding is not required. 

We are the originators of Evaporated Milk in this country, 
and our two produdls are the ^ndard of quality. They offer the 
simplest, moA uniform and satisfadlory sub^tute food for infants 
and may also be used in place of dairy milk for aU household 
purjx)ses. 

Trial quantity on reque^. 




HELVETIA MILK CONDENSING CO., 
Highland. III. 




^-^^^ 




When you write Advertisers, please mention Th« Txaimw Nuxss. 



282 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



A Sterile Eye Bath 

An eye bath fashioned from a single piece 
of aluminum has been introduced by the Kress 
& Owen Company. That this little device will 
be well received by the medical profession is 
not to be questioned when one considers the 
many points of advantage this metal cuphas 
over the old-style glass contrivance. It is 
cleanly, unbreakable and can be sterilized in- 
stantly by dropping into boiling water. The 
surgical bag in thp future will hardly be com- 
plete without one of these cups, which will 
give happy results in many an emergency. It 
will be found invaluable for treating ophthal- 
mia, conjunctivitis, eye strain, ulceration and 
all inflammatory conditions affecting the eye. 

Directions. — Drop into the eye bath ten to 
thirty drops of Glyco-Thymoline, fill with 
warm water; holding the head forward, place 
the filled eye bath over the eye, then open and 
close the eye frequently in the Glyco-Thymo- 
line solution. 

No pain or discomfort follows the use of 
Glyco-Thymoline. It is soothing, non-irritat- 
ing, and reduces inflammation rapidly. 



The Value of Pure Food Law 

The new Pure Food Law enacted by Con- 
gress last June is one of the most far-reaching 
and beneficial provisions ever inserted in the 
statute books of our country, and its effect will 
be felt by every class and condition of the 
people. 

It is gratifying to know that when the Gov- 
ernment, for the purpose of insuring purity 
by forbidding adulteration, says that a product 
must be exactly what its label represents, that 
you are not forced to make hurried changes in 
formula or label, but that the goods of your 
manufacture have always been conscientiously 
prepared and advertised — that the crime of 
misbranding has been left for others to com- 
mit. 

Daniel's Conct. Tinct. Passiflora is derived 
by a process that has been in use for fifty 
years, from the cultivated may-pop, the fruit 
of the greatest sedative value known to med- 
icine, and, as nearly every practitioner in the 
United States will testify, appeals directly to 
the nerve centres, allays irritation, restores 
neural equilibrium and eradicates every dis- 
ease due to a disordered nervous system. 



Cough 

Among the late remedies for this class of 
cases is heroin, and it certainly has proved a 
valuable addition to our materia medica. There 
are many combinations in use of which heroin 
is the chief constituent. Some, in my opinion, 
are not to be recommended for general use. 
What is needed is a safe and efficient prepara- 
tion whose action is positive and definite. 
Such a combination we have in Glyco-Heroin 
(Smith), made by Martin H. Smith Co., of 
New York. Each drachm of this mixture con- 
tains heroin, gr. 1-16; ammonia hypophos., 
hyoscyamus, white pine bark, balsam tolu, 
glycerine, ad 3i. The astringent properties of 
white pine bark are of peculiar service in 
inflammations of the respiratory tract. It also 
is of use in arresting the night sweats of 
phthisis. Balsam of tolu is an aromatic, use- 
ful in chronic bronchitis or in the advanced 
stage of the acute disease. Altogether this 
mixture has, in my hands, proved to be of the 
greatest value, and at least a dozen of my 
medical friends to whom I have recommended 
it are ioud in its praise. — Francis W. Camp- 
bell, M. A., M. D., D. C. L., L. R. C. P., 
London. 



Summer Studies 

As soon as the hard winter months are over, 
the nurse longs for a rest, a recreation or a 
change of some kind. Few of the fortunate 
ones can forget their professional cares alto- 
gether at some breezy mountain or seashore 
resort, others, however, will utilize the sum- 
mer months in broadening their knowledge 
by postgraduate studies in such branches to 
which little attention was paid during the 
actual hospital course of training. Every nurse 
should nowadays have a thorough knowledge 
in massage, gymnastics, electro and hydro- 
therapy to broaden her sphere of usefulness 
and to increase her income. The Pennsylvania 
Orthopaedic Institute and School of Mechano- 
Therapy, (Inc.), 1711 Green Street, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., offers this summer two courses in 
these branches starting independently on May 
16th and June 27th. The number of applica- 
tions for admission to these classes from 
trained nurses and hospital superintendents is 
greater so far than in any previous year. If 
you wish to engage in such postgraduate work, 
inquire early to have a vacancy reserved. 
Max J. Walter, Supt. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



PHILADELPHIA ORTHOPAEDIC 

HOSPITAL AND INFIRMARY 

FOR NERVOUS DISEASES 



School of 
MASSAGE AND ELECTRICITY 

The Original Place and 
The Original Method 

Four months' course of instruction in 
Massafe. Swedish Movements and Electricity 

Fee $75 for Massage and $25 for Elec- 
tricity. Board not included 
Payment in advance 



Lectures Weekly 



Certificate Given 



CClasses are formed in October and 
January. CPupils have access to 
the Wards of the Hospital and the 
numerous cases referred from the 
clinics :: :: :: :: :: 

For further information address 

SUPERINTENDENT 



The Nauheim 

Cl Liio means of the 

TRITON 

EFFERVESCENT 

Bath Salts 

The preparation of an artificial Nau- 
heim Bath surcharging the water with 
carbon dioxide by adding to a tub of 
water a package of Triton Salts is 
simple to the last degree. We shall be 
glad to send literature and manual of 
the Nauheim Treatment on request. 

THE TRITON COMPANY 

SchieiTelin & Co. 

NEW YORK 
Sole Licensees and Sole Agents 



All Nestle's Pood 



sold in Europe for the 
past three years and in 
America since January 1st, 1906, has been prepared on a 
modification of the original formula. The changes are 
improvements suggested by advanced research of modern 
pediatrists. The result is less starch and a higher percentage 
of fats, greater nutritive value and a lessened tendency to 
constipate. Nestle's Food is now, more than ever, the most 
safe and satisfactory food for infants, easily prepared and 
readily modified to suit individual cases. 



^^ Recent Work in Infant Feeding," our new pamphlet, 
contains valuable and authentic matter. We are mailing 
you a copy. Extra copies sent on request. 

HENRI NESTLE, 72 Warren Street, NEW YORK 



When yoB write Advertisers, please mention Tai Tkaimko Noi 



284 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Toilet Powder 

" There is no toilet article in the selection of 
which greater care should be used than a 
toilet powder. 

With toilet powder, as with most other lines 
of goods, it is safer to trust an old-established 
house with years of experience and a reputa- 
tion for making only the best. Mennen's 
Toilet Powder is a trade-marked article, 
which has for years been recognized by physi- 
cians as the best preparation made. The ab- 
solute purity of its ingredients and the exer- 
cise of the greatest care and skill in its manu- 
facture have given the product of the Mennen 
Co. a quality of uniform excellence. That is 
why your physician recommends it. 

For your protection, Mennen's face (the 
trade-mark of the Mennen Co.) is on the 
cover of every box of the genuine. 

All first-class dealers carry Mennen's Toilet 
Powder and will supply it if you insist. It 
is supplied by the Government for both Army 
and Navy. 

+ 

Early Decay of Children's Teeth 

A live question with physiologists is the very 
general tendency in children to early decay of 
the teeth and the resultant unfortunate conse- 
quences to general health. It is now generally 
conceded that one of the main causes of the 
decay of teeth is the general use of white 
bread, and soft, mushy foods. The coming of 
the teeth marks a period in the child's life 
when an elaboration of the all-milk diet is 
required. The amylolitic function is gradually 
developing and it is therefore necessary to 
provide food which will not tax these new 
powers and yet will afford gentle exercise so 
as to promote normal development. The 
whole-wheat food, Egg-0-See, contains 
soluble starch (maltose) and even before the 
child can chew the food this starch (practically 
predigested) is made available by straining 
the milk through Egg-0-See flakes. 

When a little later the molars appear they 
must begin the work of mastication and tri- 
turation if the teeth are to develop physiologi- 
cally and grow into objects of personal adorn- 
ment. The partial digestion of Egg-0-See 
makes it acceptable to the stomach of the child 
at this age, the dry, crisp flakes encourage 
proper exercise of the teeth, while the phos- 
phates, nitrates and other salts of wheat 
(absent in white bread and similar forms of 



food) furnish the mineral food required by the 
teeth and the bony framework of the body. 
Readers of this journal will receive a full size 
package of Egg-0-See on application to the 
Egg-0-See Cereal Co., Chicago. 

+ 
Tortured with Foot-5uffering 

A nurse writes us that she once looked for- 
ward with dread to her long hours of duty. 

Her feet hurt so that she wore slippers. 
But they gave no support. The whole weight 
of her body pressed down on the "arches". of 
her feet, making them sag and flatten. The 
joints of the slender "tarsus" bones were on 
the verge of giving way. She was threatened 
with "flat-foot." 

An orthopedic surgeon prescribed Red Crosb 
Shoes. 

"I put on Red Cross Shoes when I first get 
up and keep them on all day. They are so 
comfortable I don't even know I have shoes 
on," s'he now writes. 

Her feet have entirely ceased to trouble her. 
The "arch" of her foot has stopped sagging 
and flattening. The exlra-strong "shank" of 
the Red Crosi^the part of the shoe which 
comes immediately under the foot's "arch" — 
holds it firmly up. 

This nurse finds, too, that her feet have 
never looked so well as they do in the Red 
Cross Shoe. 

It is splendidly adapted for street as well 
as for sick-room. Its sole, though flexible, is 
of regular walking thickness. 

A postal to Krohn, Fechheimcr & So., at 
Cincinnati, O., will bring "Women To-day," 
an illustrated booklet, describing the Red Cross 
Shoe more fully, and showing its new 1907 
styles. 

+ 

Did You Neglect 

Did you neglect to send for a sample of 
Manoline when you read this department last 
month? If so, send now, right away, before 
you forget it. 

Manoline relieves burns, bites, scalds, skin 
irritations, even eczema, not to mention the 
lesser ills, such as chaps, sunburn and prickly 
,heat. Immediately after application the hands 
are left so clean that the finest silks can be 
handled without soil. Do not forget a full 
sized sample free to every nurse sending us her 
professional card. 

The Manoline Company, York, Pa. 



Cable of Contentst 



The Education of Nurses Mary E. Gladwin 287 

The Present Curriculum from" the Point of View of the Nurse — 

Discussion 290 

Nursing in Tetanus Mary A. Clarke 294 

Hydrotherapy at Home Heinrich Wol/, M.D. 299 

The Menopause Jennie M. Draper 304 

Diet in Typhoid Fever A. L. Benedict, A.M., M.D. 308 

,,The Cost of Sickness . . , 311 

Department of Army Nursing Dita H. Kinney 313 

The Diet Kitchen Rose R. Grosvenor 315 

Editorially Speaking 318 

In the Nursing World 322 

The Editor's Letter- Box 332 

The Hospital Review 338 

I 

Book Reviews 344 

New Remedies and Appliances 348 

The Publisher's Desk 356 



IN THE OBSTETRICAL CHAMBER 

not only in caring for the mother, but also for starting 
the little new-comer on the road to healthful cleanliness 

PACKER'S TAR SOAP 

holds undisputed sway among doctors and nurses alike. ^The purity, antiseptic 
blandness and emollient properties of Packer's Tar Soap are too well known to re- 
quire argument. It is dependable-has been for thirty-five years-that's enough. 
PACKER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, - NEW YORK 

When 70a write Advertisers, pleue mentioa Thc Tbaimed Num. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



ADVANCED SPECIALTIES 
'FOR SICKROOM & HOSPITAL' 



"PROGRESS" 
COnPLETE IRRIGATOR 



White 

Enameled 

Ware 



** PERFECTION'' 
FOUNTAIN SYRINGE 



White 

High-Grade 

Rubber 




No. 60. . .2 Quarts | No. 70. . .4 Quarts 



No. 180. "PERFECTION ".3 Quarts 



OUR. SPECIAI^TICS A.RE SOI^D BY I^EADING DEALERS 
WE SUPPLY HOSPITALS AT 'WHOLESALE PRICES 



HIGH-GRADE HOT-WATER BAGS 

Maroon Pure Rubber— Holdfast Unlosable Stoppers 




••PROGRESS" 
3 Quarts 



••GOODSENSE** 
Abdominal 
. 3 Quarts 




••HOSPITAL BEAUTY" 
2 Quarts 



MEINECKE &COMPANY 



48-50 
PA.R.K. PLA.CE 



NEW YORK 




Every Hcxpital :}uperlntencient. Principal of Training School or Hotpital Buyer thoUId write for Meinecke *r Company"! 
complete catalogue, hanuKunely illuitrated, showing their full line of "Advanced Spedaltiei" for Hoipital lue 



hospital 3S^et)ieto 



VOL. XXXVIll. 



NEW YORK. MAY. 1907 



NO 5. 



Cf)e education of JBtuwefi 

MARY E. GLADWIN 
Superintendent Beverly Hospital. Beverly. Mass. 



NOT long ago, when urging upon 
a superintendent a plan for an 
advanced method in the teaching of 
nurses, the answei came : — "This isn't a 
university, it is a hospital for the care" 
of the sick." Therem lies much food for 
thought. True enough, a university 
aims to give a general education, while 
a school for nurses is supposed to do 
just one thing— -.to teach nursing. If 
a school for nurses may not be com- 
pared to a university, at least, it ought 
to be able to endure comparison with a 
school founded for the teaching of any 
other specific branch of learning; as, 
law, engineering, medicine. No one will 
question the statement that any method 
of training, which improves the nurs- 
ing, results ultimately in better care of 
the sick and better service to the com- 
munity on the part of the hospital. 

The whole question is one of service. 
How shall we best serve one another? 
How shall we make of ourselves the 
best public servants? The enormous 
growth of philanthropic and education- 
al associations, annihilating distance be- 
tween the gieat cities, has opened up 



new avenues of usefulness to women. 
One cannot be a pessimist if one keeps 
in touch with the great modern move- 
ments for helping and uplifting the hu- 
man race. There is no woman better 
fitted to undertake educational and 
philanthropic work than the educated 
trained woman nurse, if her training has 
been adequate. 

In no branch of the world's work has 
there been more improvement than in 
that of teaching. The increase in the 
number of normal schools, the syste- 
matic training of teachers, the constant 
drill which public school teachers re- 
ceive in approved methods of present- 
ing subjects to their pupils, the growth 
of professional libraries dealing entirely 
with teaching and its methods, are all 
worthy of close study. There is nothing 
to compare with this development in the 
work of our training schools. 

To assert that an attempt to bring 
this modern spirit into the teaching of 
nurses, is a criticism of the women who 
have worked long and faithfully to bring 
about the success of to-day, is not fair 
and it is not the lesson their lives and 



288 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



their work teach us. Superintendents 
of nurses are usually a little more over- 
worked, if that be possible, than their 
pupil nurses. 

There is no gainsaying the statmeni 
that, in most hospitals, the nurses' hours 
are too long, their work too heavv, their 
teaching poor. We can conceive that 
the ability to dig a ditch might be of 
great use to a mining engineer, but no- 
body believes that spending a large por- 
tion of every day of his school term in 
digging is going to make a man a better 
engineer. 

In two years an intelligent young wo- 
man can, if properly taught, acquire the 
rudiments of the art of nursing. At the 
end of two years, it is possible to send 
her out to private work with a sane, 
wholesome outlook upon life and a 
knowledge of her work which will make 
her further education, as she goes from 
patient to patient, a liberal progression, 
and will make her a power for good and 
an educational force in the community. 
The needs are apparent: more nurses, 
fewer hours, more bedside teaching, bet- 
ter teaching in every department, closer 
supervision, and a closer relation be- 
tween the theory and practice of nurs- 
ing. 

Our aim in the training of nurses is 
to cultvate deftness of service, the pow- 
er of quick observation and good judg- 
ment, and the ability to record clearly 
what she sees and does, all of which 
make her most acceptable to her pa- 
tients and most helpful to the physician. 
No woman acquires these most desira- 
ble qualities to the greatest advantage 
when she is continually weary in body. 
Graduate nurses often start in their life 
work worn out by their hospital expe- 
rience. When we put our training on 
broader and saner lines, we shall cease 



to be told that a nurse's term of work 
is limited to ten years. Some of us be- 
lieve that the principal lesson which 
Mary Baker Eddy has taught the world 
is that a woman mav be a great work- 
ing power long after middle life. 

The school of nursing of each large 
hospital should offer special elective 
courses : in obstetrics ; in the nursing of 
contagious diseases ; in aural and opthal- 
mic work; in nervous diseases; in gyne- 
cological nursing; in general nursing 
for graduates who desire to keep in 
touch with new methods and in hospi- 
tal management. Graduate nurses would 
be much more apt to take advantage of 
post-graduate work if their entrance into 
outside work had not been so long de- 
layed, and if they had not started tired. 
Every large hospital should also have 
courses of study for teachers of nurses 
which stood in the same relation to the 
training school that the normal school 
does to the public school. 

Just consider the enormous impetus 
given to learning all over the country 
by the Summer School of Harvard. 
Teachers, engineers, geologists come 
from all over the United States for spe- 
cial work, which is of very great benefit 
to themselves and to the communities 
to which they return. It is possible for 
the training school of every large hos- 
pital to have the same far-reaching in- 
fluence. 

You may say that this is an imprac- 
ticable dream. But that's the old an- 
swer which the ages have always made 
to every stcn in advance. Yet to-day 
we are living in the midst of dreams 
made facts which had a man entertain- 
ed fifty years ago might have sent him 
to the madhouse. 

The added expense to hospitals in thus 
reconstructing their schools of nursing 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



289 



need trouble us very little. Money is 
always forthcoming in the United States 
for any work which is for the general 
good. There are plenty of people will- 
ing, if not anxious, to give if we first be- 
lieve and then work. Once upon a time 
a superintendent believed that a new 
hospital was needed in a certain place. 
She talked about it in season and out 
of season, until one day a woman arose 
and said sorrowfully, for it was a great 
undertaking in that place, "When you 
talk to me, I feel that I must go out 
somewhere and begin to dig for the 
foundations." There was never any 
question about the new hospital after 
that day. There are people ready to 



provide the money as soon as we make 
them feel that they "must go out and 
dig." 

What we who labor need is a broad, 
sane outlook upon our work and its 
problems. With the one exception of 
being a wife and mother, there is noth- 
ing so soul satisfying as being just a 
plain working woman who has found 
her work. If we dream dreams 
and see visions, our work may 
profit much thereby. Individual fail- 
ure counts for very little in the 
work of the world. Our crude efforts 
and our very failures may make pos- 
sible the success of those who come 
after. 




GRADUATING CLASS, 'OJ, SISTERS HOSPITAL, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
[See Nursing World Department.] 



Cjje present Curriculum from t!)c ^oint of 

^leto of ti)£ Jiursc 



Discussion 
( Continued from April) 



Miss H. L. Burrell — 

"It seems to me that the great diffi- 
culty in discussing this is in the variety 
of opinion in the minds of those in 
charge of training schools, the physi- 
cians and surgeons and the laity, as to 
what constitutes a trained nurse. If she 
is to know all things concerning nurs- 
ing, how to adapt herself to all families, 
from the lowest to the highest, five 
years would be too short a time for that, 
training. Personally, I think the great- 
er part of a nurse's training comes after- 
ward, aside from the few essentials, and 
if we all had in mind the minimum re- 
quirements in discussing this question 
I think we should come more nearly to- 
gether. A few years ago, when it scent- 
ed in the minds of those who had given 
it most careful thought that two years 
was too short a time for the training 
and another year wa^ added in so many 
of the schools, as one went over the cur- 
riculum of many of them, it seemed that 
a year had been added and nothing 
more. Personally, I think three years 
is too long, unless a part of the time is 
to be given outside of the hospital in 
other work. I know that many sur- 
geons, and I think that many nurses, 
think that after they have been out a 
few years, they are behind the times and 
are not as good nurses. J think that,' 
with with the exception of surgical 
work, the nurse who has been out five 
years is far more valuable than the nurse 
who has been out a few months. I think 
that in this discussion we want to bear 



in mind that those who have most to 
say about the over-training of the nurse 
are surgeons, and I think that all of us 
have felt at times that a large majority 
of the surgeons, particularly the younger 
surgeons, have not a really good idea of 
what constitutes a trained nurse and 
what she should know, for the reason 
that many of them, I expect, sometimes 
hardly know a sick patient when they see 
one, and therefore they think the whole 
training of a nurse is m getting ready a 
patient for an operation, which is really 
a very small part of our training. 

The suggestion that the time be short- 
ened which seems to have been made 
comes from many quarters and seems to 
me most unfortunate, but if we could 
impress upon the schools the necessity in 
that last year of taking work outside the 
hospital, then we should really make a 
great gain, but if the time is to be whol- 
ly spent in one hospital for three years, 
I think from a nurse's standpoint it is 
entirely too long. I do not think the 
value of that preliminary training can 
be over-estimated, not so much from 
what is absorbed as from the fact that 
so many women who enter the training 
school have been out of school for some 
years and their minds have not been 
trained and are not alert, and the pre- 
liminary training does give us a mental 
grasp which M'ould be, in the work that 
is tO' follow, invaluable. 

"I do not agree at all with some of the 
papers where they speak of the time m 
the ward being too long. I think that 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



291 



a twelve-hour day, with two hours off, 
is the shortest time that should be given 
while a nurse is in training, but during 
that time I do not think she should be 
required to do very much mental work. 
If that was not required, I think you 
would hear less of the criticism that 
nurses make now that they are required 
to work so hard they cannot study. The 
care of the patient is the main thing, and 
if they have their preliminary training 
first they do not feel that dissatisfaction 
and give more attention to the actual 
nursing of the patient." 

Dr. R. C. Cabot — 

"The discussion in New York, to 
which several speakers have referred, is 
one which I fancy some of you may not 
have read. I think it is very important 
that all should read it. Unfortunately, 
most nurse do not have the time or the 
opportunity to read medical journals. 
This discussion is published in a medical 
journal — the New York Medical Journal 
for April 28th. It is very hostile, un- 
sympathetic criticism of nurses, but it is 
good for us to read such criticism, to 
take it far as much as it is worth and 
no more, but to take it somehow or 
other, more especially as it comes from 
physicians, and under the present ar- 
rangement of things, nurses must de- 
pend upon physicians, to a great ex- 
tent, for their work. I should like, 
therefore, to recommend to all of you 
to read lliis discussion in the New York 
Medical Journal for April 28th.'' 

Miss E. A. Anderson, Supt. N. E. 
Rapti.st Hospital : — 

'T am perhaps a little too far away 
from my own personal experience as a 
pupil in training to add anything of 
value to this subject. My only excuse 
for doing so is that, as superintendent 
of a small training school, I have kept 



in pretty close touch with nursing inter- 
ests. I wish to express my appreciation 
of the fact that this association has 
taken up this subject of curriculum from 
the nurses' point of view. \Vc have, at 
a previous meeting, heard the opinion 
of the physician as to what a nurse 
should be taught, and we have listened 
to a most helpful .discussion from the 
laity employing nurses of what they ex- 
pected of a nurse. So far as I know this 
is the first opportunity given the nurse 
to criticise her curriculum in the light 
of her after experience — and as a nurse 
and a teacher of nurses I have found 
it most instructive. 

*T am strongly in sympathy with the 
views expressed in the last*' paper em- 
phasizing the need of more practical 
teaching. My criticism of my own train- 
ing is that there were too few competent 
head nurse teachers. I believe the teach- 
ing should be done in the ward by the 
head nurse, at the bedside at the time 
things are actually happening. It seems 
to me that these women too often missed 
the splendid opportunity of impressing 
upon the minds of their pupils the value 
of the things that they were seeing every 
day. Perhaps there was too much mate- 
rial, and it could not for that reason be 
assimilated. I appreciated this when I 
left the big hospital and took up the 
work of teaching a few women in a small 
hospital. I found these young women in 
the small hospital eager and hungry for 
the knowledge and felt so sorry that I 
had not the cases to show them. They 
are indeed 'as sick that surfeit with too 
much as they that starve with nothing.' 

"I recall a few splendid women in my 
experience in training who were most 
enthusiastic teachers — women who in- 
spired their pupils with their own zeal 
for service and enabled them to appre- 



292 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



ciate the importance of the things they 
were doing. But there were so few such 
teachers that they stand out conspicu 
ously by comparison. I fully reaUze how 
difficult it is to obtain such women. The 
women who have executive ability to 
manage wards and the teaching quality 
are rare. But I believe they should be 
diligently sought and every effort made 
to retain them when found. Tlie pupil 
nurse finds in the hospital a new world 
of wonderful interest opening up to her. 
She is eagerly asking questions, and she 
should be intelligently answered. If she 
cannot get a reply from her head nurse 
she will inquire of her fellow-nurse, and 
we all know that such information is 
not always reliable, as, for instance, 
when a probationer, hearing a nurse use 
such a word as 'hysterectomy' in ordi- 
nary every day parlance, thought she 
must be very wise and asked her to ex- 
plain the term. She was told that hys- 
terectomy was an operation after which 
the patient always had hysteria. As the 
particular patient under discussion had 
more or less hysteria the conclusion was 
obvious. 

"As to length of course, I am strong 
in the belief that two years in a general 
hospital is sufficient. But the woman 
must be in earnest to succeed. She 
must be not only willing, but glad to 
give twelve hours a day, and, if neces- 
sary, thirteen or fourteen occasionally. 
I have met many such women, so ap- 
preciative of a critical sense that they 
were jealous of the nurse to whom they 
were obliged to resign their patient when 
compelled to go off duty at the end 
of the day. 

"There may be a place for such a cur- 
riculum as was described in one paper 
here to-night — a course of four years 
in which the writer urges the importance 



of leisure for social evenings, time for 
reading not only in the line of the work, 
but for recreation. But such a length of 
training nmst necessarily exclude the 
woman who is no longer young, but 
whose riper years and previous ex- 
perience would make her an invaluable 
nurse. But in the shorter course I be- 
lieve the training should be almost 
wholly practical. I remember so well 
the impression made upon me v/hen in 
the first months of my training I was 
sent to the amphitheatre with my pa- 
tient for a clinic. The staff surgeon 
asked for my chart in order to illus- 
trate to tile students the fact that at a 
certain point my patient's pulse went 
up, and it was for that reason that he 
decided to operate. I was appalled to 
learn that any observation of mine had 
helped to decide so important a ques- 
tion, and after that taking a pulse was 
no longer the perfunctory duty that I 
had thought it. In these two years 'a 
very good working knowledge of ma- 
teria medica could be obtained if the 
head nurse were careful to explain the 
dosage, toxic symptoms, etc., of the or- 
dinary drugs that were being used every 
day. I consider that this would be of 
far more value to the pupil than Ihe 
long list of drugs that we were com- 
pelled to commit to memory and which 
we promptly forgot, because we had no 
further use for them. 

'T think a nurse at the end of such a 
practical course as I have in mind in a 
general hospital where there is adequate 
material adequately taught — a woman 
ought to be sufficiently well equipped 
to do private nursing, and that she 
should receive a certificate stating just 
what her experience and qualifications 
are. If she has, at this time, developed 
sufficient executive ability and a desire 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



293 



to teach let her then be given a post- 
graduate course in managing a ward. 
Here again her work should be largely 
practical, but with a thorough theoreti- 
cal training besides by one who has her- 
self had long years of experience in 
teaching. 

"If she wished to pursue her studies 
in other directions she could take a 
short course in obstetrics or some other 
specialty bringing to the work a wider 
appreciation that would make this after- 
teaching of much value." 

Miss Lucy Ayres, Supt. of Nurses' R. 
I. Hospital:— 

"1 think that the great amount of 
theoretical work that must be put into 
our wards has necessarily put a great 
deal more work upon the nurses. I 



think sometimes if the nurses had a 
little more time in the wards to take 
care of the patient, mstead of k-eeping 
so many charts and all of these things 
which certainly are very fine for the 
records of the case and to teach the 
nurses the value of observation, it would 
be better. I think there is a tendency 
to forget the patient and study his 
symptoms, which is the result of the 
great amount of research given by the 
physicians, and the nurse is a very con- 
venient avenue to obtain it. I realize 
in our own hospitals that sometimes it 
seems as though so much time was 
given to this observation that it detracts 
a great deal from the comfort of the 
patient. I do not know that the patient 
enjoys being wakened so often for this 
theoretical treatment." 




NURSES AT VICKSBURG SANITARIUM, VICKSBURG, MISS. 



i^ursing in Cetanus 



MARY A. CLARKE 



'' I '' ETANUS, or lockjaw, is a specific 
•*- disease of bacterial origin affect- 
ing the central nervous system and man- 
ifested by continued rigid contractions 
of the voluntary muscles — those of the 
lower jaw, neck and pharynx being first 
involved. 

The disease is one of the most terrible 
that afflict humanity; it has been known 
since ancient times, Hippocrates having 
described it, as well as other physicians 
of antiquity. They all vividly portrayed 
the symptoms but were entirely igno- 
rant of its nature. Some held the belief 
that tetanus was the result of exposure 
to cold. Long before its true cause was 
recognized it was almost universally con- 
ceded that the disease followed injuries. 
It had been proven that many soldiers 
perished, not from the wounds received 
in battle, but from tetanus developed 
from the wound. Patients who had under- 
gone operations and women in the puer- 
peral state also succumbed under the 
terrible sufferings of this malady. It 
may follow an injury so slight as to 
be entirely unnoticed by the patient, 
such as from a splinter in the finger; 
but is most likely to occur after lacer- 
ated, as by a nail or pitchfork, and 
crushed and punctured wounds, espe- 
cially by those containing a foreign 
body. Fright and depression are pre- 
disposing causes — it has been most often 
observed in an army that has suffered 
defeat. 

In 1880 two Italian physicians. Carle 
and Rattone produced the disease ex- 
perimentally in rabbits by injecting fluid 



obtained from the wound in a case of 
tetanus, and in 1884 Nicolaier, a Ger- 
man physician, discovered the true cause 
in the tetanus bacillus found in garden 
earth. This discovery revolutionized all 
theories concerning the cause and na- 
ture of tetanus and paved the way to 
its successful treatment. 

Close observation revealed that the 
germ is found not only in the soil but 
in the dust of the streets and in sta- 
bles, also on the floors of dwellings and 
in the drawers of furniture. It is not 
everywhere present, being often dem- 
onstrated m some large cities while it 
is rarely observed in others. It is most 
frequent in the tropics, and has been de- 
tected in the arrows of savages. It has 
great power of resistance and retains its 
deadly properties for years in dust and 
in water. 

The bacillus may enter the body in 
three ways — by the skin after injury, 
as in fissures and wounds ; by the genital 
tract of puerperal women, and by the 
umbilical cord of the new-born; hence 
the names, traumatic tetanus, puerpe- 
, ral tetanus and tetanus neonatorum. 

The disease may appear within a few 
hours after infection, but usually two to 
six -weeks elapse. It is ushered in by 
a certain rigidity of the muscles of the 
head and neck, particularly of the mus- 
cles of mastication, and this at first may 
be regarded as due to rheumatism. Soon 
the jaws become tightly locked and can- 
not be separated ; the head is bent back- 
ward and is bored into the pillow, this 
condition being called opisthotonos; if 



• Based chiefly on Jacob's article on " Tetanus " in Infectious Diseases, Modern Clinical Medicine, igos. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



295 



extreme, the patient's body may rest 
only on his head and heels. On the 
contrary, the body may be arched for- 
ward (emprosthotonos). The expression 
of the face changes; there is a peculiar 
frown and a mask-like appearance; the 
eyes are staring, the nostrils distended, 
the mouth is stretched from side to side 
and drawn downward. A spasm of the 
facial nerve causes a peculiar grin, the 
"risus sardonicus," long considered the 
typical feature of the malady. The back 
and abdomen become rigid, the latter 
being as hard as a board, and the spine 
so stiff that there seems danger of 
breaking it on any attempt to move the 
patient. The shoulders, the legs and the 
muscles of the internal organs are af- 
fected, and spasms of the diaphragm 
produce intense dyspnea. The upper ex- 
tremities, the feet and the toes are gen- 
erally exempt. Sudden death may be 
caused by spasms of the muscles of res- 
piration even when the other symptoms 
are but slight. The patient suffers from 
thirst, perhaps from hunger, yet is un- 
able to swallow a drop of fluid or the 
smallest morsel of food. The rigidity of 
the muscles makes him miserable, and 
his misery is increased by the spasms 
evoked by any attempt to move him or 
to rearrange his bed, even by a jarring 
noise in his room, a heavy footstep, the 
unguarded opening or closing of a door 
or window. During a spasm all of the 
muscles are violently contracted. He 
gives vent to piercing cries which afford 
him no relief; the teeth are gnashed to- 
gether, articulation is difficult, .the few 
words uttered seem to be hissed from 
between the set teeth. This condition 
may persist throughout convalescence. 
The first convulsive symptoms are 
apt to develop after a night of profound 
slumber, and subsequently there is in- 



somnia which the usual remedies are 
powerless to relieve except in rare cases 
for a few hours. Notwithstanding the 
patient's agony his mind, as a rule, is 
remarkably clear until shortly before 
death, and he remains fully conscious of 
his sufferings. Delirium is rare; it is 
sometimes evidence of alcoholism. 

The patient's face is covered with 
drops of sweat, the whole body is moist. 
In some cases the lachrymal secretion is 
increased, and tears constantly rain 
down over the smiling face. 

The bowels are constipated. The urine 
is scanty and concentrated on account 
of the small intake of fluid, but severe 
kidney complications are rare. 

Respiration is sometimes rapid. The 
pulse rate may increase to 150. The 
temperature may rise from 102 degrees 
F. to 105 degrees. F.; the higher the 
fever the graver the case. Physicians of 
experience state that they have never 
seen recovery from tetanus after a tem- 
perature of 104 degrees F. Shortly be- 
fore death (and sometimes a few hours 
afterward) the temperature may rise to 
109 degrees or iii degrees F.; 114 de- 
grees has been reported. Rose described 
several cases in which, after he had pro- 
nounced the patient dead, this post-mor- 
tem rise deceived the nurses, who 
thought the patient just developing a 
high fever. Such post-mortem tempera- 
ture lasts only for about three-quarters 
of an hour. 

If there are violent spasms of the res- 
piratory muscles the resulting dyspnea 
may cause suffocation. Aspiration pneu- 
monia sometimes sets in from the regur- 
gitation of fluid or particles of food, or 
hypostatic pneumonia from stasis of the 
bronchial secretion. 

The earlier the symptoms develop the 
more favorable the case. If the patient 



296 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



survive for lo or 12 days, or if, after the 
12th day, the temperature does not ex- 
ceed 102 degrees F., the case is hopeful. 

Puerperal Tetanus. — This form of the 
disease may occur even in most careful- 
ly conducted obstetrical cases, but it 
usually follows attempts to induce abor- 
tion. It may be due to the unclean 
hands of the attendants during labor. If 
it occur in a pregnant woman who has 
not aborted pregnancy occasionally goes 
on to term and recovery follows. As a 
rule, tetanus will produce abortion. 

Tetanus of the New-Born (also called 
neonatal tetanus and trismus nasccn- 
tium). — This variety is seldom seen in 
Europe or in North America, but is 
common among negro children of the 
tropics. It is caused by infection of the 
cord or of the umbilical region after the 
cord has fallen off. The first symptoms 
are usually a sharp cry when the child 
attempts to nurse and its sudden letting 
go of the nipple ; there may be a spasm 
of the face. Some physicians believe 
trismus nascentium to be due to the 
pressure of the small bones of the skull 
upon the brain during a slow delivery. 
In such cases the child should be placed 
upon its right side in order to prevent 
any pressure upon the back of the head. 

Nursing. — In no disease is greater 
care required on the part of the nurse. 
The nervous system is chiefly affected, 
and the patient is peculiarly sensitive to 
all disturbing influences, a noise, a touch 
being sufficient to induce spasms which 
cause terrible suflFerings. The sick room 
should be as remote as possible from 
the noises both of the house and street. 
The light should be shaded, the patient's 
bed being so placed that it will not face 
a window. Doors and windows must be 
carefully guarded that there be no creak- 
mg or slamming in opening and clos- 



ing. The presence of several persons in 
the room at one time must be prohibit- 
ed, and no visitors should be allowed 
during the continuance of the spasms. 
No jarring noises, no moving of furni- 
ture, no conversation, nor any sort of 
commotion is permissible. The nurse 
should wear felt or rubber-soled shoes 
and unstarched clothing. 

The patient should never be left alone 
for a moment, and a second attendant 
should be always at hand to fetch what 
is wanted or to relieve the nurse when 
she must leave the room. As articula- 
tion is difficult, the patient should be 
subjected to but little questioning, and 
all queries so framed that they can be 
answered briefly. 

On approaching the bed the nurse 
must be careful not to press upon or 
shake it. If it can be secured, a water- 
bed will be the most comfortable. It 
should be about three feet wide, so as 
to enable the nurse to reach the patient 
from either side, and sufficiently long 
to allow a space at the top for the ex- 
tension of the head during a spasm. The 
nurse will, of course, see that the patient 
does not fall from the bed while in the 
throes of a spasm. 

The coverings must be light, and may 
be elevated above the body by a cradle 
used with the utmost care, or by a com- 
pact bolster at either side. Owing to 
the excessive sweating, the bedding is 
often saturated through and through, 
yet frequent changes are distressing to 
the patient and must be avoided as far 
as possible. Portions of the body can 
now and then be bathed with alcohol, 
or with alcohol and warm water, and the 
face be frequently sponged. Small sheets, 
dry and warm, may at times be slipped 
under the trunk or the lower extremi- 
ties; when a complete change is neces- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



297 



sary, the patient must be gently lifted 
by two or more persons while the linen 
is quickly changed by another. 

The thermometer should never be in- 
serted ill the mouth. All utensils for the 
patient's use must be warmed before- 
hand. A bed-pan is generally impracti- 
cable, the elevation of the patient's body 
being too distressing, and other low ap- 
paratus — for instance, a urinal or pus 
basin — must be utilized, perhaps an old 
towel folded within a small rubber sheet. 
No force should be exerted in opening 
the jaws, nor a mouth gag inserted be- 
tween the teeth. Tumblers and china 
spoons or cups should never be offered 
the patient to drink from; at the moment 
of use he may have a spasm and shatter 
these, swallowing fragments or other- 
wise injuring himself. A small white 
agate cup is useful, and rubber tubes or 
rubber nipples may sometimes be re- 
sorted to. Should the patient have aper- 
tures from missing teeth, these may fa- 
cilitate nourishment by means of tubes. 
Never use glass medicine droppers for 
this purpose. In most cases it is wise 
to nourish the patient by means of the 
stomach tube or rectum. The nurse 
should invariably tell the patient when 
she intends to give him fluids, and this 
may prevent regurgitation. She must 
never force or coax him to take food re- 
pugnant to him. 

Food should be as concentrated as 
possible in order to reduce to the mini- 
mum the difficulty of administering it. 
It should be palatable and easy of diges- 
tion. Milk, cream, strong bouillon, beef 
tea with beaten eggs, cocoa and choco- 
late are all admissible to vary the diet, 
and cold tea or coffee as preferred. Pel- 
lets of ice should not be given because 



of the danger of rcg^urgitation. Solids, 
even semi-solids, must be withheld dur- 
ing the continuance of the spasms. 
When convalescence sets in mild stimu- 
lation is beneficial. 

Baths have a quieting influence upon 
the spasms, but this is more than coun- 
terbalanced by the difficulty in trans- 
porting the patient to and from the bath 
room, and they are to be attempted only 
when there is a portable tub on wheels 
with rubber tires, which can be drawn 
close to the bed ; the patient can then be 
cautiously lifted by two or more persons 
directly from the bed to the tub The 
water should be warm (about 95 degrees 
F.), and cold water added without touch- 
ing the patient until, in about twenty 
minutes, the temperature is reduced to 
78 degrees. Cold baths, so useful in 
typhoid fever and pneumonia, increase 
the spasms of tetanus and are not per- 
missible. Baths may be given even at 
a temperature of 100.5 degrees F. The 
patient must be comfortable in the bath; 
his head should be supported by a rub- 
ber ring hung at the head of the tub. If 
the spasms are relieved he can remain in 
the bath for some time, and food may be 
given him while in the water. Some 
years ago permanent water baths were 
advocated in tetanus and were actually 
employed by some German physicians. 
They have the advantage that the pa- 
tient is less disturbed by the movements 
of those about him, and the danger of 
eczema and bedsores is averted, but a 
specially constructed tub in which he 
can rest comfortably is almost a neces- 
sity. The treatment is decidedly benefi- 
cial when it reduces the number and in- 
tensity of the spasms. The nurse,, how- 
ever, must be constantly on the watch 
lest the patient slip down in the water. 



298 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Cases have been reported of death by 
drowning in the bath, and have usually 
been attributed to the carelessness of 
the nurse. 

In the bed frequent sponge baths are 
impracticable and must be limited to 
those necessary for cleanliness and alco- 
hol spongings of portions of the body 
on account of the excessive sweating. A 
warm pack may temporarily relieve the 
spasm, but the moving of the patient 
which it entails makes it of doubtful 
benefit. Cold packs are contraindicated. 

Serum Therapy. — The mortality from 
this frightful disease was formerly from 
80 to 90 per cent., but this has been 
greatly reduced since the discovery of 
the specific antitoxin for tetanus. Some 
physicians recommend that every pa- 
tient who has sustained a wound con- 
taminated bv dirt should immediately 



receive an injection of tetanus antitoxin, 
and that should a case of tetanus occur 
in a military or lying-in hospital all the 
patients should be thus protected. The 
antitoxin may be injected subcutaneous- 
ly in the neck, the breast, the abdomen, 
the back, or the lower extremity, or sub- 
durally between the third and fourth 
lumbar vertebrae. 

In either case the nurse should care- 
fully cleanse the skin of the area chosen 
with 1-50 carbolic or 1-1,000 bichloride 
solution. The syringe should be boiled. 
The point of injection is best protected 
by cotton and collodion. A few hours 
after such injection the temperature may 
rise from one to three degrees, but will 
again decline within 24 hours. Recovery 
has followed in two-thirds of the adult 
cases thus protected. 




VICKSBURG SANITARIUM, VICKSBURG, MISS. 



HEINRICH WOLF, M. D. 

Lecturer on Hydrotherapy at the I'enna. Orthopedic Institute and School of Mechanotherapy. Philadelphia: 

Formerly Assistant at the Hydriatic Institute of Professor Winternitz (ViennaJ.and Chief Physician at the 

Water-Cure Sanatorium, Preblau, Austria. 



HYDROTHER.\PY is a treatment 
whicli in its ditlerent iorms was 
already in use in the most ancient times. 
Many people in the home treatment of 
the sick daily use means which are part 
of the fundamentals of Hydrotherapy, 
without themselves knowing what Hy- 
drotherapy really is. Hydrotherapy is 
the systematic use of water at different 
temperatures and at different mechan- 
ical pressures for the treatment of dis- 
ease. For a long time it was merely 
based on the experiences of the sick- 
bed. However, the great researches in 
the field of physiology in the middle ot 
the nineteenth century have also creat- 
ed (or established) a scientific founda- 
tion for Hydrotherapy. Especially since 
the latter sixties of the last century a 
safe ground for its use in disease has 
been given by Prof. Winternitz?; of Ger- 
many, and later by his pupils and other 
scientists. Since that time the literature 
on this branch of therapeutics has 
grown to enormous proportions. 

No one can use Hydrotherapy scien- 
tifically without a clear conception of 
the origin of its usefulness and its adap- 
tability in the treatment of diseases in 
accordance with a thorough understand- 
ing of the nature of the disease to be 
treated. Even though Hydrotherapy is, 
and, of course, always will be only a 
part of therapeutics, yet a thorough 
study of its nature is necessary. 

Although in accordance with the char- 
acter of this publication I do not intend 



to engage in theoretical discourses, i 
shall have to explain the nature of the 
effect produced by each measure; in de- 
scribing the same 1 am well conscious 
of the fact that, in spite of all experi- 
ments with animals and human beings, 
these explanations are mere hypotheses. 
They are partly our own conceptions, 
which, however, in the treatment by the 
different methods have proven a relia- 
ble guide. 

COMPRESSES. 

Compresses of all kinds are the best 
methods of administering Hydro- 
therapy. We classify three different 
temperatures of application. 

A. Cold compresses. 

B. Lukewarm compresses.. 

C. Hot compresses. 

A. Cold compresses are those in the 
application of which quite cold water is 
used, and which are changed so fre- 
quently that they remain continually 
cold. 

Their therapeutic value lies in partly 
directly and partly by reflex action in- 
fluencing the blood vessels wh'ch lie 
beneath them. On account of their be- 
coming quickly heated they must be fre- 
quently changed, and in cases of hem- 
orrhage of the brain, congestion of the 
brain, icebags are used with belter re- 
sults. In home treatments they are of 
the greatest value in cases of insomnia 
caused by mental overstrain or rapid 
train of thought. Frequently, after only 
a few applications, I have noted the 



300 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



good effects, on myself as well as on 
others. 

In inflammations they might also be 
used to advantage, yet icebags are, as a 
rule, to be preferred. We must not, 
however, forget that we cannot in every 
case of inflammation tell in advance 
whether cold or hot compresses will be 
of the greatest advantage. In such cases 
a trial will be necessary; should the 
pain become more intense under the 
compress, it has to be changed from hot 
to cold, or vice versa. 

LUKEWARM COMPRESSES. 

They are in very extensive use, and 
are sometimes called Priesnitz com- 
presses, after the farmer Priesnitz who 
first used them. The application con- 
sists in placmg a cold compress on the 
skin, and over this a dry cloth ; this 
compress should remain in position 
from 3 to 6 hours, until dry, or at least 
partially heated. It is of the greatest 
importance to have the compiess ad- 
justed- in such a way that no air can 
penetrate between the skin and the 
cloth, as the skin, being surrounded by 
vaporized water, is very sensitive, and 
any draught of air is very disagreeable 
to the patient. These compresses must 
be boiled out in hot water frequently 
(every second or third day), otherwise 
various skin diseases may result (herpes 
tonsurans, furuncles), which were form- 
erly thought a symptom of the crisis, 
nowadays, however, they are considered 
an unnecessary and harmful infection. 
The so-called Louzette compresses are 
only another form of these lukewarm 
compresses, 

A special kind of lukewarm com- 
presses that were formerly, and are 
sometimes even to-day used in sur- 
gery, are compresses covered with some 



waterproof material, and in this -way 
kept damp. In surgery astringent 
liquids and alcohol are also used for 
these purposes. The diseases for which 
these compresses may be used with 
good results are very numerous, but 
generally in all kinds of strains, sprains 
and dislocations, in contusions and 
hemorrhages. In all inflammatory dis- 
eases of the throat (inflammation of the 
throat, bronchial catarrh), in diseases 
of the bronchi and of the lungs and the 
pleura, lukewarm compresses. In the 
shape of so-called cross-ties, are the 
best, we may say almost the only effec- 
tive remedy. In all inflammatory condi- 
tions of the abdomen, originating either 
from the intestines or the genitals, the 
liver, or kidneys, they are of great value. 

Some persons are so accustomed to 
the use of these bandages that they 
cannot sleep without one. Their seda- 
tive eflfect in neuralgiaMor instance, or 
in acute sciatica, is sometimes surpris- 
ing. In some cases of insomnia and 
headache compresses on the calf of the 
legs have proven to be of great benefit. 
Frequently these compresses are so ar- 
ranged by first putting on a wet stock- 
ing and over that a dry one. Though 
there is no doubt regarding the effect 
of the lukewarm compresses, it is rather 
difficult to recognize the causes of these 
effects. They are principally the pro- 
duction of a hyperaemia of the skin, 
thus drawing the blood from the deeper 
organs. Winternitz is of the opinion 
that by preventing water evaporation of 
the skin edematous saturation of the 
peripheral nerve endings is caused. To 
me it seems more probable that their 
analgesic effect is due to the prevention 
of any stimulus. 

The lukewarm compresses are, how- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



301 



ever, contraindicated in all those cases 
where the patients have such poor cu- 
taneous circulation that the compress 
will not get warm from reaction. In 
these cases friction may be productive 
of a better circulation, waterproof ma- 
terial may also be of value. If even 
these means do not prove effective the 
compresses should not be used. 

C. HOT COMPRESSES. 

Although hot compresses are fre- 
quently used, especially in abdominal 
coHc of all kinds originating from in- 
testines, liver or kidneys, they are only 
an expedient, as they are difficult to 
handle and quickly lose their value. Hot 
therniophoric compresses, linseed com- 
presses and those of a similar nature 
are to be preferred. Their effect is mere- 
ly the causing of a strong hyperaemia of 
the skin, combined with relaxation and 
relief of spasmodic contraction. Tha*^ 
the heat acts on the deeper tissues, re- 
lieving spasms of the striated muscles,- 
is probable, but not entirely proven by 
observations at the sick-bed. A charac- 
teristic symptom of the presence of pus 
is that pain greatly increases under a 
hot compress. 

ABLUTIONS. 

We will next consider the use of ablu- 
tions. These act directly in influencing 
the blood vessels and circulation by 
thermal and mechanical means, limiting 
the area of action to only a small part 
of the body. Only the part directly act- 
ed upon is to be exposed, the rest of 
the body being kept well covered. Each 
part of the body is treated separately in 
the following order: first one leg, then 
the other, then the arms, chest and abdo- 
men and finally the back. By this mode 
of treatment the blood pressure and 
nerve stimulation are only slightly- in- 
creased. 



Persons not acquainted with the prin- 
ciples of Hydrotherapy erroneously use 
for these procedures water of the same 
temperature as that of the room. The 
object is to cause a strong reaction and 
to stimulate the action of the skin, there- 
fore it is evident that the colder the 
water and the stronger the friction the 
greater will be the reaction. Mechani- 
cal stimulation, however, must not be 
overdone ; the water has to be cold, and 
as fresh as possible. But it must be 
kept in mmd that procedures with luke- 
warm water, not those with very hot or 
cold water, are the most dangerous for 
the patient, as they make him most lia- 
ble to contract a cold. 

The technique of ablutions is prac- 
ticed in different ways, the school of 
Prof. Winternitz uses partial sheet baths 
or washings. One part of the body after 
the other is wrapped in a wet cloth, 
friction is applied until it is warm and 
then the part is thoroughly dried with a 
dry cloth. Another form of application 
is the so-called sponge bath. 

The method of administering ablu- 
tions depends on the effect desired. In 
many cases they are merely an intro- 
duction for further treatment. Iii cases 
where we are unaware of the condition 
of the patient's blood vessels and there- 
fore must be careful, we may use ablu- 
tions. A favorable reaction would in- 
dicate the adoption of further methods. 
If the blood vessels are !iardened (arte- 
rio-sclerosis), or if there is danr^er of 
hemorrhage of the brain or hemorrhage 
at all, and hydropathic treatment is indi- 
cated, partial ablutions are the only 
proper and successful means on account 
of the liability of increasing the blood 
pressure and nerve stimulation. 

If high fever excludes the use of other 
methods, the stimulating nerve irrita- 



302 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



tion will be of great advantage; the ab- 
lutions have, however, no great anti- 
thermal ellect, a reason why they are 
especially applicable in the treatment of 
small children, where lowering of the 
body temperature nmst be avoided yet 
strong stimulation Is desirable. Ablu- 
tions are used with great benefit in the 
treatment of anaemic girls with poor 
circulation. Simple and insignificant as 
this treatment may seem, its eflfects in 
many diseases against which we are 
otherwise powerless, for instance arte- 
rio-sclerosis, are excellent. 

SITZ BATHS. 

Another very important method arc 
the Sitz Baths. According to the mode 
of application we distinguish three dif- 
ferent groups: 

a. the short cold baths. 

b. the cold baths of long duration. 

c. the hot baths. 

The effects of these three forms are 
quite diflferent. 

A. SHORT COLD SITZ BATHS. 

They are given at a temperature of 
about 59 degrees F. (15 degrees C.) 
and last at the longest five minutes. 
They cause a strong contraction of the 
abdominal viscera, followed after leav- 
ing the bath by extreme reactionary 
hyperaemia. A large amount of blood 
flows toward the blood vessels of the 
abdominal cavity and produces an active 
hyperaemia there. Accordingly these 
sitz baths are used to advantage in con- 
gestion "of the large glands and blood 
vessels of the abdomen, so frequently 
found as a consequence of leading a sed- 
entary life. Their great stimulative 
power makes them very effective in con- 
stipation and all cases of weakness of 
the viscera or of the genital organs. 



B. COLD SITZ BATHS OF LONG DURATION. 

Cold sitz baths of a temperature of 59 
degrees F. (15 degrees G.), 15 to 15 min- 
utes, are given less frequently, and gen- 
erally with very good success for the 
relief of severe diarrhoea. Without, 
however, the express prescription of a 
physician these baths ought not to be 
given in cases of diarrhoea or constipa- 
tion, because diarrhoea might be a con- 
sequence of constipation, or vice versa. 
Discrimination and care are necessary 
in the use of these baths to avoid possi- 
ble unfavorable consequences. 

They must be entirely avoided in all 
acute and in most chronic irritations of 
the viscera or genital organs, bladder 
or rectum. 

C. WARM AND HOT SITZ BATHS. 

Warm and hot sitz baths 95 to 113 
degrees F. (35 to 45 degrees C), cause 
a strong hyperaemia of the abdominal 
-cavity and its organs. They are given 
whenever a longer period of dilatation 
of the abdominal blood vessels, without 
any stimulation, is desired, thus aiding 
resorption, as in acute and chronic 
inflammations of the pelvic organs, 
bladder, rectum, with infiltrations, plas- 
tic deposits, etc. In colics of the kid- 
neys and gall bladder the baths greatly 
relieve pain and spasms. 

In all forms of sitz baths the head 
should be covered, preferably with a wet 
turban. 

FOOT-BATHS. 

The last forms of hydriatic proced- 
ures to be used at home are the foot- 
baths. We frequently have the opportu- 
nity of observing in healthy persons the 
close nervous relationship between the 
feet and other parts of the body. We 
are 'quite right in our dread of wet feet, 
which frequently cause diarrhoea and 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



303 



various other diseases, in consequence 
of a cold incurred. The reason for this 
is that thermal irritation, whether of 
long or short duration, spreads from the 
feet to all the other parts of the body, 
especially to the muscles of the intes- 
tines and the blood vessels of the brain. 
We have two different forms of foot 
baths : 

a. short cold baths in running water. 

b. hot baths, with or without the ad- 
dition of stimulants. 

A. COLD FOOT BATHS. 

Cold foot baths act by reflex influ- 
ence. There are different methods, all 
of which havf the same purpose; for 
instance, the cold foot baths where the 
patient applies friction to the feet by 
rubbing one foot against the other; the 
foot bath in running water, where the 
flow of the water produces the friction; 
walking barefooted in wet grass 
(Kneipp), equally combining thermal 
and mechanical action; wading in run- 
ning streams (treading water), all have 
the same effect. 

A cold foot bath usually lasts two 
minutes. Attention must be paid to the 
fact that after the foot bath the feet 
should be of a bright red color and quite 
warm. Absence of these symptoms is 
a sign that cold foot baths should not be 
given without suitable preparatory 
treatment. 

All these proceedings have^an excel- 
lent influence on the circulation of the 
brain by contracting the blood vessels, 
thus readily relieving congestive head- 
ache, for instance in mentally overwork- 
ed persons. The great success attend- 
ing the treatment and the large throngs 
of people that have flocked to some of 
the different apostles of natural reme- 
dies, for instance, the priest, Kneipp, in 



Germany, were largely due to the effec- 
tive treatment of suth classes of dis- 
eases by means of hytlrothcrapy. If 
there should be a tendency to hemor- 
rhage of the brain cold foot baths are 
strictly contra-indicated. 

B. HOT FOOT BATHS. 

Hot foot baths of 95 to 113 degrees 
F. (35 to 45 degrees C), are merely 
derivative methods. The blood vessels 
of the feet being largely dilated, this 
diverts the blood from other parts of 
the body to the feet. 

They are, therefore, used for conges- 
tion of the brain, insomnia, edema of 
the lungs and abdominal diseases. To 
increase their action local stimulants, 
such as ground mustard, may be added. 

The, above mentioned procedures are 
the more important ones which can 
readily be used at home, without special 
training in the technique of hydrother- 
apy ; they show how we can achieve tlie 
same results with different methods, or 
different results with the same methods. 
At the same time they show us that 
the practice of hydrotherapy requires 
a thorough study, especially of its physi- 
ological effects. 

The indications and applications of 
the various kinds of full baths will be 
discussed in another paper dealing with 
this subject alone. 

There are many other methods of hy- 
drotherapy, but as they have partly the 
same effect as the compresses, and their 
explanation is so difficult and their ther- 
apeutic indications so varying, a discus- 
sion of them would not be within the 
scope of this paper. 

I have not entered into a description 
of the special technique, as this can be 
best obtained from one of the standard 
text books on hydrotherapy. 



tCfje iWenopause 



JENNIE M. DRAPER 
Superintendent of Nurses. Knox County General Hospital, Rockland. Maine. 



T T HAS been a tradition handed down 
■'- irom time immemorial among the 
laity that the menopause is an experi- 
ence fraught with peril and difficulty. 
The matron and the maid alike ap- 
proach it with fear and awe; if this dan- 
gerous "Rubicon" were once passed 
they thought that joy and felicity would 
wait upon the remaining years of their 
life. 

The average duration of the men- 
stral function is from thirty to thirty - 
two years. The average age of puberty, 
in this country, is between thirteen and 
fourteen years. The average age of the 
menopause is between forty-five and 
fifty years. When the menses appear 
unusually early or late the menopause 
comes very early. 

By the menopause, or climacteric, is 
understood the whole period from the 
beginning of irregularities in the line 
of the menstrual flow until its actual 
cessation. The average duration of the 
menopause is from two and a half to 
three years. 

The menopause is a physiologic and 
conservative process. It occurs at a 
time of life when all the tissues are most 
stable and the nutrition of the body is 
at its best. Other physiologic changes 
which occur at the same time are de- 
crease in the size cf the spleen and 
lymphatic glands, the muscular coats 
of the intestines atrophy, and lessened 
peristalsis ensues ; hence the increased 
tendency to constipation. These are 
not the degenerations of age; but the 
blood-supplying, blood-making, and 
blood-elaborating organs of the body 
have completed the growth of the or- 



ganism, done their work and are strik- 
ing a balance with the needs of the 
economy. 

The object of each metamorphic or 
developmental epoch is a critical read- 
justment of the organism, in order to 
insure the greatest possible amount of 
health for each subsequent period of 
life. In the vast majority of cases this 
object is quietly effected, but sometimes 
the constitution only rallies after hav- 
ing been severely shaken for a varying 
period. Many women p^ss this period 
without noting any change in their 
former conditions and are conscious of 
the occurrence of the change of life only 
by reason of the absence of the men- 
strual flow. Others suffer for years with 
a host of troubles. 

One of the most essential changes is 
that of the woman's psychic condition 
— from slight vagaries to loss of inter- 
est in the daily affairs of hfe, to melan- 
cholia and insanity. "Two factors are 
generally taken into account: first, the 
sudden cessation of the menses; r.econd, 
the reflections of the patient caused by 
her condition, meditations on the loss 
of youth, and anxiety in view of the 
dangers of tlie climacteric. It cannot be 
denied that there is some truth in the 
supposed >§ad thoughts about the begin- 
ning of old age, and the depression 
caused by them can scarcely be consid- 
ered abnormal." 

The etiology and pathology of the 
menopause lie in the sympathetic ner- 
vous system, and it is by the breaking 
up of the harmony of previous proc- 
esses that nervous disturbances are 
produced. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



305 



After tlie cessation of the flow over 
eight per cent of the women suffer from 
"flashes"; this symptom is caused by 
irritation of the heart and vasomotor 
centres. The blood vessels of the head 
and neck seem to be most affected, yet 
the skin of the whole body shares in 
the disturbance. Besides the vasomo- 
tor and heart centres beifig disturbed, 
the sweat centre is disturbed. The 
flushes and flashes are followed by vari- 
ous degrees of sweating, which varies 
from a slight moisture to great drops. 

Nervous irritability is a prominent 
symptom in eight per cent of women at 
the time of the menopause. Most of 
the pain arises around the stomach — 
that IS, the solar plexus. Digestive dis- 
turbances are very common at this 
time ; they may be in the shape of fer- 
mentation, diarrhoea or constipation, 
accompanied by congestion of the liver. 

Uterine catarrh occurs almost invari- 
ably, and only ceases in advanced years. 
Displacements of all kinds are frequent, 
but on account of the now greatly di- 
minished weight of the uterus these are 
insignificant. The weakest organ of the 
individual is the one that generally suf- 
fers, and the kidneys, which all along 
have borne the brunt of life, may now 
show positive signs of disease. 

Another very frequent symptom of 
the menopause is distress in the region 
of the heart, with palpitation and short- 
ness of breath. It is said that the women 
in whom the menopause occurs early 
are more liable to tachycardia than 
those who menstruate later in life, and 
that it occurs with special frequency 
when the menopause has been prema- 
turely induced by surgical operation or 
by disease. 

The symptoms of cancer of the uter- 
us are hemorrhage, a more or less of- 
feni'.ve discharge and pain. The quan- 



tity of blood may vary from a slight 
amount which occasionally staLis the 
clothing, to a profuse hemorrhage. Dur- 
ing the menopause any irregular or pro- 
fuse bleeding should excite suspicion. 
After the cessation of the menopause 
any bleeding at all, whether slight or 
profuse, should always be regarded as 
dangerous and demands an immediate 
and thorough examination. The same 
is true of any offensive vaginal dis- 
charge. Pain is frequently so late a 
symptom that to wait for its appearance 
means that the favorable time to per- 
form an operation has passed by. Ema- 
ciation is also a symptom of advanced 
disease. 

Cancer always begins as a local dis- 
ease, and when it occurs in the uterus 
it is accessible and eradicable in its 
earliest stages; that is, if the disease is 
discovered in its incipiency an opera- 
tion will remove all the diseased tissue. 
If, on the contrary, the disease is left 
to mature the growth spreads out into 
the surrounding viscera like the roots 
oif a tree in the earth, and the cancer 
may be literally said to eat into the tis- 
sue which it invades. At the same time 
the growth of the disease begins to be 
carried all through the body, and the 
entire constitution is affected. 

All pelvic inflammation should be 
promptly treated, and not allowed to 
become chronic. Leucorrhea is a symp- 
tom of inflammation, the true cause of 
which can be determined only by a local 
examination. Women who have given 
birth to children— and this is more es- 
pecially necessary as they near the age 
of forty — should be carefully examined 
for tears of the neck of the womb. If 
these tears are extensive they should be 
repaired, as it is certain that malignant 
growths frequently do follow local in- 
juries and traumatism. Any irregular 



306 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



or profuse bleeding demands an imme- 
diate investigation by means of a local 
examination. A stormy, irregular, or 
delayed menopause should excite in the 
woman a suspicion of some abnormal 
condition. 

The nnportance of women being 
carefully watched by a gynecologist at 
this period of their lives can not be too 
emphatically stated, for upon the early 
recognition of cancer depends the only 
hope of radical cure of the disease. It 
is estimated that at the present time not 
less than seventy-five per cent, of all 
cases of cancer o<i the uterus come un- 
der the observation of the profession at 
a stage of the disease when all ptospect 
of a permanent relief is out of the ques- 
tion. It is a deplorable state of affairs 
that women, not knowing what a nor- 
mal climacteric is, attribute all hemor- 
rhages, no matter how severe, to the 
change of life. Therefore, regarding the 
hemorrhage as a necessary evil, they 
fail to consult the specialist until the 
favorable time for eradicating the dis- 
ease by means of an operation has 
passed. And whatever knowledge sci- 
ence may 'bring in the future as to the 
cure of cancer, at present it is a fact 
universally agreed upon that early op- 
eration, while the cancer is still local, is 
the only radical cure of the disease. 

It has been a grave question for some 
time whether the dangers that certainly 
do attend the menopause are natural or 
acquired ; that is, could these dangers be 
averted by any precaution or hygienic 
measures on the part of the woman, or 
arc these dangers a necessary accom- 
paniment of this period of lie? 

The best way to avoid the dangers 
of this critical time is to meet its ap- 
proach with a healthy constitution. A 
marked want of strength prevents the 
regular succession of the vital phe- 



nomena by which all critical periods are 
carried on. And the change of life is 
marked by debility. When this is 
grafted on constitutional weakness, loss 
of power will be of long duration-. All 
complaints remain chronic because there 
is not stamina enough to carry them 
through their stages. 

Usually women who suffer much at 
the menopause have previously suflfercd 
at puberty and at the menstrual periods. 
One of the most striking features is the 
relation of miscarriages to( the meno- 
pause. "Out of nineteen women who 
had miscarried, only one did not suffer 
in some vv^y at the time of the meno- 
pause. Four suffered only slightly, and 
fourteen suffered extremely, not only 
during the menopause, but in the post- 
climacteric period as well." 

It is believed that single women suffer 
less than other women at the time of 
the menopause. As at puberty, from 
the ignorance in which it is still thought 
right to keep young women, so at the 
change of life, women often suffer from 
ignorance of what may occur, or from 
exaggerated notions o.f the perils which 
await them. It would be well if they 
were made tO' understand that if in toler- 
able health, provided that they will con- 
form to judicious rules, they have only 
blessings to expect from the change of 
life. 

Each metamorphic or developmental 
period of life — dentition, puberty and 
the menopause — throws a special strain 
on the nervous system, and the recent 
studies of the sympathetic nervous sys- 
tem at the time of the menopause show 
that very extensive anatomic changes 
occur at this time. This being the case, 
the woman must lead such a life as will 
insure her having on hand a large re- 
serve force necessary to meet these de- 
mands. 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



•07 



Observations show that women who 
have experienced no suffering at pu- 
berty or at the menstrual periods do 
not suffer at the menopause. It is, 
therefore, evident that the time to begin 
this preparation is in childhood. 

Although the menopause is a psycho- 
logic occurrence, yet, owing to the 
many pathologic changes which are li- 
able to take place at this time, the 



woman should be as carefully watched 
during the menopause by the gynecolo- 
gist as the pregnant woman now is by 
the obstetrician. If the same care were 
taken, in the majority of cases, the 
dangers attending the menopause would 
be avoided, and the woman would be 
prepared to enjoy a healthy and useful 
post-climacteric period of life. 



**dForset^me^nots in €xilt" 



(A box of flowers sent into a city slum.) 



To smoky air and squalor of the streets 
We come, and to the city's noise and dust, 
Far off from any field or song of birds, 
And all our blossoms pine for that dear wood, 
Where sunlight, glancing through the budding 

trees, 
Makes dewy sparkles in a mist of blue. 



Treasures lie hidden in our dell so blue, 
Gems all unknown to dwellers in the streets, 
But they, who live, where blossoming fair trees 
Drop silver flakes, or shake down golden dust. 
Know of the guarded secrets of our wood — 
Wee, speckled eggs, and downy gaping birds. 



When all the vale is glad with singing birds 
Then is our far-off home decked out in blue, 
But hands have plucked us from our pleasant 

wood. 
And sent us here into the crowded streets. 
So soon to end our lives amid the dust, 
Where never cool brook murmurs 'neath tall 

trees. 



How can we tell you stories of our trees? 
How may we whisper of our pretty birds? 
We, who are parched and drooping in your 

dust. 
For all your stones are gray and have no blue, 
Nor moss nor ferns to hide them, and your 

streets 
Are no wise like the pathways of our wood. 

Your children never wandered through our 

wood 
.^Vnd have not played and lailghed beneath our 

trees. 
Their only thought of home is of a street. 
They never saw how cosy are our birds 
In mossy nests, hidden by ferns and blue. 
Their houses have no smoke nor any dust. 

So we have come to live amidst the dust 
As long as may be, since you have no wood ; 
And we will light your grayness by our blue, 
Until you almost hear the merry birds. 
Until you half believe you see the trees 
And hear a brooklet singing through the 
streets. 



3Btet in Cppfjoili jft\)er 

A. L. BENEDICT, A.M., M.I)., BUFFALO 
ConsutUint in Digestive Diseases. City and Riverside Hospitals, Attendent in same, Mercy Hospital. 

CHAPTER VI. 



IT IS a paradox that, the more rigid 
the dietetic management of a case 
and the more severe the disease the 
simpler is the mathematic problem of 
the dietist. This is on account of the 
fact that persons m a state of health 
cover a wide range of foods, eating vari- 
able quantities of each and wasting 
much. Thus, to measure accurately the 
diet of a person in health is exceedingly 
difficult. On the contrary, in typhoid 
fever or other diseases requiring the use 
of easily assimilable foods, with the ap- 
petite disturbed, not to mention purely 
scientific reasons which minimize the de- 
sire of the patient for foods simply to 
please the palate, and with the urgent 
necessity of administering pretty definite 
rations at pretty definite intervals, the 
actual computation of the amount con- 
sumed is fairly easy. 

For example, if the patient is placed 
on an exclusive milk diet, all that has 
to be done is to measure, by subtraction, 
of the amount left over from the amount 
in the patient's milk bottles and to com- 
pute the various organic ingredients by 
percentage. Here we have an excellent 
illustration of the superiority of the deci- 
mal system over the old unsystematic 
units of measurements. Indeed, for 
practical purposes, the computation can 
be made by intellectual arithmetic. The 
different specimens of milk vary some- 
what in composition and, on the aver- 
age, mav ^v- taVen to contain 4 per cent 
of each organic ingredient. If the patient 
takes 500 C. C. of milk in a day, what- 



ever the nunibeV of feedings and wheth- 
er mixed with lime water or peptonized, 
he gets about 20 grams each of proteid, 
fat and carbohydrate. For 750 C. C, 
the number is 30; for 1,000 C. C. (a liter, 
or a little more than a quart), 40 
grams, &c. 

Whenever broths prepared by heat 
above 60 C. (140 F.) are used we can 
disregard them entirely, although such 
broths do contain a minute quantity of 
nourishment. The various meat juices, 
solutions of meat extracts, &c., contain 
rarely over 7 per cent of proteid and 
not enough of anything else to count. 

The writer believes that it is wisest 
to nourish typhoid patients from the be- 
ginning on a diet whose staple is milk, 
but with an occasional use of broth or 
meat extract for variety, and using also 
cereals, cither in the form of breakfast 
foods, crackers or thoroughly toasted 
bread. Crackers are especially conveni- 
ent because they can be counted after 
once weighing a bunch of ten or twenty. 

It happens that a very convenient and 
simple combination of crackers and milk 
corresponds very closely to the theoretic 
needs of the body. Allowing for a little 
delay or loss of time by sleeping, the 
typhoid patient can very well be given 
five feedings a day on an estimate of 
four hour intervals between meals. Four 
soda crackers and a cupful of milk may 
be given at a feeding. The twenty soda 
crackers represent a pound, or about 
470 grams, containing, respectively, 10.3 
per cent, 9.4 per cent, and 70 per cent 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



309 



of proteid, fat and carbohydrate. If the 
cupfuls are rather full half pints the 
total of milk is 1,250 C. C, representing 
50 grams of each ingredient. A little 
arithmetic will show that, using round 
numbers, this diet represents 100 grams 
of proteid, corresponding to 400 ca- 
lories. One hundred grams of fat cor- 
responding to 930 calories. Three 
seventy-five grams of carbohydrates cor- 
responding to 1,537 calories. Total, 
2,957 calories. 

The above represents a liberal diet. 
Allowing for oxidation of the patient's 
own fat, and to some degree of muscles, 
he can pass through an attack quite sat- 
isfactory, though with considerable loss 
of flesh, on half this amount. Indeed, a 
quart of milk a day, without anything 
else (about 700 calories) will usually suf- 
fice to prevent actual starvation, and in 
some cases it is difficult to understand 
how patients can survive on a diet much 
below the necessary minimum. 

Even if the patient takes a liter of 
milk and half a pound of crackers (ten 
soda crackers, or the equivalent in other 
cereals, the case can be considered as 
satisfactorily nourished. Indeed, the 
standard ration just suggested is pre- 
sented as a theoretic basis for estimates 
and it is not expected that many pa- 
tients can or should take so much. 

As in health, it is rather important 
to get the benefit of a varied diet, al- 
though it is obvious that a seriously sick 
person, as with intestinal ulceration and 
weakened digestion, cannot be very elab- 
orately fed. However, we can substitute 
broth or meat extract for the milk of one 
of the five daily meals, we can add coffee, 
chocolate or tea to the milk, not so as 
to make a strong beverage, but so as 
to flavor the milk. We can give the milk 
hot or cold, even as ice cream, or by 



adding egg and sugar and some flavor 
we can make a raw custard. Often, there 
will be the indication to convert the cus- 
tard into an egg nog. Soft boiled eggs 
may be added to such a diet. ITie cereal 
may obviously be given in vavious forms, 
as hominy, farina and various other soft 
breakfast foods (oatmeal and gritty ce- 
reals should be avoided), or as crackers 
of different makes, toaster or not, or as 
zwieback. Or, the old-fashioned gruels 
may be used. The writer sees no objec- 
tion to the use of jellies, either fruit or 
of animal nature, provided that they 
are given in moderation, nor to the sim- 
ilar use of fruit juices, ginger ale, or, if 
the patient wishes, of a few whiffs of 
tobacco smoke after a meal. 

Thus, without really allowing a wide 
range of food stuffs, the flavor, appear- 
ance and names of the articles served 
can be made to simulate a considerable 
variety. It should also be clearly under- 
stood that the attempt at variety under 
adverse circumstances is not simply to 
make the nurse or the doctor more pop- 
ular, nor even to make the sickness less 
tedious to the patient. As long known 
clinically and on general physiologic 
principles, but as only recently absolute- 
ly proved by Pawlow, a vaned diet pro- 
duces better reflex secretions and hence 
better nutrition — in other words, it saves 
life in the aggregate. 

It would be unfair to leave this sub- 
ject without the admission that com- 
paratively few physicians endorse these 
views as to liberal diet. You will find 
probably the majority of physicians in- 
sisting on a nearly exclusive milk diet, 
some advocating very frequent feedings, 
some peptonizing milk as a routine, 
some relying mainly on broths which 
have almost no nutritive value. In all 



310 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



such cases, the plain duty of the nurse 
is to follow out the orders of the physi- 
cian in charge, without knocking, during 
or after the case. 

In many cases it seems advisable to 
predigest the milk. This can be done on 
one or two lines: pancreatic or gastric 
digestion. Usually, the former is fol- 
lowed, pancreatic extract being allowed 
to act on the milk in the presence of an 
alkali, usually sodium bicarbonate, at 
about body temperature, for about 20 
or 30 minutes. The exact quantities 
used are not very important, but for a 
pint (about half a liter of milk), usually 
about one-third of a gram of pancreatic 
extract and one gram of soda are used. 
If the milk is not to be used immediate- 
ly — and it is mubh better to prepare it 
only as needed — the digestive process 
must be checked by placing the milk on 
ice. If allowed to digest too long the 
milk becomes bitter. The exact temper- 
ature for digesting milk is not important, 
provided it is not more than 10 degrees 
Fahrenheit either way from normal 
bodily temperature. A temperature 
much over 120 F. checks the ferment 
action permanently, while, on the other 
hand, the so-called "cold process" of 
peptonization is nonsense, since the di- 
gestive action is so extremely slow and 
slight that the milk will decompose 
about as rapidly as it will digest. 

The imitation of gastric digestion, as 
applied to milk, consists in adding dilute 
hydrochloric acid, drop by drop, stir- 
ring to avoid curdling in mass, until the 
mixture becomes surcharged with acid. 
Pepsin is not usually added, because al- 
most any stomach will furnish pepsin 
enough, especially if a little excess of 
hydrochloric acid is present. Ehrlich 
in 1893 stated that milk would take up 
3 to 4 per cent of dilute hydrochloric 



acid. (U. S. P.) Largely as a matter 
of habit, the former method is more 
often employed, but there is good rea- 
son for the wider use of the latter. 

Milk is very often combined with lime 
water in feeding patients. The writer 
does not favor this method unless there 
is a definite reason for it, as an irritable 
stomach, too great acidity (which is rare 
in depressed states), vomiting of large, 
tough curds, &c. The lime water can 
easily be made by placing a chunk of 
limestone in a fire and slaking it in 
water and pouring off the solution, 
after standing. Care should be taken 
that the lime is relatively pure. From 50 
per cent to 200 per cent of lime water 
is added to milk, according to individual 
ideas. In estimating nutriment given 
the blunder of counting diluted milk as 
of full strength, must not be made. 

Whatever the diet, a very important 
point is to keep the mouth and teeth as 
clean as possible, as milk swallowed 
through a foul mouth becomes contam- 
inated, and not only disturbs digestion 
but adds to the gravity of the disease. 
Indeed, the writer regards clinical ty- 
phoid as a mixed infection of genuine 
typhoid with the results of heightened 
activity of other germs in the intestine. 
A case seen early, kept under intestinal 
antiseptics, and liberally fed is expected 
never to be delirious, never to have a 
temperature over io3, and to -defervesce 
in about 17 days. Even if insufficiently 
fed and not treated with intestinal anti- 
septics, two or three days' fever can be 
cut oflf by the nurse who will keep the 
mouth clean. Diluted glycerine or gly- 
cerine with listerine, or analogous anti- 
septic mixtures, ar simply water with 
a teaspoonful of soda and borax each 
to the pint, and an occasional brushing 
will keep the mouth and tongue clean. 



C|)e Co£it of ^ickneds 



FROM THE NEW BEDFORD EVENING STANDARD 



POSSIBLY the convention of nurses 
which is to meet in this city this 
week will hold that it has no responsi- 
bility with respect to the problems of 
other people, having all it can comfort- 
ably manage with its own, but the gath- 
ering inevitably suggests to many per- 
sons a topic which to them is of vital 
concert!, that is, how a family of mod- 
erate income, say from $2,000 a year 
down, is going to live and keep out of 
de'bt in case of sickness.. The Watchman, 
a religious weekly printed in Boston, 
not long ago discussed this subject with 
reference to its bearing on the wide- 
spread use of patent medicines. It ob- 
served that in the tinje of health such 
a fam.ily as here suggested would get 
along without a servant and perhaps be 
able to save something. Sickness, how- 
ever, would entail the services of a 
physician, whose charges could not pos- 
sibly go below $1 a day, and might reach 
very much more, with a trained nurse 
at $21 and a servant at $4 to wait on 
the nurse. Then there is the expense of 
boarding nurse and servant, and the cost 
of medicines — the whole aggregating 
over $40 a week in excess of the usual 
expenses of the family. The Watchman 
says: 

"This is not a fancy sketch. The writ- 
er knows of two recent cases in his circle- 
of acquaintances where just about this 
condition of things has prevailed ; and 
this sort of thing is going on all the 
time, with the result that thousands of 
middle-class families are being plunged 
hopelessly into debt or placed in condi- 
tions from which they can extricate 
themselves only by years of painful fru- 
gality and self-denial. We repeat that 



we do not reflect on the personal motive 
or character of physicians or nurses. 
Many physicians are very moderate in 
their charges and the nurses are al- 
ways compelled to agree not to accept 
less than $21 a week for their services. 
But we repeat with profound feeling 
the conditions outlined above are intol- 
erable and must be remedied. There are 
free hospitals and dispensaries and dis- 
trict nurses for the poor, and those who 
have plenty of money can pay the cost 
of the modern treatment of sickness. 
But the family of independent but mod- 
est means, in case of sickness, is com- 
pelled to choose between death, debt 
and self-administered medicines. Is it 
any wonder that millions of dollars' 
worth of patent and proprietary medi- 
cines are sold?" 

Probably the immense use of proprie- 
tary medicines is not entirely explained 
by this state of affairs. A great many 
persons have the patent medicine habit, 
and dose themselves entirely irrespective 
of whether they are sick or well. Not 
long ago we heard the story of a man 
in a Vermont village who had taken 
every variety of patent medicine which 
had been sold in the village store for 
years. 

The costliness of sickness did not im- 
pel him. to buy weird patent medicines. 
He would have bought all he could find 
if nurses and doctors could be picked up 
at a nickel apiece. But there are those 
not votaries of the ready curealls and 
not disposed to indulgence of morbid 
feelings to whom the costliness of ill- 
ness is a spectre when they suffer them- 
selves to think about it. To families 
where the total income is not over $1,500 



312 



THE TRAINED NU^iSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



a year, and where in time of health they 
live comfortably and even save money, 
a serious illness means an expense 
which they can poorly afford, and which 
leaves them financially crippled for years 
if not for the rest of their lives. 

We can hear at once what will be 
said to such an assertion — that it is a 
pity some folks are poor, but if they are 
poor, it cannot be helped and that they 
must take the consequences. If people 
cannot have gold watches at $500 apiece 
they go without; similarly, if they cannot 
afford trained nurses .at $21 a week they 
must go without. Tliere are those who 
can afford the costliness of illness, with 
no attendant worriment ; there are even 
those who can afford the amusement of 
playing that they are ill in spite of any 
expense. Prosperity has produced many 
such, but the consequences are that to 
thousands of families, of our financial 
middle class, the prospect of sickness 
is the prospect of a forced and appalling 
luxury, comparable on its money side to 
a trip to Europe or the purchase of Ori- 
ental rugs and bronze statuary. If they 
were very poor they would be objects 
of benevolence; if they were very rich 
the check in payment would be a baga- 
telle. Having had answered in their 
cases the prayer of Agur, and having 
neither poverty nor riches, but a large 
measure of self-respect, the strait is dis- 
(|uieting. It is a very real trouble in the 
prospect, and none the less in the reali- 
zation. 

In view of this situation any attempt 
to make the period of sickness more ex- 
pensive is naturally a source of uneasi- 
ness to this large class, and it suggests 
whether some alleviation is not possible. 



The movement for the registration of 
nurses by State authority cannot tend 
toward moderation of the cost. Practi- 
cally it will operate the other way, and 
we do not think it unfair to assume that 
it is so intended to operate. To be sure, 
the law as it is proposed in this State 
docs not prohibit nursing for hire on the 
part of others than the registered nurses, 
but it does propose to set up a favorite 
caste, under the especial protection and 
indorsement of the Commonwealth. Sub- 
stantially it will discredit by force of law 
those persons who, while well qualified 
to care for the sick in many cases, have 
not had the hospital training. If this is 
not the case we do not see any excuse 
for registration, and while the promoters 
of that idea will probably not admit this 
blunt way of putting it, their intent, even 
if they do not confess it to themselves, 
is clear. 

Now, we have no disposition to object 
to any person's getting a full reward for 
work, according to the value of that 
work; and we know that some trained 
nurses in some cases earn large returns 
— larger, possibly, than they always get. 
And it is true, also, that this problem 
is much larger than in its application to 
the trained nurse. In some of its phases 
it runs into many other aspects of liv- 
ing. The struggle on some planes of re- 
sources to maintain standards of liv- 
ing and yet to live in a self-respecting, 
pay-your-own-way fashion is acute. We 
have to admit that the problem is hard 
and perplexing. That is one reason why 
professions which are intended to alle- 
viate the sufferings of humanity should 
have a care that they do not make it 
harder and more perplexing. 



Bepartmmt of ^rmp j^ursina 



DITA H. KINNEY 
Superintendent Army Nune Corps 



'' I "* HE discharges during the month 
■* have been Carrie Bechtle and Win- 
nies Parish, both discharged in San 
Francisco. The siucerest sympathy of 
the superintendent and members of the 
corps is extended to Miss Bechtle, who 
has suffered a double bereavement in 
the deaths of her father and sister with- 
in two weeks of each other. Her be- 
reaved mother was alone and Miss 
Bechtle felt that she could not turn a 
deaf ear to the call of her home duty. 
She was discharged by the Surgeon- 
General after only a short service, long 
enough, however, to demonstrate her 
desirability as an army nurse and her 
fine qualities of character. 

Another discharge which is noted with 
sincere regret is that of Miss Annie 
M. Hammett, who leaves the service at 
her own request at the expiration of her 
three years* term. Long tropical service 
has temporarily impaired Miss Ham- 
mett's health, and she leaves for a visit 
to her home for the needed rest. No 
words of commendation can be too high 
for the character of Miss Hammett's 
service, and should she ever desire to 
re-enter the corps a warm welcome will 
await her. 

The appointments to fill these vacan- 
cies are Miss Frances Bastyan Dodds 
and Miss Olive Vinton Kallaway, both 
graduates of the South Side Hospital 
Training School for Nurses, Pittsburg, 
class of 1905. These nurses were trained 
by an old army nurse, Miss Mary J. 
Weir, who recommends them as both 



qualified and suited to army service. No 
one could know better than Miss Weir 
what are the requirements for member- 
ship in the Army Nurse Corps, and no 
one who ever worked in it had higher 
ideas than she. 

The transfers during the month have 
been Amalie Ida Haentsche, from San 
Francisco to Fort Bayard, to replace 
Eleanor Underwood, whose term of 
duty at the latter place has expired and 
at whose request the transfer was made. 
Nurses Bertha Purcell and Annie M. 
Shea returned from the Philippines on 
the transport Sherman and reported at 
the General Hospital. San Francisco, 
March 17. Nurse Catherine Smith has 
been transferred from the Military Hos- 
pital. Zamboanga, to Camp Keithley. 
Nurse Bertha Billiani. having completed 
her tour of duty at Fort Bayard, has 
been ordered to San Francisco to await 
the sailing of the first available trans- 
port to the Philippines. Nurse Eliza- 
beth F. Edwards, from San PVancisco 
to Fort Bayard, to fill the vacancy made 
by Miss Billiani's transfer. Nurse Har- 
riet E. Wills, who has been on duty for 
a year at the Presidio, will sail for the 
Philippines with Miss Billiani May 6. 

From the Philippines we are informed 
that the following orders have been pro- 
mulgated: Nurses Sarah M. Hepburn, 
Clara L. Postlewait and Emma Roth- 
fuss, recently arrived in that division, to 
Zamboanga. They will relieve Nurses 
Agnes F. James and Eleanor Lason, 
who have completed their year of out- 



314 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



post duty and will henceforth serve 
at the Division Hospital, Manila. 

Another Special Order just received 
indicates that Louisa E. Langstaff, on 
duty at the Division Hospital, will take 
the first available transport for the 
United States. 

Chief Nurse Samantha C. Plummer, 
who successfully passed the required ex- 
aminations, was about the first of the 
year a,'^signcd to duty as Chief Nurse at 
Camp Keithley. 

Nurses Marie Denahy and Adelaide 
Duncan left April 5th on the Transport 
Sherman for assignment to duty in the 
Philippine Division. 

Our sympathy is extended to Miss 
Bamber, late of the Army Nurse Corps, 
who has recently been unfortunate 
enough to meet with an accident. Miss 
Bamber broke her arm, and we are sorry 
to say that the fracture has not done 
well. We shall wait with solicituch 
further news. 

Some details of the wedding ceremony 
of Miss Willma A. Keck, late of the 
corps, who was married to Mr. J. S. 
Stanley, in Manila, have been received. 
The ceremony was performed by Dr. S. 
B. Rossiter at his residence in the pres- 
ence of a few intimate friends, on Feb- 
ruary nth. Colonel McCoy gave the 
bride, away, and Mr. Theodore C. Reisc 
was best man. Mrs. William Tracy 
Page (Lucile Flick, late Chief Nurse of 
the Division Hospital) was matron of 
honor. 

Mr. and Mrs. Molitur, close friends of 
Commissioner Cameron Forbes, extend- 
ed an invitation to the bride and groom 
to occupy their palatial residence on 
Calle Real during the honeymoon. The 



trip to the Southern Islands gave the 
bridal couple undivided possession of a 
beautiful house and the use of stables, 
horses, carriages, .etc. Mrs. William 
Keck Stanley presided with both grace 
and dignity over this pretentious me- 
nage, and extended the hospitality of her 
temporary home to her many friends. 
She made a charming hostess and was 
the recipient of much entertaining and 
many congratulations. Mr. Stanley is 
Collector of the Port of Iloilo. where 
the bride and groom will live. Those 
who know seem to feel that Mr. 
Stanley and Miss Keck are to be con- 
gratulated on their choice of life part- 
ners. 

On Christmas Eve the Chief Nurse of 
the Division Hospital surprised her 
family by giving' them a totally unex- 
pected little reception. The nurses en- 
joyed the surprise and were the recipi- 
ents of many beautiful and costly gifts. 
A native stringed orchestra furnished 
the music. At midnight the dance broke 
up, and many of the nurses with their 
partners attended midnight mass, which 
is always a service of great beauty and 
solemnity in all Catholic countries. The 
nurses from Fort McKinley were also 
present at the dance. Mrs. Salter, Chief 
Nurse, received a very beautiful cut- 
glass fruit dish from her nurses, and 
from some of the many outsiders who 
have been invited to the little dances and 
receptions at the Nurses' Quarters, a 
punch bowl of Canton china, a rarely 
beautiful thing. 

On New Year's Eve some of the 
nurses visited friends and others enter- 
tained guests at dinner in the quarters. 



trije ©let Utttijen 



Meats— Their Selection and Preparation 

ROSE R. GROSVEXOR 
Past Diet Matron, Iowa Soldiers' Home Hospital. 



IXASML'CH as meats are stored 
with albuminized substances, it 
forms one of the mast important arti- 
cles of food for the adult, furnishing .i 
concentrated, nutritious, stimulating, 
force-giving and muscle-feeding diet, 
and in most of its forms is easily di- 
gested and assimilated. In studying the 
digestion and nutrition of foods we 
learn that there is a wide difference be- 
tween the different varieties of meats 
in regard to the amount of available nu- 
trition and the ease with which they 
are digested and distributea into the 
living tissue. Beef, containing the high- 
est per cent (20) of proteids, is recog- 
nized by the best authors as the most 
nutritious, while mutton, containing but 
15 per cent, is more digestible but not 
as nutritious as beef. Pork, containing 
2.8 per cent proteids, affords the least, 
and is the slowest to digest, being of 
value chielly for its heat producing qual- 
ities. The flesh of young animals is more 
tender and easier of digestion, the one 
exception being that beef is more easily 
assimilated than veal. In selecting meats 
it is well to have some knowledge of the 
appearance of fresh, wholesome meats 
and the cuts to choose for the various 
methods of cooking. The flesh of good 
beef, pork or mutton should be of a 
light scarlet hue, a dark red, coarse 
grain meat shows age and toughness. 



The fat of pork and nmtton should be 
white and firm, and that of beef slightly 
tinged with yellow. If the surface of 
the meat appears mottled and pale it is 
safe to reject it. Wholesome meats 
should be entirely free from even slight 
putrefication. Cured meats are not con- 
sidered as healthful as fresh, the process 
of curing absorbing the juices and hard- 
enmg the fibre. Varieties of flesh food 
are always at hand — knowledge only is 
necessary to choose the best adapted 
to present needs and conditions. The 
manner of preparation has much to do 
with its food value. The whole theory 
of cooking it correctly is to endeavor 
to retain as much as possible of its 
nutriment. To preserve this property 
is essential alike to digestive quality and 
good taste. A high heat should be ap- 
plied to meats at the commencement of 
cooking, and as the cooking proceeds 
the heat may be reduced. This coagu- 
lates the outside albumen and prevents 
the escape of the juices. As animal flesh 
is liable to be infected with parasites, 
which in turn are liable to develop dis- 
ease in the human body, the use of half- 
cooked flesh should not be encouraged. 
Veal, lamb and especially pork should 
be well cooked. The usual methods cf 
preparing meats are roasting, broiling, 
boiling, braising, fricassee and frying. 
Of these roasting and broiling are con- 



316 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



sidercd the most wholesome, because 
the flavor and nutritive quaUties are bet- 
ter retained when cooked by direct ap- 
pHcation of heat. But care must be 
exercised not to overdo the process and 
thus render the fibre tough and indi- 
gestible. Success in roasting depends 
on frequent turning and basting to pre- 
vent burning. The portion of beef and 
pork to select for roasting are loin and 
rib cuts; of mutton, lamb and veal, the 
loin and leg. For rare meat cook beef 
ten minutes and mutton twelve minutes 
to the pound, always counting after the 
first half hour; roast veal and lamb 
twenty and pork thirty minutes. Cuts 
of beef for broiling are sirloin, porter- 
house and flank steaks; of pork, chops 
and tenderloin ; veal and mutton, chops 
and steaks. Good steaks and chops are 
sliced from one-half to one inch thick, 
and should be pounded, the bones 
cracked and edges clipped to prevent 
them from curling while broiling. Salt 
should not be applied to broiling meats, 
as it extracts and wastes the juices, the 
seasoning being done when cooking is 
complete. Time for broiling depends on 
the cut and thickness. The usual time 
allowed is: Beef, four to ten minutes; 
mutton, veal or lamb chops and steak, 
six to ten minutes. For boiling, the 
shoulder, flank and upper shin pieces 
are the cheaper and best portions. To 
boil properly plunge meat into boiling 
water to harden the outer fibre and pre- 
serve the extractions. Boil rapidly ten 
minutes, then lower the heat and boil 
gently until tender. Too rapid boiling 
causes it to be tough. Skim when boil- 
ing begins and salt when half done. All 
salted meats should be soaked over night 
in cold water and placed in cold water 
to cook. Boil beef and mutton fifteen 



minutes to the pound, pork thirty, ham 
twenty and corned beef thirty. Braising 
is a combined form of roasting and 
stewing, done in the oven in a deep, cov- 
ered pan, the object of the cover being 
to retain the steam. The cuts chosen 
and the time for cooking are the same 
as for roasting. A fricassee is also a 
form of stewing and roasting, the meat 
being browned or fried in hot fat after 
it has stewed tender and a brown gravy 
made and poured over the meat at the 
time of serving. Cheap cuts can be 
utilized for a fricassee. Frying, as prop- 
erly done, is the method of cooking in 
hot fat sufficient to cover the meat, it 
being crisped at the outside, thus pre- 
venting the absorption of fat. Sauteing, 
another method also called frying, is the 
process of cooking in just enough fat 
to prevent sticking. Frying is consid- 
ered the worst form of preparation, as 
it expels the natural fluids from the 
fibre, substituting oil for them. Using 
this method the fat should be very hot, 
the meat cooked rapidly and removed as 
soon as crisp. Comparison of the time 
allowed for the digestion of fried meats 
with those cooked by other methods ex- 
plains the reason why competent medi- 
cal men taboo fried foods. 

BROILED BEEF LOIN. 

Eound and clip edges of one-half inch 
cut and place over coals on hot greased 
broiler; turn often and quickly to pre- 
vent burning from the dripping fat; 
cook eight minutes, and a little more if 
wanted well done and crisp; turn onto 
a hot platter, season to taste and serve 
with horseradish sauce. Pork tender- 
loin, mutton and veal chops may be 
broiled the same. 

FRICASSEE OF LAMB. ^ 

Select shoulder cut, chop in pieces 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



317 



and plunge into boiling water ; cook rap- 
idly ten minutes, then let simmer until 
tender, adding salt after first half-hour; 
when nearly done uncover and let the 
stock cook down. If there is not enough 
fat add a little. Let meat brown, turn- 
ing often. When done remove, and 
make a brown sauce; pour over meat 
and serve. 

ROAST PORK. 
Place loin cut in a deep roasting pan 
and dredge with flour; set in hot oven 
until the roast is browned, then add salt, 
pepper and one-half cupful hot water; 
lessen the temperature of oven and bake 



slowly thirty minutes to each pound, 
basting frequently; when done serve 
with tomato or onion sauce. 

BRAISED LEG OF MUTTON. 

Place shank in a roasting pan and set 
in a hot oven uncovered for thirty min- 
utes, then add a cupful of hot water, a 
few bits of suet, salt and pepper; then 
cover, return to oven and allow twenty 
minutes to the pound for cooking me- 
dium well done ; baste occasionally, add- 
ing more water if necessary ; when done 
remove the cover ten minutes before 
lifting; serve with mint sauce. 



State Legislation for Nurses 



IN the Nursing World Department 
will be found the history of the 
Nurses' bills in Michigan up to date. 
At the beginning of the movement the 
medical men gave what seemed un- 
qualified support, and the nurses are 
both surprised and disappointed at their 
change of heart. 



The rock on which they have split is 
the examining board, composed only of 
nurses ; but the nurses are not willing to 
concede anything on this point, even if 
it means the defeat of their bill. They 
are taking their disappointment in a 
very dispassionate manner, and, as seen 



We believe that the nurses have only by the report, still believe that the phy- 

certain members of their organization sician is the best friend of the nurse, 

to blame for this change of attitude in p^^^ Minnesota we hear that the 

the medical men, for we have read in- , , . i ^ ^ ^«- ^^ 

,,.,.. bill has passed, but have not vet received 
terviews with nurses published in some 



of the papers of the State which, if cor- 



full particulars. Up to this writing we 



rectly reported, were quite sufficient to have not heard the fate of the Pennsyl- 
cause alarm in medical circles. vania bill. 



Ctiitoriallp ^peafemg 



Ideals, The Old and The New 

It is rather curious that while, so far 
as actual nursing is concerned the 
work to be dene remains practically the 
same, yet the ideas of the modern nurse 
as set forth in the article entitled 'The 
Economic Side of the Vocation of Pri- 
vate Nursing," published in the March 
number of The Trained Nurse, and the 
ideals of ''the good old days " as set 
forth under the title, "'Nursing Morale," 
in the same number, appear to be whol- 
ly incompatible and irreconciliablc. But 
we believe that while present conditions 
may have obscured for the time being 
the higher and nobler issues of the 
nurse's life, the spirit still lives, ready at 
any moment to shine forth anew, and 
raise her work out of the plane of self- 
interest and self-seeking, into the 
heights of self-sacrifice and renuncia- 
tion. We hear many rash and thought- 
less statements made by nurses ofT duty, 
but we know that on duty they seldom 
fail us, and can be depended upon to 
rise to the occasion at the crucial mo- 
ment. 

Taken as a whole, the nurses in pri- 
vate practice are a body of self-support- 
ing women; primarily their work is a 
source of livelihood, but it is the eco- 
nomic side of the calling that is the 
stumbling block in tiie nurse's path to- 
day. The mistake has been in defining 
the standard of nursing and defining 
the fee that the nurse shall receive for 
her services, as if the one was the equiv- 
alent o' the other. 



Under the title "Ideals," a recent 
writer in one of our leading newspapers 
said: "Materialism is unremitting in its 
efforts to supplant the ideal. 1 he effort 
to adjust men's action and imaginings 
to wholly material planes thrives spas- 
modically, then rouses a reaction. The 
best proof that we have not resigned 
our illusions is our sanctifying of high 
principles when we fina them in embodi- 
ments. Thus we preserve names and 
memories that represent great truths 
and achievements." 

We have recently passed the centen- 
ary' of the birth of Henry Wads worth 
Longfellow. Page after page of tribute 
to his memory and of analysis and ap- 
preciation of his fame and genius have 
been inscribed and read throughout the 
land. The noblest ideals of life place 
the service of others before the service 
of self. To those in the nursing profes- 
sion, who try to "hold fast upon high 
ideals" the sonnet by James Wli'tcomb 
Riley has a special interest. He apostro- 
phizes Longfellow thus in the opening 
line : 

"O gentlest kinsman of humanity;" 
and at the close refers to him as. . 
"One who knew 
Our common human need of kindliness." 

The first is a personification of the 
highest place that the ideal nurse can 
fill. The last is a qualification which, if 
it enters into the spirit in which a 
nurse's services are rendered and re- 
ceived, removes it to a plane in which 
the price is not counted or considered 
on either side. Not everything can be 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



319 



bought with a price, and the things 
which count the most and wliich are 
most worth while we are often least 
able to obtain in this way. 

It is this insight into "our common 
human need of kindliness" which 
prompts the nurse to render gladly and 
unasked the little trifling services 
which often mean so much to the pa- 
tient and members of the household, 
but, on the other hand, how often is the 
nurse antagonized, and put on the de- 
fensive by the total lack of kmd'.iness 
shown her by the patient and patient's 
relatives, those, for instance, who, fear- 
ing that the nurse may not fullv earn 
every cent that is coming to her, try 
to coerce her into being general utility 
maid for the whole establishment. This 
class of persons only recogmie the 
amount of physical labor involved, and 
never for a moment consider the "out- 
put of time, ability, skill, nervous force, 
physical and spiritual force" ; yet over 
and over again the nurse far exceeds 
her professicmal obligations, merely as 
an expression of her appreciation of the 
kindly way that her efforts on their be- 
half have been appreciated by the pa- 
tient's family. 

In a discussion on what constitutes 
the attributes of a successful nurse, 
using the term in its broadest sense, 
one opinion advanced was that she must 
have high ideals, another opinion was 
that she was much more in need of good 
common sense. These two opinions do 
not really form a paradox, for while we 
admit the truth of the statement that 
there will always be a wide interval be- 
tween practical and ideal excellence, 
they are not antagonistic, but interde- 
pendent conceptions of that which will 
result in the highest type of nurse. The 
moment we thrust our ideals to one 



side because we foci that we are in- 
capable of realizing them, we lower our 
standard of excellence. 

Accordmg to the opinions voiced by 
our daily newspapers, the modern nurse 
is not improved in proportion to the 
time she spends doing institutional 
work, but, on the contrary, she de- 
teriorates, and this in spite of the 
pearls of wisdom which have been show- 
ered upon us by the oracles on the sub- 
ject of the Higher Education of the 
Nurse. Thus, speaking of the Schmer 
bill, to prohibit the arbitrary rejection 
of patients by New York City hospitals, 
the comment was m^.de: "It is to be 
feared that superintendents and doctors 
and nurses grow hardened to theii 
work if it is institutional, Tliey are 
trained. Their views are strained, the 
quality of mercy is not strained, and no 
law can give them, what they most need, 
human sympathy. 

The question of the hour is what 
amount of hospital training does the 
average nurse need? It will be deter- 
mined by deciding what class of nurse 
is most needed by the community. The 
economic side of a nurse's vocation is 
clamoring for a hearing; this question 
is bound to be determined by the knowl- 
edge of how much or how little the 
average patient can afford to pay for 
her services. Theoretically, the only 
rational solution of this problem at 
present would seem to be that the nurse 
like the doctor, who ministers to all 
sorts and conditions of men will need 
to adopt all sorts and sizes of fees to 
correspond, and we note that the num- 
ber of persons is steadily increasing who 
believe that unless the graduate nurse 
in private practice adopts a sliding scale 
of fee she will be forced to step aside 
and give the trained attendant right of 



320 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



way, as far as the great majority of 
cases are concerned. 

How is the nurse in private practice 
going to meet this problem confronting 
her — the incompatibiHty of her fees 
and the income of the average patient, 
which has paved the way for and led to 
the competition of the trained attend- 
ant? The hospital cannot solve it, for 
it is only under exceptional conditions 
that any one is willing to be taken from 
the privacy of their home to the public- 
ity of the hospital ward. Also doctors 
are not likely to send their patients to 
hospitals when it means resigning the 
case themselves for the benefit of the 
hospital and the hospital physicians. 

+ 
Why We Are Optimistic 

The criticism has been made that in 
our editorial, likening the nursing 
profession to "The Ship That Found 
Herself," we are more optimistic than 
the facts warrant, and instances are cited 
showing where schools and superm- 
tendents of schools still show the ego- 
tistical spirit of self-laudation by dero- 
gating others. We were optimistic; it 
is our belief that the profession well 
may be optimistic, not only because, in 
spite of these and similar instances 
brought to mind, we believe it has 
grounds for optimism, but because an 
optimistic outlook, even when condi- 
tions are deplorable, tends toward their 
betterment. 

Our profession must look ahead to an 
ideal ; it must see wherein some other 
condition is better than the present one 
and live toward it, thinking and talking 
of it not only as a desirability but as 
a possibility, and when it is recognized 
as a possibility, begin to. consider it as 
a probability. Tlien, when there is some 
little advance in this direction, some 



two or three parts "finding themselves," 
optimism is vindicated. 

Of course, that which we most desire 
to believe is what we most readily do 
believe, and that which we most desire 
is what we make most effort to bring 
about. That the nursing profession 
shall "find itself" it without doubt the 
desire of its best element. Without 
optimistic belief we shall make little 
progress, but with it we shall keep the 
ideal and the possibility of its achieve- 
ment ever before us. Shall we not, then, 
believe and speak to others of our con- 
viction that things are beginning to be 
as they ought to be. and to talk opti- 
mistically of what progress has been 
made, instead of pessimistically enlarg- 
ing <M!i all that still remains to be done? 



Misrepresentation 

Some time since we received a letter 
from a woman prominent in nursing 
journalism, which closed as follows: — 

"In regard to your own Trained 
Nurse, I know that I only express the 
thought of the great majority of nurses 
when I say that it fills a place in this 
country which no other nursing journal 
touches. As a real help to the private 
nurse it cannot be equalled. Also, I 
have never read an unkind remark on 
its editorial pages during the twelve 
years I have known it." 

It can readily be understood how 
stimulating such praise would be found 
and how earnestly we would endeavor 
to live up to the reputation of not being 
unkind. 

Yet sometimes we find it very difficult 
to keep from our editorials statements 
what might be seemingly "unkind." In 
order to do this, it is often necessary to 
pass over much that should have the 
searchlight of truth thrown upon it, be- 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



321 



cause in order to apply the light we 
would have to indulge in personalties, 
a necessity always to be regretted. 

The question that is now in our mind, 
and one to which we want to direct the 
attention of our readers, is: What is to 
be done in regard to the constant mis- 
representation that is made to nurses at 
meetings and about meetings? We go 
to a meeting and hear statements made 
from the platform which are absolutely 
incorrect. Yet these statements go un- 
questioned and unchallenged. A report 
of a meeting is published and circulated 
as the voice of the vast majority of 
nurses in a certain locality. Yet the re- 
port is often a misrepresentation 
throughout. Is this right or just? 

At one time we were in receipt of two 
reports of one meeting which were abso- 
lutely opposed to each other in regard 
to certain facts. Wishing to know for 
our own benefit which was correct we 
wrote to a hospital superintendent, who 
we knew had attended the meeting, ask- 
ing for information in regard to the 
points. In reply we received this answer: 
"There was no discussion of the matter 
you mention. It seems to me that in all 
nurses' meetings there is too little dis- 
cussion. Everything seems cut and 
dried beforehand. A few people make 
certain positive statements which are al- 
lowed to go unchallenged and which do 
not represent the opinion of the body of 
nurses." 

In the above case this superintend- 
ent's statement agreed with one of the 
reports, but, mark you, the report which 
was published and circulated was the 
other, because it was the so-called offi- 
cial one. 



The observations in regard to nurses' 
meetings of the superintendent quoted 
are also our own, and we believe that in 
no other body of organized women can 
such a condition be found. What is the 
reason and what is the remedy? 

In a few days the Convention of the 
Associated Alumnae will assemble at 
Richmond, Va. Let each delegate go 
prepared to ask and understand the why 
and wherefore and not to accept what 
has been "cut and dried." Have a voice 
as well as vote. Do not take for granted 
that when one woman makes a state- 
ment it is bound to be correct because 
she is considered an authority. For we 
must remember that there is always the 
possibility that the only reason for her 
being considered an authority is that 
"she herself admits it." 
+ 
An Alaskan Hospital 

In the Hospital Review of this num- 
ber will be found an account of 
the year's work at St. Matthew's Hos- 
pital in Fairbanks, Alaska, which ap- 
peared in the Alaska Churchman, and 
which we publish by request. 

We are told that they are sadly in 
need of one more nurse at this little 
mission hospital, and it is hoped that 
this report of the work may sufficiently 
impress some nurse to volunteer. She 
must be an Episcopalian, as her salary 
would be paid by the Episcopal Board 
of Home and Foreign Missions. Be- 
sides being a first-class nurse the wom- 
an who undertakes this work must have 
the missionary spirit. We will be glad 
to put any nurse interested in communi- 
cation with one who will tell her more 
of the conditions. 



In tije j^urstng Woxlt^ 

ARTICLES IN THIS DEPARTMENT, WHETHER BEARING SIGNATURE OR NOT, ARE CONTRIBUTED, AND DO 
NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT THE IDEAS OR POLICY OF THIS MAGAZINE. 



Iowa Nurses Bill 

An Act to Provide for the Examination 
AND Regulation of Graduate Nurses. Also 
to Regulate the Practice of Nursing by 
Graduate Nurses and to Provide a Penalty 
for the Violation Thereof. 

Be It Enacted by the General Assembly to/ the 
State of Iowa: 

Section i. It shall be unlawful for any per- 
son to profes.s to be a registered nurse without 
first obtaining from the State Board of Health 
a certificate authorizing him or her to prac- 
tice nursing in this State, except as herein- 
after provided. 

Section 2. At the annual meeting of the 
State Board of Health it shall select two physi- 
cians from its own membership, and two grad- 
uate nurses, residents of this State actively 
engaged in the practice of nursing, who, to- 
gether with the Secretary of the State Board 
of Health, shall constitute the examining com- 
mittee for the year. The examinations provid- 
ed for in this Act shall be held in the City of 
Des Moines in July of each year and at such 
other times and places as the Board of Health 
shall direct. All applicants for certificates to 
practice nursing shall have attained the age 
of twenty-three (23) years and shall be of 
good moral character. They shall be gradu- 
ates of training schools recognized as being 
in good standing by the State Board of Health 
of Iowa and shall have received at least two 
years' instruction in general hospital practice. 
After July ist, 1910, no training school shall 
be accredited by the State Board of Health as 
a school of recognized standing which is not 
attached to a general hospital, and which does 
not have a course of study of at least three 
years. All graduate nurses who are residents 
of the State and who have been engaged in the 
practice of nursing prior to the passage of this 
act shall be granted a certificate without ex- 
amination upon the payment of the registration 
fee of five dollars, and the same rule shall ap- 



ply to all nurses who graduate from a recog- 
nized school prior to July ist, 1907. Nurses 
holding diplomas from hospital training schools 
of recognized standing, upon application to the 
Secretary of the State Board of Health, shall 
be granted a permit to practice until the first 
examination of the Board following the issu- 
ance of the said permit. 

Section 3. After the passage of this Act, 
any person who is not exempt from examina- 
tion by Section Two (2) of this Act and who 
shall apply for a certificate to practice nurs- 
ing shall be examined in the following sub- 
jects: Elementary hygiene, anatomy, physi- 
ology, materia medica, dietetics, and also prac- 
tical nursing, medical and surgical nursing, ob- 
stetrics, nursing of children and the rules and 
regulations of the State Board of Health re- 
lating to infectious diseases and quarantine and 
such other subjects as the Examining Board 
may require from time to time. Each appli- 
cant shall pay the Secretary of the State Board 
of Health a fee of Five Dollars ($5.00). If 
the examination be satisfactory to three mem- 
bers of said committee it shall so report to 
the State Board of Health; if the Board find 
the report and ratings correct, it shall author- 
ize its President and Secretary to issue a cer- 
tificate to the successful candidate, for which 
such candidate shall pay an additional fee of 
One Dollar ($1.00). This certificate shall con- 
fer upon the holder the right to practice as a 
registered nurse and be conclusive evidence 
thereof. The State Board of Health is em- 
powered to recognize certificates issued to 
nurses under the laws of other States having 
substantially similar requirements to those ex- 
isting in this State, provided, that such States 
recognize certificates issued by the State of 
Iowa, then certificates issued by authority of 
such other States may be deemed sufficient 
evidence of qualifications of the licentiate with- 
out further examination for certificate in this 
State ; the fee for such certificate shall be Ten 
($iaoo) Dollars. The holder of such certificate 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



323 



provided for in this Act shall cause the same 
to be registered in the office of the County 
Recorder of the County wherein he intends to 
reside. 

Section 4. No person after January ist, 
1908, except one holding a certificate under 
authority of this Act, shall advertise to be or 
assume the title of registered nurse or use the 
abbreviation R. N. or any other words, letters 
or figures to indicate that the person using the 
same is a registered nurse, and it shall be un- 
lawful for any graduate nurse to practice nurs- 
ing as a graduate or registered nurse in the 
State of Iowa without first having registered 
under this Act. 

Section 5. This Act shall not apply to any 
person nursing the sick with or without pay 
who does not in any way assume to be a regis- 
tered or graduate nurse. 

Section 6. The Board of Health may refuse 
to grant, or renew any certificate provided for 
in this Act, to a person otherwise qualified, 
who obtained said certificate by false or fraud- 
ulent representation, or for immoral or un- 
professional or dishonorable conduct, or for 
wilful or repeated violation of the rules or reg- 
ulations of the State Board of Health ; and the 
Board may revoke any certificate issued by it, 
for any such or similar cause ; provided, that 
before the revocation of any certificate issued 
under the provisions of this Act, the licentiate 
shall have been afforded an opportunity for a 
hearing before the Board. At least twenty 
(20) days prior to the date set for such hear- 
ing the Secretary of the State Board of 
Health shall cause written notice, under regis- 
tered mail, to be sent to the licentiate at his 
last known place of residence; said notice 
shall contain a statement of the charges, and 
the date and place set for *he hearing before 
the Board. If the party thus notified fails to 
appear, either in person or by counsel, at the 
time and place designated in said notice, the 
Board may. after receiving satisfactory evi- 
dence of the truth of the charges and the 
proper issuance of the notice, revoke said cer- 
tificate. If the licentiate appear either in per- 
son or by counsel, the Board shall proceed 
with the hearing as herein provided. The 
Board may receive and consider affidavits and 
oral statements, and shall cause stenographic 
report of the oral testimony to be taken, which, 
together with all other papers pertaining there- 
to, shall be preserved for one year. If five 



(5) members of the Board present at the hear- 
ing are satisfied that the licentiate is guilty of 
any of the offenses cliarged, the certificate 
shall be revoked for such time as the State 
Board of Health may dete* -nine. 

Section 7. Each member of the examining 
committee, except the Secretary, shall receive 
for his services out of the funds created by 
the payment of fees by applicants for examina- 
tion such compensation as is allowed to the 
members of the State Board of Medical Ex- 
aminers for like services and the Secretar>' 
shall receive his necessary expenses incurred 
for services which cannot be performed at the 
capitol. All printing, postage and other con- 
tingent expenses necessarily incurred under the 
provisions of this Act shall be paid from said 
fund. All expenses incurred under the pro- 
visions of this Act shall be itemized, verified, 
and audited and a warrant drawn therefor on 
the nurses' fund in the same manner as other 
expenses of the State Board of Health. 

Section 8. Any person who shall knowing- 
ly violate any of the provisions of this Act 
shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon 
conviction thereof shall be fined a sum not ex- 
ceeding One Hundred ($100.00) Dollars or im- 
prisoned in the County Jail not to. exceed 
thirty (30) days. 

Approved March 12. .\. D. 1907. 
+ 
The Michigan Bill 

The Michigan Bill for State Registration of 
Nurses was introduced in the House of Rep- 
resentatives on January 22d by Representative 
Lord, of Detroit, and was there referred to the 
Committee on Public Health. 

On February 12th a substitute bill was in- 
troduced by Dr. Kell}% in which the adminis- 
tration of the law was to be placed under the 
control of the Michigan State Medical Board. 
This bill was drafted by one of the officers of 
State Medical Board, and seems to have the 
support of a large number of the medical men 
of the State. 

Shortly after the nurses' bill, called the 
Lord Bill, was referred to the Committee on 
Public Health, a delegation of nurses with 
some prominent doctors, ministers and politi- 
cal men, had a hearing at the State Capitol 
before a joint committee from both House.? 
on the merits of the bill, ?nd felt that a very 
good impression had been made in its behalf. 

The Kelly Bill, which the medical men wish 



324 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



to substitute for the one drafted by the nurses, 
seems to have the support of a large number 
of the medical men of the State. 

The comments of the medical press regard- 
ing State registration of nurses seem to be 
having the desired effect in Michigan in that 
the medical men, who have hitherto, and we 
believe still are, the very best friends the 
nurses possess, have a very wrong idea of 
what the nurses want. They seem to fear that 
the nurses are simply intending to jump out 
of all bounds, instead of recognizing that reg- 
istration simply means protection, no more, 
and no less. 



Massachusetts 5tate Nurses' Association 

The Massachusetts State Nurses' Associa- 
tion held a meeting in New Beciford on March 
20th. Prayer was offered by the Reverend M. 
C. Juliu and a very hearty welcome given to 
the association by Miss Noyes. 

Miss Riddle said some people have errone- 
ous ideas about State registration. It will give 
the sick public better nurses, keep training 
schools up to the standard, and thus assure pu- 
pil nurses of getting the right amount of in- 
struction, but it will not change the character 
of the* nurse. Some wise people think we are 
not ready for State registration because the 
public has not seen the necessity for such a 
law. This might be taken as a compliment to 
Massachusetts nurses. One reason for our 
failure in securing State registration is, we 
have not made the personal effort we should. 
We are timid and slow to speak. However, 
we are not discouraged, but consider the out- 
look cheerful. 

Dr. S. D. Presbrey of Taunton, said Massa- 
chusetts doctors had a hard fight to get State 
registration. They were told, by those who 
opposed them, that medicine was not an exact 
science, and, therefore, doctors should not be 
registered. The doctors wanted registration 
in order to protect the public from the half- 
way doctor. The quack is an imposition on the 
public and not on the doctor. Nurses should 
be registered for the same reason. In order 
to get public opinion on their, side, nurses must 
prove to the public by their work that regis- 
tration is needed. Get registration even if you 
have to sacrifice some points, and raise the 
standard later. 

A question-box proved to be a very interest- 
ing part of the program. The question of 



training schools returning to a two years' 
course brought forth an animated discussion, 
the majority being strongly in favor of a 
three years' course. 

After a vote of thanks to our speakers and 
entertainment committee, the meeting ad- 
journed and refreshments were served. 

Miss Clara D. Noyes, superintendent of St. 
Luke's Hospital, New Bedford, was chairman 
of the committee on arrangements. 

Esther Dart, Sec. 
+ 
Indiana State Nurses' Association 

The fifth semi-annual convention of the In- 
diana State Nurses' Association was held at 
Evansville, Indiana, April 3 and 4. 

The meetings were held in the First Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church, and opened 10 
A. M. April 3d with an executive session. At 
II A. M. call to order, after which the Invo- 
cation by Rev. M. A. Tarr. Addresses of wel- 
come were maBe by Dr. Jas. Welborn, sec- 
retary of Board of Health; and Allie E. But- 
ler, president of City Association. The re- 
sponse was by Miss Edna Humphrey of Craw- 
fordsville, Ind. 

The afternoon session opened at 2 P. M., 
when the following papers were read : "The 
Training School and Its Pupils," Miss Cora 
Goldsmith ; "The Mission of the Modern Hos- 
pitals," Dr. Will Gilbert; "Some Points 
About Our Profession," Miss Allie K Butler; 
"Something About Our Laws," Hon. Albert 
Funkhouser; "Nursing as a Profession," Miss 
Fannie Clark. "Benefits of Association, Local 
and General," Dr. Edwin Walker. 

On Wednesday evening the delegates an'? 
friends were tendered a reception. Thursday, 
April 4th, was occupied by a business session 
in the morning and a traction ride to Wood- 
mere in the afternoon, after which adjourn- 
ment. 

+ 

New York City 

The graduating exercises of the Training 
School for Nurses, St. Luke's Hospital, were 
held Wednesday evening, April 3d, in the 
chapel of the hospital. 

The graduates are : Miss Sally Mallory 
Betts, Miss Mary Macdonald Bohannan, Miss 
Rosa Brandt, Mrs. Maude Diamond Burke, Miss 
Laleah Florence Burrill, Miss Anne Lockwood 
Cooper, Miss Evelyn M. Edwards, Miss Maria 
S. L. Evans, Miss Olive Mary Gallagher, Miss 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



325 



Nina Harris, Miss Lola Hassett, Miss Sara 
Medbery Kenyon, Miss Rose E. Kirkwood, 
Miss Elsie Naomi Kohler, Miss Anna Grace 
McGovem, Miss Mary Margaret Millard, Miss 
Weelia Natsana, Miss Margaret Drake Nye, 
Miss Caroline E. Renneker, Miss Edith Robb, 
Miss Eleanor C. Smith, Miss Sarah Alice 
Topper. 

+ 
Camp Roosevelt 
By invitation of Mrs. Springer (Undora 
Allan) the meeting of Camp Roosevelt, S. A. 
W. Nurses, was held on April ist at her 
residence, 528 West 123d street. The meeting 
was called to order by the chairman, Mrs. Tay- 
lor, and the minutes of past month were read 
by the vice-chairman, Miss Ljon, owing to the 
absence of the secretary. After all busines.s 
had been transacted an adjournment was made. 
Refreshments were then served from a beauti- 
fully decorated table, and pretty favors and 
Easter eggs given as souvenirs. The next 
meeting of Camp Roosevelt will be held on 
Monday, May 6, by invitation of Miss 
Elizabeth Tuttle, 179 Van Buren street, Brook- 
lyn, 3 to 6 p. m. — Florence M. Kelly, R. N., 
secretary Camp Roosevelt. 

+ 
Yonkers, N. Y. 

Eight trained nurses were graduated from 
St. John's Hospital, Yonkers, April 3d. They 
were: Miss Margaret E. DaK% Miss Mar>' T. 
Walsh, Miss Agnes D. Cunningham, Miss 
Madeline C. Oldfield, Miss Helen C. Keating, 
Miss Anna R. Cahill. Miss Mary A. Flinn and 
Miss Mary H. Dwyer. 

+ 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Alumnae .Association of the St. Joseph's 
Hospital, Philadelphia. Pa., gave a euchre and 
dance April loth in Odd Fellows' Hall for 
the benefit of the association. The affair was 
quite a success, there being about three hun- 
dred (300) people present. Many of the 
ex-resident physicians were there, also a num- 
ber of the graduate nurses. 

Unfortunately a few could not obtain leave 
to get away from their patients. But never- 
theless they considered their "duty before 
nleasure." The other members were all de- 
lighted to meet each other, and talked about 
the success their undertaking h^d b?en. .Alto- 
gether the aflfair was an entirely delightful one. 
and everyone expressed their enjoyment and 



hoped "that the nurses would have a similar 
occurrence again. 



To further increase the facilities of the char- 
ity department of the Pensylvania Ortho- 
paedic Institute, Philadelphia, for the free 
treatment of the worthy poor by mechanical 
means a progressive euch'-e and promenade 
concert will be given on April 29 at Horti- 
cultural Hall, in Philadelphia. The entertain- 
ment will be under the auspices of Philadel- 
phia's best social and professional people. The 
musical part of the program is in the hands 
of members of the Philadelphia Orchestra. 



The regular monthly meeting of the Nurses' 
•Mumnae Association of the Medico-Chirurgi- 
cal Hospital of Philadelphia was held on 
Wednesday, April 3, at 3 p. m., in the hospital 
and was well attended. 

Four new applicants were admitted to mem- 
bership. 

The Association decided to send a delegate 
to the annual convention to be held in Rich- 
mond, Va., May 14, 15 and 16. 

After all the regular routine of business was 
transacted the meeting adjourned ; tea was 
served and a social time was enjoyed by all 
present. Miss Phaon J. Rex, 

Corresponding Secretary. 



The Nurses' Alumnae Association of St. 
Mary's Hospital held its first annual meeting 
in the Lecture Hall of the hospital on Friday 
evening, March 15, with Mrs. S. J. Rogers, 
president, in the chair. 

During the past year the membership has 
been increased, and the financial condition 
most satisfactory. 

Regular quarterly meetings were held with 
us'tally good attendance. A euchre and dance 
held in November was largely attended, and 
proved to be a brilliant success, both .socially 
and financially. 

During the year extensive improvements 
have been made in the pupil nurses' quarters, 
and the Lecture Hall was most beautifully 
furnished by the Alumnae Association and 
presented through Sister M. Xavier. superior, 
as a gift to the training school. 

The following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year : Honorary president. Miss 
Frances J. Lundy. chief nurse ; president. 
Miss Margaret McCann; vice-president. Miss 



326 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



Agnes McNulty; secretary, Miss Anna Brady; 
treasurer, Miss Margaret Bradel. After the 
meeting the Alumnae was entertained in the 
nurses' sitting room by the class of 1907, tea 
being served by Miss Mary Doyle and Miss 
Agnes Nolan. 

+ 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
At the annual meeting of the Long Island 
College Hospital Alumnae Association of 
April 9, 1907, the following officers were elect- 
ed : President, Miss M. A. Hoge; ist vice- 
president, Miss M. Decker; 2d vice-president, 
Miss E. Hall ; treasurer. Miss Regina Kelley ; 
recording secretary. Miss Mary E. Beyer ; 
corresponding secretary, Miss J. E. Wiley; di- 
rectors. Miss V. A. Mouch, Miss McCarthy, 
Miss Ligna Johnson, Miss Slingerland and 
Miss Ryer. 



The monthly meeting of the B. H. T. S. A. 
was held April 2. Miss Mason reported that 
her committee had rented the house at 255 
Carleton avenue and they expected to open 
the same as clubhouse and registry early in 
May. The Misses Madden and Sweeney were 
elected as delegates to the Associated 
Alumnae Convention to be held in Richmond, 
Va., in May. 

Alice de Zouche, 

66 Montague St., Brooklyn. Secretary. 

+ 
Cortland, N. Y. 

The graduate nurses of the Cortland City 
Hospital, Cortland, N. Y., residing in the city 
have recently organized a club named "The 
Florence Nightingale Club," the object being 
improvement and sociability. Meetings are 
held once a week. The officers are as follows : 
President, Miss Nellie S. Bryam, R. N. ; vice- 
president, Miss Esther Young, R. N. ; secre- 
tary. Miss Florence A. Sherman; treasurer. 
Miss Hulda M. Bloom. 
+ 
Albany, N. Y. 

The Albany Guild, for the care of the sick, 
provided nursing care for 128 patients during 
March. The eleven nurses of the Guild made 
1406 visits, which mean faithful work done 
night and day by these women. For the short 
month of February, 28 days, the head nurse 
reported 1.539 visits made. 

Plans are being perfected for the manage- 



ment of the downtown branch of the Albany 
Guild Diet Kitchen which is to be opened 
May I at 46 North Pearl street. The main 
objects of the Guild in establishing its branch 
kitchen are to provide a convenient depot for 
the sale of its desirable foods for the sick, and 
to demonstrate that dainty nourishment, scien- 
tifically prepared, can be furnished at popu- 
lar prices. At the same time an accessible 
place will be furnished to the shopping and 
wage-earning women of the city where nutri- 
tious and delectable lunches can be provided. 
The opening of the diet kitchen is evidence 
of the growth of another of the Guild's many 
interests. 



The Eastern New York School for Certi- 
fied Nurses, 7 High street, .Mbany, began a 
new fourtcen-weeks' course of lectures in 
March. 



Miss Edith Rice, who was connected with 
this school some time ago, is again on the 
working staff. 



The happiness which the infant son of Mr. 
and Mrs. Peter Schermerhorn brought into 
their home in March was of brief duration. 
The little creature lived but a few days. 

Mrs. Schermerhorn was Miss Blanche Leon- 
ard, and was graduated from the St. John's 
Hospital Training School of New York City. 



Miss Strong, of Albany, will direct the cook- 
ing class of the training school of the Samari- 
tan Hospital, Troy, N. Y. 



Miss Elizabeth Albright, of Delmar, has been 
the guest of Dr. and Mrs. J. B. Congdon. 



Miss Maud V. Shoemaker has been visiting 
in Oneonta. 



Miss Jessie G. Cuyler has taken a position 
in the Easton sanitarium, Elaston, Pa. 



Mrs. Elijah Aldrich, of Corinth, N. Y., 
spent a part of Easter week visiting friends 
in Albany. 

+ 
Paterson, N. J. 

The regular meeting of the Paterson Gen- 
eral Hospital Alumnae was held at the hos- 
pital on April 2, with a good attendance. One 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



327 



new member was admitted. Tea and cake 
were partaken of at the close of the meeting. 
G. M. Carmichael, 
Corresponding Secretary. 

+ 

Graduate Nurses' Association 
of Pennsylvania 

The semi-annual meeting of the Graduate 
Nurses' Association of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania will meet at Reading, Pa., on Wednes- 
day, Thursday and Friday, May 29th, 30th and 
31st. 

The headquarters will be at the Mansion 
House, in the parlors of which the several 
meetings will be held. 

1 he first meeting will be on Wednesday 
afternoon at 2. To this meeting all friends 
of the Association are invited. It will be fol- 
lowed by an executive session. Other execu- 
tive sessions will be held on Wednesday even- 
ing from 7.30 to 9.30 and on Thursday after- 
noon at 3 At this meeting a Question Box 
will be held for the benefit of any members 
who have questions which they desire an- 
swered. 

Membership cards must be presented for 
admission to all executive sessions. Members 
are requested to send to the secretary any 
recent changes of address. The Mansion 
House and the Hotel Penn, American plan, 
$3 per day, are both recommended. 

Maude W. Miller. 
Assistant Secretary. 



Scranton, Pa. 

The regular monthly alumnae meeting of 
the Scranton Training School for Nurses was 
held in the State Hospital, March 21, 1537. 
The meeting was called to order at 3.30 p. m. 
President, Miss Brice, in the chair. Several 
members were present. The minutes of the 
February meeting were read and approved. 

Next, a letter which was received from Miss 
Nellie M. Casey, Secretary of The Associated 
Airmnae of the United States, in reference to 
convention to be held in Richmond. Va., 
month of May, was read by the Secretary. 
Following this there was a discussion con- 
cerning Bill of Registration. Next, after busi- 
ness transaction, the meeting adjourned to 
meet in .A.pril at State Ho«pital. 

Harriet B. Gibson, 

Secretary. 



The regular monthly alumns meeting of 
the Scranton Training School for Nurses was 
held in the State Hospital, April 11, 1907. 
Meeting was called to order at 3.30 p. m., 
Mrs. Coppinger, acting president, in the chair. 
Fairly good attendance. Minutes of March 
meeting read and approved. Following the 
reports of secretary, was the election of dele- 
Kate to attend State Convention to be held in 
Reading in May, 1907. Miss Drinker was 
elected delegate on motion by Miss Saul, 
seconded by Miss Dillon. Mrs. A. McHugh' 
W3S accepted as member of the Association, 
being a graduate of Oass 1906. There was 
no further business. Meeting adjourned to 
meet at State Hospital in May, 1907. 

Harriet B. Gibson, 
Secretary. 
+ 
Long Branch, N. J. 

The first annual meeting of the Monmouth 
Memorial Hospital Alumnae Association was 
held at the Nurses' Home in Long Branch 
April 3d, 1907, at 2.30. In absence of the 
president. Miss Martha Croxon, the meeting 
was called to order by the vice-president. Miss 
Elizabeth Collins. Nine members were pres- 
ent. Secretary's and treasurer's reports were 
read and approved. We have at the present 
time thirty-three members of good standing. 
Next, the election of officers, as follows : Pres- 
ident, Miss Elizabeth Collins; vice-president. 
Mrs. Allen Dare; second vice-president, Mrs. 
Harry Fleet ; secretarj-, Miss Katherine Mang ; 
treasurer. Miss Clara Bennett; the latter two 
were re-elected. 

Four new members were received into the 
association, being Mrs. Minerva Buckley. Miss 
Margaret Casserly, Miss Margaret Gorman, 
Miss Minnie Ireland, graduates of class 1906. 

Mrs. Allen Dare read an interesting paper 
on nursing. A note of thanks was given to the 
retiring officers. There was no further busi- 
ness; meeting adjourned. Next meeting will 
be held on June 5th. '07. at 2.30. Ice cream 
and cake were served in the lecture room and 
a most enjoyable time spent. 

Katherine Mang, 

Secretary. 

+ 
Orange, N. J. 

The regular quarterly meeting of the 
Alumnae Association of the Orange Training 
School was held on the afternoon of Wed- 
nesday, March ao, at the Training School. 



328 



THE TRAINED NURSE AND HOSPITAL REVIEW 



The meeting was called to order by the 
president. The special matters under consid- 
eration were, first, the advisability of estab- 
lishing a central directory in the Oranges, 
and second, the election of delegates to the